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TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

Iowa State Horticultural Society 

FOR 1888. 

TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL SESSION 

HELD AT 

Des Moines, January 15, 16, 17, 1889. 

ALSO PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

WESTERN, EASTERN AND NORTHERN SOCIETIES, WITH SUMMARY 
OF OTHER LOCAL SOCIETLES FOR THE YEAR 1888. 

Edited by the Secretary, Geo. Van Houten, Lenox, Iowa 

VOLUME XXIII. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 



DES MOINES: 

GEO. E. ROBERTS, STATE PRINTER. 

1889. 



Report to the Governor. 



Lenox, Iowa, January 28, 1889. 

To his Excellency, William Larrabee: 

Sir— I have th i honor to submit herewith, in compliance 
with legal requisition, the twenty-third volume of the 
transactions of the Iowa State Horticultural Society, with 
supplementary reports and papers. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Geo. Van Hocjten, 

Secretary Iowa State Horticultural Society. 



OFFICERS 

OF THE 

IOWA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

FOR THE TEAR 1888. 



PRESIDENT. 

C. G. PATTEN, - - - - - Charles City. 

VICE PR ESIDENT . 

EUGENE SECOR, Forest City. 

SECRETARY. 

GEORGE VAN HOUTEN, Lenox. 

TREASURER. 

HENRY STROHM, Iowa City. 

LIBRARIAN AND CUSTODIAN. 

G. B. BRACKETT, Denmark. 

DIRECTORS. 

First District— JONATHAN THATCHER, - - Bonaparte. 

Second District— ¥. H. BRUNING, - - - Kent. 

Third DiMct— A. F. COLLMAN, - Gwning 

Fourth District— N. K. FLUKE, .... Davenport. 

Fifth District— H. W. LATHROP, - Iowa City. 

Sixth District— C. L. WATROUS, - - Des Moines. 

Seventh District— R. A. J&HNS, - Sioux City. 

Eighth District— J&, P. SPEER, .... Cedar Falls. 

Ninth District— A. J. HAVILAND, - - - Fort Dodge, 

lenth District— M. E. HINCKLEY, - Marcus. 

Eleventh District— C. F. GARDNER, - - - , Osage. 

Twelfth District— J. M. ELDER, - - - - Concord. 



Vacancy in Tenth District, filled as above, by Executive Committee. 



OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 

OF THE 

IOWA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

FOR THE YEAR 1889. 



PRESIDENT. 

SILAS WILSON, - Atlantic. 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 

EUGENE SECOR, - - - - - - Forest City. 

SECRETARY. 

GEORGE VAN HOUTEN, Lenox. 

TREASURER. 

HENRY STROHM, - - - • - - , - Iowa City. 

LIBRARIAN AND CUSTODIAN. 

G. B. BRACKETT ------ Denmark. 

DIRECTORS. 

First District— JONATHAN THATCHER, - - Bonaparte. 

Second District— F. H. BRUNING, - Kent. 

Third District— A. F. COLLMAN, - - - - Corning. 

Fourth District—N. K. FLUKE, ... - Davenport. 

Fifth District— H. W. LATHROP, - Iowa City. 

Sixth District— Q. L. WATROUS, - Des Moines. 

Seventh District— CHRISTIAN STEINMAN, - - Mapleton 

Eighth District — R. P. SPEER, - Cedar Falls. 

Ninth District— W. C. HAVILAND, - - - - Fort Dodge, 

lenth District—*!. E. HINCKLEY, - - - Marcus. 

Eleventh District— G. G. PATTEN, - Charles City. 

Iwelfth District— J. M. ELDER, Conccrd. 



FRUIT DISTRICTS OF IOWA. 



REPRESENTED BY THE DIRECTORS NAMED ON PRECEDING PAGE. 

First District— Is composed of the counties of Lee, Des Moines, Louisa, 
Henry, Washington. Jefferson, Van Buren, Keokuk, Wapello and Davis. 
. Second District— Mahaska, Monroe, Appanoose, Marion, Lucas, Wayne, 
Clarke, Decatur, Ringgold and Union. 

Ihird District— Adams, Taylor, Montgomery, Page, Mills, Fremont, Pot- 
tawattamie, Cass, Audubon, Shelby and Harrison. 

Fourth District — Muscatine, Scott, Clinton, Jackson, Jones, Cedar and 
Linn. 

Fifth District— Benton, Johnson, Iowa, Tama, Poweshiek, Marshall and 
Jasper. 

Sixth District— Story, Polk, Warren, Boone, Dallas, Madison, Adair, 
Greene and Guthrie. 

Seventh District— Carroll, Crawford, Monona, Woodbury, Ida and Sac. 

Eighth District— Dubuque, Clayton, Delaware,^Fayette, Buchanan, Black 
Hawk and Grundy. 

Ninth District— Butler, Franklin, Hardin, Wright, Hamilton, Humboldt, 
Webster, Calhoun and Pocahontas. 

lenth District— Buena Vista, Cherokee, Plymouth, Siouxfand O'Brien. 

Eleventh District— Allamakee, Winneshiek, Howard, Chickasaw, Mitchell, 
Floyd, Worth, Cerro Gordo and Bremer. 

Iwelfth District— Winnebago, Hancock, Kossuth, Emmet, Palo Alto, Dick- 
inson, Clay, Osceola and Lyon. 



MEMBERS FOR 1889. 



This roll includes all names received by the Secretary up to the date of 
writing the report. Membership fee $1.00, which entitles the member to one 
copy of the annual report by mail. Membership expires on the day preced- 
ing the annual meeting of each year. 

ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



Theodore Williams 203 South Ninth St , Omaha, Neb. 

R. O. Miller Bingham. 

J. T. Painter Spencer. 

Chas. D. Price Ruthven. 

Wm. M. Ludden Lincoln, Neb. 

W. H. Guilford , Dubuque. 

Charles Mead Rochester, Racine Co., Wis. 

C. M. Cady Stuart. 

P. J. Regan Iowa City . 

Julian Warner North English. 

L. A Williams Glen wood. 

H. S. Dixon Marcus. 

H. Cinderfather Primghar. 

F. H. Bruning Kent. 

H. W. Ash West Union. 

S. .L. Morrison Chariton. 

A. F. Collman Corning. 

S. C. Osborn Glenwood. 

W. F. Steigerwalt Carroll. 

M. C. Staves Des Moines. 

N. T. Case East Des Moines. 

W. J. Edmondson Perry. 

E. F. Edmondson , Perry. 

Jesse Hamilton Morning Sun. 

C. F. Bean Marathon. 

James Underwood Grand Junction. 

W. M. Bomberger Harlan. 

S. Park Ottumwa. 

C F.Kimball Des Moines. 

Charles Braucht Indianola. 



NAMES OF MEMBERS FOR 1889. 



9 



B. F. Ferris Hampton. 

J. A. Lyons Des Moines (State Auditor). 

J. A. Speer — . Cedar Falls. 

A. O. Barnes • Knoxville. 

W. E. Hansen. Des Moines, lock box 107. 

G. W. Shaw Garden Grove. 

S. J. Councilman Jefferson. 

A. J. Graves Ames. 

J. M. Elder ■ Concord . 

J. W. Murphy Glen wood. 

J. Craig.. Ames. 

M. J. Wragg ( Waukee . 

W I. Chamberlain , . . Ames. 

John Casey Corning. 

Hardin Tice Oskaloosa. 

W. F. Rice Des Moines. 

A. Branson West Branch. 

R P. Speer Cedar Falls. 

Marge Van Houten Lenox. 

J. Sexton Ames. 

George Rambach Cedar Falls. 

E. W. Stanton. Ames. 

J. C. Smith Des Moines. 

George D. Thomas Des Moines. 

J. J. Smart : Dakota City . 

W. S. Alger Villisca. 

N. J. Harris North Des. Moines. 

R. A. Rollinson Des Moines. 

Christian Steinman Mapleton. 

N. W. Wilson Marcus. 

N. G. Piatt Edgewood. 

LIFE MEMBERS.* 

G. A. Knowles La Porte. 

A. J. Haviland (deceased) . . Fort Dodge. 

J. L. Budd Ames. 

E. R. Heisz Nora Springs. 

E. H. Calkins Burlington. 

Jonathan Thatcher Bonaparte. 

J..T. Frame West Branch. 

D. C. Williams (deceased) Cedar Falls. 

H. C. Raymond Council Bluffs. 

Alex. Peddie Emmetsburg. 

James Lonsdale Dale City. 

* The fee for life membership is $5.00. This fund is for permanent investment, the interest 
only to be used. 

2 



IQ NAMES OF MEMBERS FOR 1889 

C. L Watrous Des Moines. 

Lawrie Tatum Springdale. 

N. K. Fluke Davenport. 

A. E. Garrison .Des Moines. 

Hon. Wm. Larrabee Clermont. 

George S. Bacon Des Moines. 

W. G. Monroe. Anamosa. 

H. Strohm Iowa City. 

Theodore Wegmann Roselle. 

B. F. Gue Des Moines. 

W. T. Worth. Climbing Hill, Woodbury county. 

Harvey Baker. . . Pleasant Prairie, Muscatine county. 

Charles Gibb Abbotsford, Canada. 

Ernest Eggerth Elkport, Clayton county. 

John S. Hicks Roslyn, Loug Island. 

M. Pugsley Woodbine. 

Silas G. Goss Border Plains. 

J. S. B. Thompson Grundy Center. 

N. A Reeves Waverly. 

Enoch Mead Davenpoit. 

A. G. Willtams Chester Center. 

Charles F. Gardner Osage. 

C. B. Royer Dallas Center. 

A. H. Lawrence Le Mars. 

Silas Wilson ." Atlantic. 

D. A. Porterfleld .Traer. 

J. Wragg Waukee. 

John E. Cortlett Farmersburg. 

B. O. Curtis Paris, 111. 

E. Y. French Epworth. 

Edward Hoyt .Scotch Grove. 

A. W. Harris Manly. 

E. A Hallett Galena, 111. 

John Lister Conrad Grove. 

George Van Houten Lenox. 

Elmer M. Reeves Waverly. 

John Putz.... Elkport. 

Henry W. Rarey Whipple. 

W. C. Haviland Fort Dodge. 

J. M. Prouty Humboldt. 

F. G. Dewey Esmond, Dakota. 

D wight Bannister Ottumwa. 

Matt Parrott. Waterloo. 

W. H. Lewis Winterset. 

John A. Hoffman Roselle. 

Prof. M. F. Arey Fort Dodge. 

Eugene Secor Forest City. 



NAMES OF MEMBERS FOR 1889. 



11 



E. M. Sherman Charles City. 

W. Green Davenport . 

R. G. Moon Bedford. 

David Atkin Amber. 

H. P. Williams Larch wood. 

James D. Rowen Des Moines. 

C. G. Patten Charles City. 

W. O. Willard Grinnell. 

M. D. I. Parsons Algona. 

Wm. Crawford Eldora. 

John F. Dayton Waukon. 

G. W. Sturtz Plainview, Neb. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Charles Patterson Kirkville, Mo. 

C. C. Bell Booneville, Mo. 

Rev. J. A. Auracher East Des Moines. 

HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS. 

J. B. Grinnell Grinnell. 

James Smith. Chresbard, Dakota. 

G. B. Brackett Denmark. 

H. W. Lathrop .* , . . .Iowa City. 

Peter M. Gideon. Excelsior, Minnesota. 

C. F. Clarkson Des Moines. 

J. H. Gear Burlington. 

A. S. Welch Ames. 

C. E. Bessey Lincoln, Neb. 

G. Hinrichs Iowa City. 

John Scott .Nevada. 

E. R. Shankland Jennings, La. 

Mrs. Mary Cheny- Hand Charles City. 



STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1859. 



It is earnestly hoped that each one appointed on these committees will 
report separately on subject assigned, and if possible be present to read 
paper at the annual meeting to be held in Des Moines, on the third Tuesday 
in January, 1890; but if not able to be present, please send paper to the 
secretary before the annual meeting. 

ADVANTAGES OF TOP- WORKING. 

N. K. Fluke, Davenport. 
N. E. Hansen, Des Moines. 

THE COMING APPLE. 

H. W. Lathrop, Iowa City. 
R. P. Speer, Cedar Falls. 

BEAUTIFYING THE HOME. 

John Wragg, Waukee. 
A. F. Collman. Corning. 

FORESTRY. 

A. G. Williams, Chester Center. 
J. M. Prouty, Humboldt. 

TREES FOR THE HOME. 

O. W. Rich, Atlantic. 
M. E. Hinckley, Marcus. 

meteorology. 

Wm. Ward, Algona. 

ORCHARDING. 

L. A. Williams, Glenwood. 
W. C. Haviland, Fort Dodge. 



STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1889. 



GRAPES. 

W. M. Bomberger, Harlan. 
W. O. Willard, Grinnell. 

HORTICULTURE AS A BUSINESS. 

Geo. Van Houten, Lenox. 

HORTICULTURE FOR THE HOME. 

L. G. Clute, Manchester. 

HORTICULTURE AS IT SHOULD BE. 

G. B. Brackett, Denmark. 

MISTAKES OF HORTICULTURISTS. 

Geo. Van Houten, Lenox. 

PROFITABLE HORTICULTURE. 

J. L. Budd, Ames. 

FUTURE OF HORTICULTURE IN IOWA. 

C. G. Patten, Charles City. 
A. F. Collman, Corning. 

ARE WE PROGRESSING IN HORTICULTURAL WORK. 

C. L. WAtrous, Des Moines. 
Eugene Secor, Forest City. 

WINTER PROTECTION. 

D. A, Porte rfield, Traer. 

NEBRASKA HORTICULTURE. 

F. W. Taylor, Omaha, Nebraska. 

DAKOTA HORTICULTURE. 

Prof. C. P. Keiffer, Brookings, Dakota. 

ORNAMENTALS. 

E. F. Edmunson, Perry. 
M. C. Staves, Des Moines. 

MARKET GARDENING. 

E. H Smith, Dubuque. 



4 STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1889. 

PRESERVING FRUITS. 

Christian Steinman, Mapleton. 

HANDLING FRUITS. 

B. A. Mathews, Knoxville. 

MARKETING FRUITS. 

Geo. W. Shaw, Garden Grove. 
Charles Root, Hopkinton. 

POTATO GHOWING AND VARIETIES. 

J. W. Murphy, Glenwood. 
John Casey, Corning. 

SEEDLING APPLES VS. RUSSIANS. 

C. L. Watrous, Des Moines. 
R. P. Speer, Cedar Falls. 

RUSSIAN APPLES VS. SEEDLINGS. 

C. G. Patten, Charles City. 
W. C. Haviland, Fort Dodge. 

ORCHARD MANAGEMENT. 

J. L. Budd, Ames. 

Jonathan Thatcher, Bonaparte. 

MISSOURI HORTICULTURE. 

Charles Patterson, Kirkville, Missouri. 

HOME FRUIT GARDEN. 

S. W. Wilson, Atlantic. 

VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

L A. Casper, Council Bluffs. 

FLOWER GARDEN. 

Mrs. H. Cade, Lenox. 

Miss Marge Van Houten, Lenox. 

SMALL FRUIT GROWING FOR MARKET. 

W. H Guilford, Dubuque. 
O. A. Barnes, Knoxville. 



STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1889. 



STREET TREES. 

B. F. Ferris, Hampton. 
H. W. Ash, West Union. 

evergreens. 

M. J. Wragg, Waukee. 

WIND -BR KAKS. 

W. F. Steigerwalt, Carroll. 
Hardin Tice, Oskaloosa. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

Ira M. Nedles, Atlantic. 

L. A. Williams, Council Bluffs. 

NATIVE PLUMS— VARIETIES AND DESCRIPTION. 

H. A. Terry, Crescent City. 



COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 
[GEO. VAN HOUTEN, LENOX, MANAGER.] 



MEMBERS ELECTED IN 1883. 

J. L. Budd Ames. 

G. B. Brackett Denmark. 

C. G. Patten Charles City. 

C. L. Watrous Des Moines. 

MEMBERS ELECTED IN 1884. 

Silas Wilson Atlantic. 

W. C. Haviland Fort Dodge. 

H. A. Terry Crescent City. 

O. A. Kenyon McGregor. 

A. F. Collman Corning. 

R. P. Speer Cedar Falls. 

Eugene Secor Forest City. 

M. E. Hinkley Marcus. 

MEMBERS ELECTED IN 1885. 

A. G. Williams Chester Center. 

J. C. Ferris Hampton. 

John Wragg Waukee. 

MEMBERS ELECTED IN 1887. 

W. H. Guilford Center Grove. 

Geo. Van Houten Lenox. 

Chas. F. Gardner Osage. 

N. K. Fluke Davenport. 



COMMITTEE ON PURCHASE AND DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS, 

ETC. 



J. L. Budd 
C. L. Watrous. 
Silas Wilson. . . 
G. B. Brackett 
R. P. Speer . . . 



Ames. 

Des Moines . 
.. ..Atlantic. 
. . .Denmark. 
Cedar Falls. 



3 



PREMIUMS. 



PREMIUMS ON FRUITS AND FLOWERS. 

lo be awarded at the annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society at Des 
Moines, third luesday in January, 1890. 

Where the word "fruit" occurs in this list, grafted fruit is meant, except 



where otherwise specified. 

*Best collection of fruit grown in any one county in southern Iowa.S 20.00 
Second best collection of fruit grown in any one county in southern 

Iowa 10 00 

Best collection of fruit grown in any county in northern Iowa, 

north of the north line of Clinton county 20.00 

Second best collection of fruit grown in any county in northern 

Iowa, north of the north line of Clinton county 10.00 

Best collection of fruit grown by exhibitor 10.00 

Second best collection of fruit grown by exhibitor 5.00 

Best collection of seedling apples grown by exhibitor 10.00 

Second best collection of seedling apples grown by exhibitor 5.00 

Best plate of any one of the varieties of the apple 1.00 

Second best plate of any one of the varieties of the apple 50 

PREMIUMS ON FLOWifiRS AND PLANTS. 

Best collection of green-house plants $_ 15.00 

Best collection of house plants 10.00 

Second best collection of house plants 5 00 

Best collection of foliage plants 5.00 

Best collection of plants, in bloom, including roses 8.00 

Second best collection of plants, in bloom, including roses 5.00 

Best single foliage plants 3.00 

Best rose in bloom 3.00 

Best hanging basket or vase of vines or plants 3.00 



This list of premiums on flowers and plants, it is hoped, will bring out 
large collections. If collections be meager, the committee may award sec- 
ond premiums if, in their judgment, a first premium is not merited. 

Exhibitors must make entries with Secretary for specific premiums. 

A " plate " of fruit means four or more specimens. 

•NOT us— It is not the object of the Society to encourage the exhibition of a great number 
of varieties irrespective oi value of tree, productiveness, hardiness, etc. Hence the commit- 
tee will interpret the words "best collection" to mean best specimens of our most satisfactory 
varieties for the several districts. 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



LIST OF PREMIUMS. 

Offered for the Encouragement of Forest Iree Planting. 

The following premiums are offered to encourage the planting of trees in 
permanent timber plantations or belts; the number of trees living to be as- 
certained by actual count between the 15th of September and the 10th of 
October, 1S89 The award of the premium to depend upon a full compliance 
with the rules appended to the schedule of premiums: 

For the greatest number planted in groves; intrinsic value of species 



considered $ 40.00 

Second greatest number 25.00 

Third greatest number 10.00 

For the greatest number of Evergreens and Larch in plantations or 

belts 20.00 

Second greatest number. . . ; 15.00 

Third greatest number 10. 00 

For the greatest number of Ash trees 20.00 

Second greatest number , 15.00 

Third greatest number 10.00 

The greatest number of nut bearing trees, including Oaks 20 00 

Second greatest number 15.00 

Third greatest number 1 0.00 

For the greatest number of Black Wild Cherry, Elm, Box -elder, Birch 

or Catalpa Speciosa 20 00 

Second greatest number , 15.00 

Third greatest number 10 00 

For the greatest number of Cottonwood, Basswood, Willow, Maple, 

and other soft wooded trees 20.00 

Second greatest number 15 00 

Third greatest number 10.00 

For the greatest number of Honey Locust (from seed grown on thorn- 
less trees is preferable) 20.00 

Second greatest number 15.00 

Third greatest number 10.00 



20 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REGULATIONS. 

First. Persons competing for premiums must designate the class for 
which they compete, as for the greatest number of soft wooded trees, great- 
est number Evergreens, Larches, etc. A plantation may consist of a single 
variety enumerated, or any number of the kinds mentioned. 

Second. Additional plantations must be made for each separate entry for 
premiums. In other words, a person awarded a premium in one class will 
not be entitled to premiums on same trees in another class. 

Third. The plantations competing for these premiums must be made with 
rooted seedlings or plants, with the exceptions herein mentioned: Of Wil- 
lows and soft-wooded trees, growing readily from cuttings, strong cuttings 
may be used. In the class of nut-bearing trees, White Walnut, Black Wal- 
nut and Oak may be started from seed where wanted to remain. Planta- 
tions of Ash, Maple, Black Cherry, or any other forest tree, may be started 
from seeds, where they are to stand permanently, but they cannot be entered 
for premium until the close of the second year's growth. 

Fourth. All trees, seeds and cuttings must be planted in permanent tim- 
ber plantations or belts, in the spring of 1889, except where parties failed to 
get a sufficient stand in 1888, they may replant in 1889. The plantation 
must not be made at a greater distance than four feet each way; when 
counted there must be at least two thousand trees to each acre. The plan- 
tations competing for premiums must be on one farm, but need not be 
contiguous. 

Fifth. The competitor must have his trees counted by two disinterested 
witnesses, between the 15th of September and the 10th of October, counting 
only those that are alive at that time. After counting, competitors must 
make affidavit before a justice of the peace or notary public, to the follow- 
ing facts: 

A. Whole number of trees in permanent grove, planted in spring of 1889, 
and now alive; or if it is a replanted grove, planted in 1888, state the fact. 

B. Name and number of each kind planted. 

C. How planted. 

D. How cultivated. 

E. Cost of cultivation. 

F. Average size of each species of trees 

The parties who counted the trees must append their affidavits as to the 
correctness of the count. The officer who administers the affidavits shall 
certify to the identity and credibility of the competitor, and the parties who 
counted the trees 

Sixth. The above described affidavits to be forwarded to the Secretary of 
the State Horticultural Society, not later than December 1, 1889. 

Seventh. Premiums will be awarded at the next regular meeting of the 
Society at Des Moines, on the third Tuesday in January, 1890. 



LIST OF PKEMIUMS. 



21 



LIST OF PREMIUMS. 

Offered for the production of seedling fruits. 



DISTRICTS. 

The State will be divided into two districts, with a view to adaptation of 
varieties to our varied soil and climate. 

1. The North District shall include the counties north of the north line 
of Linn county, or the county lines nearest thereto across the State. 

2. The South District shall include the counties south of the above line. 

STANDARD OF HARDINESS, SIZE, QUALITY, ETC. 

1. The variety of the apple worthy of first premium in the North District, 
must be as hardy and productive in trees as the Duchess, and the fruit as 
good in quality as Wealthy. In average size it must not be less than two 
and three- fourths inches in diameter, and it must keep, with ordinary care, 
until April or later. 

2. In the South District the Duchess shall be the standard as to hardi- 
ness and productiveness of tree, and size of fruit, while the quality must 
equal Grimes' Golden and its keeping capacity the Willow. 

REGULATIONS . 

1. Any fruit to obtain first premium must excel any known sort in enough 
of the essentials of hardiness, productivness, heathfulness and vigor of 
tree, Vine or plant, also of size and general appearance of fruit, quality for 
dessert, cooking, canning, shipping and keeping, to stamp it clearly in ad- 
vance of any other variety grown in the District at time of awarding pre- 
mium. 

2. No premium will be awarded on any orchard fruit, or small fruit, from 
seedling which bore fruit prior to 1885. 

3. Before a second premium shall be paid, scions, cuttings, or plants 
shall |be furnished the Society for use of the Experiment Committee, the 
quantity to be fixed by the Society. 

4. A member of Visiting Committee of the Society living in the District 
may be ordered to visit and report on the leaf, habit, apparent vigor, etc., 
of any variety competing for the second award in the cumulative list of pre- 
miums. 

5. We would recommend the election by ballot of a committee of three 
to award premiums on orchard fruits, and a like committee on small fruits, 
and we recommend the election of said committee by the Directors and offi- 
cers of the Society. 

6. All seedlings must be grown from seed in Iowa, and must be fruited 
in the District from which they are entered for premium. 



22 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Annual premium $ 20 00 

Second premium ] 5 00 

Third premium , 10.00 

At the end of five years the variety taking the first premium three 

years out of five will receive a premium of 50.00 

Second premium ' 37 50 

Third premium , 25 00 



During the second, third and fourth periods of five years each the annual 
premium will remain the same as first year, and at end of each period the 
successful variety will receive successively $75 00, $10000. and $200.00; the 
second and third premiums proportioned as above. 

PREMIUMS ON CHERRY SEEDLINGS. 

The successful variety of the cherry must prove as hardy as the apple for 
the respective districts, and the quality and size of fruit must excel the 
Early Richmond. 

The award of premiums will be the same in amount annually as in the 
pear list, and the premiums at the end of each five years the same, but the 
final premium will be awarded at the close of the third period. 

PREMIUMS ON PLUMS. 

The [successful seedling plum shall equal the De Soto in hardiness and 
productiveness, and superior to it in size andlquality. 

Premiums will duplicate those of cherry list in amount and periods of 
trial. 

PREMIUMS OX GRAPES 

The successful grape must ripen one week earlier than Worden and be 
equal in productiveness and size, but must excel it in quality and hardiness 
of vine. 

The premiums on the grape, and the small fruits generally, will be open 
to the whole State, and will not be duplioated in the Districts as with the 
orchard fruits. 



Best seedling grape $ 20.00 

Second best 15.00 

Third best 10.00 

At end of five years the variety taking three out of five premiums 

will receive 100 00 

Second best 75.00 

Third best 50.00 

Duriog the second period the annual premiums remain the same, 

and at end of ten years the successful variety will receive 200.00 

Second best 150 00 

Third best 100.00 



LIST OF PREMIUMS. 23 
PREMIUMS ON OTHER SMALL FRUITS. 

The successful seedling of the Currant, Gooseberry, Raspberry, 

Blackberry and Strawberry shall receive a premium of $ 10.00 

Second premium 7.60 

Third premium 5.00 

At end of seven years the variety of either fruit taking five first pre- 
miums out of a possible seven will be awarded 50.00 

Second award 37.50 

Third award 25.00 



We recommend that the currant receiving first premium must equal the 
Long Bunched Holland in perfection of growth and leaf; must equal the 
White grape in quality of fruit, and must reach the size of the Fay. 

The gooseberry must equal the Houghton in hardiness and productiveness, 
and the fruit in size and quality must compare favorably with the best 
English sorts. 

The raspberry must be as hardy as Shaffer's Colossal, and superior to it in 
quality and color of fruit. If a black variety it must be hardier than Tyler, 
and excel it in productiveness, size and quality of fruit. 

The strawberry must be as hardy and productive as Crescent, as large and 
good in fruit as the Charles Downing, and as good in color and capacity for 
shipping as Wilson. 

The blackberry must be hardier than Snyder and superior to it in size, 
productiveness and quality. 



v 



CONSTITUTION 

OF 

THE IOWA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

AS ADOPTED AT DES MOINES, JANUARY 10, 1868. 



Article 1. This society shall be called the Iowa State Horticultural 
Society, and shall have perpetual succession. 

Art. 2. The object of this Society shall be the promotion and encour- 
agement of horticulture and arboriculture, by the collection and dissemin- 
ation of correct information concerning the cultivation of such fruits, 
flowers, and trees, both deciduous and evergreens, as are adapted to the soil 
and climate of Iowa. 

Art. 3. The officers of this Society shall consist of a president, one vice- 
president, a secretary, treasurer, and ten directors, who together shall form 
a board for the general supervision of the affairs of the Society. The officers 
shall be elected annually, at such time and place and in such a manner as 
the Society may determine at the time and place of holding its annual exhi- 
tion in January. Said board may adopt such by-laws as shall be deemed 
necessary for the benefit of the Society, and not inconsistent with this con- 
stitution and the laws of the State of Iowa, and change the same from 
time to time 

Art. 4. The secretary shall keep an accurate and full record of the pro- 
ceedings of the society. He shall also open and carry on a correspondence 
with such fruit-growers, florists and horticulturists in general throughout 
the State as manifest an interest in the purposes of the Society. He shall 
annually make up a report for publication, embracing such information 
upon fruit-growing as may come within his reach, with a full report of the 
business affairs of the Society, and shall be allowed a resonable compensa- 
tion for his services 

Art. 5. The treasurer shall have charge of the funds and other property 
of the Society, and dispose of them as decided by the board of officers. He 
shall pay out no money except upon the order of the president and counter- 



CONSTITUTION. 



25 



signed by the secretary. He shall make up a true and full report of all 
money and other property put into his hands for the benefit of the Society, 
with disbursements and vouchers, annually, and present the same to the 
secretary on or before the first day of the meeting in January, and shall be 
required to give bond in such sum, and with such securities as the board 
shall direct, which bond shall be approved by the president and filed with 
the secretary. 

Art. 6. All accounts brought against the Society shall be audited by the 
board. 

Art. 7. The members present, of the board, shall constitute a quorum 
for the transaction of business at any regularly called or adjourned meeting. 

Art. 8. Any person may become a member of this Society by the annual 
payment of one dollar. 

Art. 9. The fiscal year shall commence and end at the January meeting 
of each year, and the retiring board shall settle the business of the previous 
year. 

Art. 10. This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting by a 
majority of the members present. 



4 



BY-LAWS. 

ADOPTED JANUARY, 1869. 

1st. The officers of this Society shall be elected on the evening of the 
second day of the January meeting annually. 

2d. The officers of this Society shall hold their respective offices until 
their successors are elected and qualified, except the term of the office of 
secretary, which shall terminate on the first Monday of April following, at 
which time he shall forward his books and papers to his successor. 

3d. The first business of the meetings of this Society shall be on each 
morning, the reading of the minutes of the previous day's proceedings and 
submitting the same to the approval of the meeting. 

4th. The president, (and in case of his absence the vice-president) secre- 
tary and treasurer shall constitute an Executive Committee, who shall per- 
form any business deemed necessary for the benefit of the Society in the 
absence of the board. 

5th. The annual membership shall cease on the day preceding the first 
day of the annual meeting of the Society in January. 

6th. No person shall be eligible to the office of president, vice-president, 
secretary or treasurer, who has not been a member of the Society three con- 
secutive years previous to election. 

7th. These by-laws may be amended at any general meeting of the So- 
ciety by a vote of a two third majority of members present. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL SESSION 

OF THE 

IOWA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

HELD IN THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS IN THE CAPITOL, 

DES MOINES, IOWA, 
January 25, 16 and 17, 1889. 



The session was called to order by C. G. Patten, President, at 
10:30 a. m. 
Geo. Van Houten, Secretary. 

Prayer by Rev. J. A. Auracher, of East Side Evangelical Church, 
Des Moines. 

Renewal of membership declared to be in order, and about twenty 
persons came forward and paid annual dues to the Treasurer, H. 
Strohm. In addition to these annual members, a considerable num- 
ber of life members were present. 

A. F. Collman, of Corning, read a paper on " Orcharding." 



28 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ORCHARDING. 



BY A. F. COLLMA.N, CORNING. 



Mr. President: 

My subject has been before the public for many years and handled by able 
writers. I may not be able to teach our people any new things, for I am not 
a theoretical man, but have had several years practical experience in our 
varied soils and climate, that have taught me some useful lessons. 

When I began orcharding I planted largely of what we then thought 
hardy and valuable, but what we now know to be half hardy and unprofita- 
ble. I, like many others, counted my chickens before they were hatched. 
Soon I could sell apples by the car load, and why should not I be happy? 
My orchard looked well ; trees all seemed thrifty. But in a few years my 
orchard, like my neighbor's, began to look discouraging, with only a few 
trees that seemed to be at home and bear a crop of fine apples nearly every 
year. 

But these few have taught me a valuable lesson. If we can grow a few 
varieties we can grow others While experimenting with new varieties I 
have taken the Duchess for my standard of hardiness, and anything that did 
not start from the terminal bud and complete its growth with the Duchess, 
I have had little or no confidence in. For several years I have been looking 
for something hardy to cover the season and stand our climate with our 
Duchess. I have found several that I believe will stand and bear me good 
fruit, and Providence permitting, I shall plant again. 

But perhaps I am drifting. Select a good dry piece of ground, put it in 
good condition. By good condition I mean put it in good condition for a 
crop of corn. I don't think it makes very much difference about which way 
the ground slopes if it is only dry, for we can't well grow apples on wet 
ground. I would plant about twenty- five feet each way. 

And now comes the critical period, and that is getting the trees. I would 
go to the nearest reliable nursery for my trees, if I could get what I wanted, 
and would take only those that complete their season's growth with the 
Duchess; or in other words, that start from the terminal bud. 

I would select true 2- year-olds, low headed, heavy bodied, with good long 
roots, and keep them in perfect condition from the nursery to the orchard, 
for I find that many good, hardy trees, become black hearted and unprofita- 



ORCHARDING. 



29 



ble through neglect. JSow have your holes ready; plant your trees in good 
moist ground, firmly, a little deeper than they grow in the nursery, plow up 
to the trees, and plant to root crops and keep the ground in good condition 
by thorough cultivation. Would sow to buckwheat or plant to root crops 
until the orchard begins to bear. Then sow to clover, and you will have an 
orchard that will live when you are old. 

DISCUSSION ON REPORT. 

H. W. Lathrop: How near the ground would you allow the trees 
to head ? 

A. F. Collman: Two to three feet, owing to habit of the variety. 

J. Thatcher: I did not want to start this discussion on high or 
low head trees. What is a low head tree? I am satisfied with the 
direction given of two to three feet. We used to talk about trees 
branching from the ground without a trunk. I prefer one branching 
four feet from the ground. I used to think we should not cultivate 
an old orchard. An old orchard, now owned by my present wife, 
was in timothy sod. The ground was plowed up for the benefit of 
newly replanted trees, and the old trees bore a good crop of fine 
apples. We got a good crop of corn and a fine lot of fruit. 

A. F. Collman: The reason I would head trees low, is to prevent 
sun-scald. The bark on young trees is healthier than on older trees, 
and if headed low, by the time trees are of such size as to be liable 
to sun scald, the limbs, or lower branches, are a help in preventing 
sun scald. In four or five years, on these low head trees, the bodies 
are fairly well protected. 

J. Thatcher: Can we not accomplish the same thing by leaning 
the trees toward the 2 o'clock sun? 

A. F. Collman: Tender trees are inclined to lean toward the 
northeast, even if leaned at time of planting the other way; and it 
is hard to make them stay as desired. Hardy trees stand erect nat- 
urally, and it is easy to keep them straight. 

John Wragg: Many folks advocate planting two year old trees; 
but with two year old trees the head cannot be formed as high as I 
should like. Even if low head trees do not sun-scald, the remedy is 
as bad as the disease. It is aggravating to have trees headed within 
eighteen inches of the ground break off with the wind just as they 
are coming into bearing. When trees are headed low there is no 
spring in the trunk of the tree, and each limb is inclined to make a 
tree, and if the tree does not break down, the limbs break off. This 



30 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



has been the case with low headed trees, while high headed trees do 
not split or limbs break off. I would rather, with some device, shade 
the trunks of the trees with boards, lath screens or something. 

H. W. Lathrop: If I should plant one thousand orchards I would 
not have a limb lower than four feet. I would jast as soon set in 
the shade of a vessel with sails all furled, as to be in shade of a tree 
without foliage. I would put up board, with string or strap, fasten- 
ing top to lower limb to hold it up; or could be tied around tree, if 
hay or straw was placed between tree or board, to prevent rubbing. 
The bodies of trees do not want the sun, the leaves do want sun. 
We want protection from sun-scald. With a forty acre orchard, with 
trees headed two feet, how are you going to get through to haul 
apples out? My trees are twenty one feet apart, and heads four feet 
high. When loaded with fruit cannot drive a team through. The 
nicest orchards I have seen is where heads are high. If you have 
calves or sheep in orchard you can see them if trees are headed high, 
but cannot if trees are headed low. 

N. K. Fluke: I would like to ask Mr. Collman what he does with 
Willow Twig, and other spreading varieties of apple trees that head 
low? I would double-work on kinds that do not sun scald. 

A. F. Collman: I know Willow Twig branch and go over a large 
expanse of country. It is hard to get apples off of a tree with head 
four feet high. With low heads, much of the fruit can be gathered 
without a ladder. A crooked tree should not be planted. My expe- 
rience is, that where trees are headed low they are protected from 
sun-scald. 

A crooked tree should not be planted. My experience is, that 
where trees are headed low they are protected from sun scald. 

Silas Wilson: I am not like Mr. Thatcher, for I want to provoke 
discussion. We want discussion. I used to be inclined to the low- 
head idea, but after fifteen or sixteen years' experience with trees 
with one to two feet heads, find them going out, and the Duchess 
with them; while the high-headed trees are model trees yet. Think 
that low heading of trees is not the thing for this Society to recom- 
mend. The higher stems are best, at any rate in our county. 

John Wragg: Mr. Collman asks why a low head tree is not as 
good If you go out in an orohard anywhere, and examine low head 
trees, you will find that the limbs come out at an acute angle. In 
such cases nature tries to make every limb a tree, and the union is 
superficial and is liable to split off. 



ORCHARDING. 



31 



H. W. Lathrop: I must endorse the views of Mr. Wilson. I re- 
cently visited an orchard in Washington county, that is forty-five 
years old; heads are three to four feet high; the trees are very large 
and a large majority are high-head trees. The idea never suggested 
itself that high trees are any hardier than low trees, but trees reach 
for the light. So will all vegetation. As they reach up, the leaves 
can get sun and air. If close planted they cannot have as good a 
chance in this direction as if higher headed. 

M. C. Staves: I am interested in this subject. I have sold trees 
in Iowa for over twenty years. One man recommends to plant trees 
with head* so high that a man may walk under the limbs with a 
plug hat on and never touch a limb; others recommend not to trim 
at all. I do not think the heads should be too high. I was in an or- 
chard the other day where trees had low heads, and it was as Brother 
Wragg says, the trees are too liable to split down. 

S. L. Morrison: About three or four feet, owing to the growth of 
the tree, I think is about right. If lower, they are liable to split. 

A. Branson: There are other items that should be considered. 
If trees are planted close in the row, and the rows wide apart, trees 
are not so liable to sun-scald, as in five or six years after planting 
the tops of the trees will shade the trunks of trees north. My or- 
chard was set nine years ago, and the trees with heads four feet high 
never has a limb split off. 

M. E. Hinckley: Mr. Collman thinks that slope or lay of land has 
but little to do with success of an orchard. I would like to know if 
the Society accepts that. 

J. Thatcher: With us in the southeast part of the State, the 
south or east slope is not as good as other exposures. Our soil is 
impervious. 

C. L. Watrous: If orchard was along the bluffs, where the decliv- 
ity was great, it would make a difference. Out on the prairie, where 
slope is gentle, it would make no great difference; but where slope 
is considerable, a north slope is better than south. 

A. F. Collman: That is my idea. On many prairie farms the land 
is nearly level, and the difference in slope so little that it makes little 
difference. 

President Patten: I will offer a word. My experience in orchard- 
ing dates back more than twenty years, and I think the advice of Mr. 
Wilson and Mr. Lathrop is correct. Heads should not be lower than 
three feet, I prefer four feet. As these men say, the Duchess, even 



32 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



when limbs come out at an acute angle, like the fingers of the hand, 
are liable to split. The limbs should come out like the thumb to the 
hand. Sun scald is an important matter. It may be avoided by 
leaning trees to one or two o'clock sun, and by placing a heavy limb 
to the southwest, trimming away the limbs on the northeast for two 
years. If that is done the trees will have a tendency to grow up- 
right, instead of leaning to the southeast. If kept in this shape they 
need little other protection. 

John Wragg: Generally speaking, I agree with Mr. Watrous. On 
prairie locations where land is not steep, it makes but little difference. 
As we go west or southwest sun-scald is worse. In Guthrie county 
I find in my travels that the southwest is a bad exposure, and would 
recommend any other exposure but that. 

M. C. Staves: I agree with Capt. Watrous as to slope; on the 
prairie it makes but little difference. Would plant on north slope* 
where land is steep. 

L. A. Williams: At what season does sun-scald occur? Are we to 
expect it in the winter? 

President Patten. I would say both summer and winter, if exposed 
to the sun. 

Silas Wilson: I consider the idea of Captain Watrous a good one. 
We find in our groves and along our streams, the best timber on the 
north slope. The black walnut growing on the south slope are stunted 
and scrubby. The model orchard of western Iowa is on north slopo, 
while trees on south slope are nearly all gone out. I have a paper to 
read on that subject, and I call attention to that subject. A gentle- 
man came from Wisconsin, and he wanted shanghai trees (high 
trees), and he planted such, and now has a model orchard, and I have 
attributed his success to location and good judgment in selecting 
high head trees, and giving them good care. 

J. Thatcher: I want to corroborate what Mr. Wilson and Mr. 
Watrous say about timber on north slope. You can go down the 
Des Moines river to its mouth, and you will invariably find the best 
timber on north hill sides on south side of the river. When I first 
came to this Society it was like stirring up a bumble bees' nest to 
talk of high head trees. Now many are talking high head trees. A 
gentleman set out an orchard, for a model in our county, with low 
head trees, and now that orchard is a wreck. 

Jonathan Thatcher read his report as director of First District. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF FIRST DISTRICT. 



33 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF THE FIRST DISTRICT. 



BY JONATHAN THATCHER. 



After glowing reports for several years in succession from this district, 
we again come to the front with our old-time cheerfulness. Taking into 
consideration the number and condition of living trees the past season, the 
apple crop was certainly the best in quality and quantity that I have ever 
known; while that of 1887 was certainly the poorest in both respects. Dur- 
ing the past year all the approved varieties seemed to vie with each other 
as to which should give the best results, and I take occasion to make especial 
mention of the Wealthy as being of the finest quality, size and appearance 
that I ever saw it in this district; but as a general thing they oniy kept into 
early December. I also want to speak a good word for the Iowa Blush in 
my own locality (it never having been introduced in this district to my 
knowledge except by myself) It has not been very generally diffused over 
the district. In quality it surpasses my most sanguine expectations, and is 
keeping so, far as well as anything we have. There was a great demand for 
trees of the Wealthy and Iowa Blush in this locality the past fall; but none 
of the latter variety to be had. Perhaps it would be well to state that our 
bearing trees of both varieties are young yet. The Grimes' Golden is able 
to speak for itself and needs nothing from me, except to say that it has 
stood the rigors of our late hard winters better than the average of the ap- 
proved varieties. The Roman Stem has kept in the front rank all the time, 
giving good crops regardless of the season. I have nothing new to offer in 
regard to varieties. 

The season has been remarkable for the absence of codling moth ; as far 
as my observation goes I have not been able to find an average of one worm 
to eighteen apples. 

I have never known apples so cheap at the orchards. Throughout the 
interior of the district, farmers sold their apples on the trees to shippers at 
twenty cents per bushel, and boarded the men while picking and packing; 
and fall apples were dull— delivered in the markets at twenty cents. Cider 
sold at ten cents per gallon, best quality, notwithstanding the rigid enforce- 
ment of the prohibitory law. 

The cherry and peach buds were killed during the previous winter. 
5 



34 



STATE HOKTIC U LT URAL SOCIETY. 



There was a fair crop of plums where there were trees; Wild Goose giving 
best satisfaction in my locality. Wild plums were the best for many years, 
being nearly free from worms and moderately plenty. 

Raspberries and blackberries a fair crop and brought remunerative prices. 

Strawberries a full crop; but owing to the humidity of the season could 
not be profitably handled; moulding and rotting in the beds before ripening. 
Strawberry beds were badly damaged by the white grub- worm Berries 
brought from 10 to 15 cents per quart in the interior; running as low as 4 
cents by the crate at the principal marts; but the soft condition of the ber- 
ries had more to do with the latter price than the supply or demand. 

The season was remarkable for the absence of all noxious insects, except 
the white grub and cut-worm, both of which harassed the garden and field 
crops severely. Grasshoppers were in great demand in the poultry yards 
and woe to the straggling hopper who allowed himself to jump or fly in sight 
of a poultry yard. Turkeys wandered two and three miles from home in 
quest of hoppers. There was some complaint of chinch bugs in some local- 
ities; but none came under my own observation. In Van Buren and Davis 
counties we have a worm which is preying on the' timothy. It attacks the 
head as soon as it is in bloom, and before the hay is fit to cut the head is 
entirely destroyed and the face of the meadows look white and bleached 
while the stalk is yet too green to cut for hay. The worm is one and one 
fourth inches long and about one sixteenth of an inch in diameter, with 
green and white stripes running longitudinally. It entirely devastated the 
crop of timothy seed in the old meadows in my locality in 1887; but in 1888, 
during its worst depredations, there came a very severe rain and windstorm 
which seemed to put a stop to its ravages, for the season at least; but. not 
being an entomologist, I cannot say whether it has left its progeny in suffic- 
ient numbers to annoy us the coming season or not. Its depredations seem 
to be confined to meadows over two years old. The ravages of the cabbage- 
worm were very much diminished the past year. 

Fruit and nursery trees have gone into winter quarters in the best possi- 
ble condition. The abundant rains up to and through the harvest season, 
induced a vigorous and healthy growth, followed by an unusually dry fall 
and winter up to Christmas, which gave the trees a good chance to cure up 
the wood- growth of the past summer; but made a great scarcity of water 
for stock. 

During Christmas night one inch and eighty hundredths of water fell, 
which fully replenished the ponds and ravines in the pastures, and next 
morning we got a slight brush from the tail of the great northern blizzard 
of British America and the northern lakes, which soon subsided, however, 
and was again followed by beautiful weather and high temperature for the 
time of the year. Snow has not fallen to exceed one third of an inch in Van 
Buren county to date, January 9, 1889; and the lowest temperature this win- 
ter was 14° above zero, December 19th, early in the morning, at my place, 
and the highest, 62° on the 23d of December, followed by 60°, 24th; the 
lowest during January, 1889, to date, being 18°, and the highest 46°, giving 
a range of only 28° during the entire six days. 



GKA.PE PKUNING. 



35 



Mr. President, I otter this apology for encumbering these pages with these 
statistics:' Our reports are becoming widely diffused among the farmers, 
and they will furnish a ready reference in comparing the temperatures of 
different winters and settle many disputes. And, by the way, the demand 
for these reports is rapidly increasing. 

LATER. 

The blizzard of January 9, 1888, reduced the temperature at my place to 
zero by the morning of the 11th, where it remained until nearly 8 o'clock, A. 
m., after which time it arose again into the twenties. The temperature was 
pretty much the same throughout the district, so far as I can hear. Thi3 
was the lowest temperature for the winter to date, January 15th. 

A paper entitled " Grape Pruning," by W. M. Bomberger, was read 
by the Secretary, as follows: 



GRAPE PRCJNING. 



BY W. M. BOMBERGER, HARLAN, IOWA. 



"I would rather buy my grapes than to go to all that trouble," is the re- 
mark made by farmers and owners of from a dozen to one hundred grape 
vines, when they return Fuller, Hussman, or any of the grape growing man- 
uals 1 lend them. They ask me to tell them in a few words how to prune 
and train their vines. 

The class that want the information I find to be large; and not the own- 
ers of vineyards, but of a dozen, twenty-five or a hundred vines. They are 
usually farmers and such as live on large lots in the suburbs of towns. 
Their vines are usually in bearing, and an unsightly and hopeless looking 
mass, piled in confusion over an illy constructed, rickety, half broken down 
board trellis within two and a half or three feet of the ground. When the 
proprietors of such, consult these grape manuals, they find little or no in- 
struction as to how they shall handle vines in such condition; and the fine 
picture of a few vines harnessed up to some rigid system, and from half to a 
dozen pages of detailed descriptions of these very exact systems, tends to 
discourage rather than encourage them to do anything with them. These 
manual systems are developed from the first year of planting, and when this 
class read them, they get it into their heads that their vines are no good and 
past reclaiming. Jlow what I give you here I usually tell to this class, that 
are interested in vines. 



36 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



About November 10th with knife or pruning shears in hand, take your po= 
beside a vine described, in age any where from five years upward The vine 
you will see is composed of stock next to ground, frame work of old wood, 
and new growth grown upon it. The old wood is easily distinguished from 
new by its peculiar rough bark that readily peels off in the fall of the year. 
All branches from which leaves have dropped, that have tendrils and bore 
fruit this year, are new wood. This year's growth on the new wood, will 
bud forth next spring and new wood upon it will bear next year's crop of 
fruit. Examine carefully one of these canes the size of a lead pencil, or a 
little larger, any where from three to fifteen fifteen feet long. Yon will find 
not very far from where the old wood joins the new a scar left by a dropping 
leaf , just above this scar is the cane's first fruiting bud for next season; 
nearly on the opposite side of cane a little further out is the second; oppo- 
site again and further out is the third, and so on to the end of the cane. 
Now, if you look closely either tendrils are, or bunches of fruit have been 
opposite most of these buds. Now the first bud on this cane nearest the old 
wood is greatest in value for fruiting the second, second in value, third, 
the third, and so on until you get to the sixth or seventh bud, beyond 
which they are not so good for fruiting purposes. It is customary to cut off 
the canes; leave from three to five buds on the stub attached to the old 
wood for fruiting the following year. Now these canes of new wood are at- 
tached without system or regularity on the vine. It is generally advisable 
to cut nearly one half the wood, of very old neglected vines. Now, say we 
have fifteen stubs or spurs on a five or six year old vine, each having two 
fruiting buds which would make thirty. Counting each bud to bear from 
two to three bunches, if the season is favorable, and the vine would set 
about seventy bunches. Allowing that half don't arrive at maturity because 
imperfect fertilization, injury by the elements, we have from thirty to thirty- 
five bunches, or from fifteen to twenty pounds of fruit. Older and strong 
vines can be fruited heavier, younger and weaker vines lighter. In removing 
new growth trim so that the spurs are distributed as evenly as possible over 
the old frame work of the vine. Trim these spurs shorter near the ground 
and those at the end of the old canes (or at the top of them) long— as long as 
seven buds. Here you can grow the largest, finest bunches. Trim so that 
you will work the spurs annually down nearer the ground. If the old vine 
is long and the bearing wood is all in a bunch at the top or end, if there is a 
small branch of new growth on it, within two feet of the ground, wnen you 
tie up the vine in the spring, bend and tie the vine in the form of a loop, so 
that the upward rush of the sap will strike auxiliary buds around this small 
twig of new wood, then the old vine can be cut off above it. This can be 
accomplished at times by bending cane aronnd a wire or post of trellis. 

After vines are trimmed two or three years, as directed they can be easily 
brought into subjection and thereafter pruned and trained according to the 
"fan system" as detailed in Hussman's work. In my locality I consider the 
first half of November best time to prune. If vines are fall pruned, cover 
with earth, hay or straw. If vines have been exposed, and you don't trim 
until spring, leave twice the number of spurs and buds, as the extreme cold 



GRAPE PRUNING. 



37 



weather, with high dry winds destroys many fruit buds. Vines set three 
years from 12 to 20 buds. Vines set two years from 6 to 10 buds. I think 
best not to let them fruit a full crop until they are four years old. The vines 
in the fence corners and on the garden fences on our farms are too close to 
the ground; hence they have not the light and sun they ought to have, and 
mildew is the result. This locks up the sugar and cream of tartar in leaf 
and the fruit don't get it, and it don't ripen. Better let vines climb on trees 
than on a garden fence, or give them a trellis eight or ten feet high and have 
the fruit get ripe. To the farmer who has a thousand things to do in June, 
it will never pay to pinch back leaders. If he has any time to devote to his 
vines, let him tie up high on the trellis the new growth to give the vine and 
its leaves a chance to drink in all the sunshine sweetness it can from the 
nectar laden air, and deposit in the fruit. 

In vineyard culture grapes cannot be successfully grown unless some 
method or system is adhered to in pruning and training the vine that will 
not only be the means of developing good fruit plentifully but will not in- 
jure the health of the vine, and give it longlivity. There can be too much 
much system, and there can be too little. The rambling, healthy growing 
Concord grape vine, or any other is much like a jolly, rolicking boy. The 
government of the two are the same. The control of a vineyard is the same 
as the control of a school. Every vine as well as boy, must receive different 
treatment, and be handled with respect to individual peculiarity. It seems 
that established systems are only an individual affair, only local in applica- 
tion. In Fuller's horizontal arm system the arms get clogged with resinous 
sap, and the vine gets dissatisfied and throws out suckers, and the cost of 
the trellis of this system would impoverish a man on the timberless prairies. 
In " the pole system," the vine becomes sticky, and in the west half of the 
State will not admit of being laid down, and the fruit in this system is so 
huddled up, in a small space, that in such years as this and the soft corn 
year, 18881, it don't get enough sun; don't ripen; besides in our prairie dis- 
tricts, renewing the poles biennially, makes it too expensive. The fault of 
the '* fan system " of Hussman is, that it is too easy to run into no system, 
hence I would call it the best, as it gives the vine the liberty which it should 
have. There is a great diversity of opinion as to methods of pruning and 
training the vine. This in the main is due to the different soils, climates, 
the different behavior of different varieties, grown in peculiar soils, under 
peculiar circumstances, and in peculia locations, and sometimes deeply 
rooted prejudices, has much to do with it. 

As an example of this diversity of opinion, note the most important item 
of difference between our two best authorities. Fuller says: " Not only is 
the fruit produced near the base of the young canes," and he thinks the best 
fruit is produced there, as here is where he grows it. Bat the best buds for 
producing fruiting canes are found there also, for these lower buds are 
formed early in the season, they become more fully developed than those 
formed later. Hence the necessity for cutting off the upper portion of ev- 
ery cane in pruning, instead of leaving part of them at full length and cut- 
ting others entirely away. Hussman admits this to be true of the Delaware 



38 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



and hard wood varieties, but of Concord seedlings, and most hybrids, all 
strong growing varieties, most generally cultivated, says it is not so. These, 
he says, will not fruit best on laterals of the young wood of last summer's 
growth. He starts each spring several strong canes on spurs near the 
ground, for fruiting the following year. When they are three feet high he 
pinches them, and makes them throw strong laterals the size of medium 
eanes, which he shortens to from four to six buds each. On these laterals 
he says he obtains the best developed fruit and bunches. My experience is 
the same. I find I can grow the nicest fruit on these laterals and the new 
canes that grow nearest the end of the old wood; so I trim and train to get 
these, and save the most prominent and best developed fruit buds on them. 

On motion of C. L. Watrous the Society adjourned until 2 p. m. 



AFTERNOON SESSION — FIRST DAY. 



Called to order at 2 p.m. 

The President announced the following committees: 

On Premiums — Chas. Patterson, H. W. Ash, N. K. Fluke. 

Entry of Fruits — N. E. Hansen. 

Resolutions — Silas Wilson, B. F. Ferris, A. G. Williams. 
Papers on Forestry were read by John Wragg and H. W. Lathrop, 
as follows: 



FORESTRY. 



BY J. WKAGG, WAUKEE 



The subject that has been assigned me is one that comprehends too much 
to be treated of in the short papers that are expected of the members of the 
Society. Except as to certain points, that shall show the present needs of 
our people and how to supply them, in trying to do this intelligently I shall 
first speak of 

General Forestry— From the earliest settlement of our country the chief 
aim of the American people seems to have been how quickest to destroy our 
magnificent forests. Where this was done for the purpose of bringing the 



FORESTRY. 



39 



soil into cultivation, there may have been some excuse; but where mature 
trees, for the various purposes to which lumber is put was sought, there was 
no excuse, or at least is no longer, for the wanton destruction of the younger 
trees, that would soon grow into value. 

There was no excuse for felling great tracts of the finest oak and hemlock 
timber for the bark, as has been repeatedly done in the eastern States, and 
then allowing fire to be set out, thus wantonly destroying millions of dollars 
worth of the finest timber because it was not needed just at that time and 
place. But quite recently we read of the great loss of property along one 
of our southern rivers by a sudden and great rise of the water. The source 
of this river was in the mountains of East Tennessee, amid great forests of 
evergreens and deciduous trees, owned by a foreign syndicate. 

Quite recently the timber has been cut and removed. The forest condi- 
tions that have heretofore governed the rise and flow of the water have been 
taken away or greatly chaDged. and the natural result has followed— floods 
as above stated, or the opposite extreme, drought. Our government has 
passed laws for the protection and increase of many forms of our natural 
wealth. Why has it done so little to protect the greatest of all f 

We find by the census report of 1880 that for that year the value of the 
forest crop of the United States was over $700,000,000, and yet for this great 
source of national wealth we have practically done nothing, either to pro- 
tect or cultivate. I find that for the seven years ending with 1887 there has 
been stolen from the public lands timber of the market value of, in round 
numbers, $37,000,000. Of this amount there has been recovered $478,000 at 
a cost to the government of $455,000; so we find that for timber worth in 
the market $37,000,000 the government saved just $23,000, or about 1-1600 
part. 

The older countries, France, Switzerland and Italy, found by a bitter ex- 
perience that it was the opposite of a wise policy to utterly deforest the 
source of their streams. And it would seem, with such well known exam- 
ples before us, we should at once begin to systematically plan for the future 
care of our fast disappearing forests. We cannot draw a comparison be- 
tween this country and Europe as regards the care of forests, as it has been 
the constant aim of our government to transfer to individuals the ownership 
of its domain, while in Europe the Crown holds control of its large forests, 
or a few great families of land-holders, who guard them with the same jeal- 
ous care, which care consists principally in only allowing such trees to be 
cut as are at their most profitable stage of growth, and immediately replac- 
ing them with young trees, and this is done under the care of men of lODg 
experience. I recommend that our Society urge Congress to withdraw our 
remaining forests from sale; selling only the mature trees from the stump, 
and use all such revenue in the guarding, care and perpetuation of the 
same. 

Special Forestry.— 13 very intelligent farmer or land holder should devote a 
portion of his acreage to the planting of such varieties of trees as will be 
most valuable in his locality. For Iowa and the Northwest generally I pre- 
fer Red Cedar, Larch (both European and American), White Pine, Catalpa 



40 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



and Ash. They should be planted quite thickly to induce a straight upward 
growth. Larch should not be planted in large square blocks, but rather in 
belts, and on the outside of other timber, as experience has shown that to 
remain healthy, Larch should have free circulation of air in order to obtain 
good results. They should be well and carefully planted on well prepared 
soil, and have good cultivation for a few years. Very few are aware of the 
fact that Red Cedar is a tree of rapid growth if planted thickly and well 
cared for for the first few years. I hold it to be one of our most valuable 
trees for economic uses. One point more: the farmers of the Northwest, by 
planting from two to four acres of fast growing timber, can raise their fuel 
much cheaper than it can be bought at the average market price, and can 
generally combine the wood lot and shelter belt. 



FORESTRY. 



BY H. W. LATHROr. 



Among the prime necessities of life, fuel and shelter, and second only to 
food and clothing, and for the main supply of the two former we resort to 
our forests, they furnishing us with fuel wood and lumber Before the ad- 
vent of barbed wire for fencing, and the almost universal employment of 
coal for the generation of steam in our mills and factories and on our rail- 
road locomotives, and its use in our hotels, stores and offices, as well as in 
most of our privat e dwellings for heating purposes, it looked as though the 
supply of fuel and lumber in the northwest would soon become exhausted. 
We need not go back three decades in our history to reach the time when 
wood was almost the only article used for producing heat and was the uni- 
versal article used for fencing. Our mills and railroads were then using up 
fire wood by millions of cords and the fencing of our ever increasing num- 
ber of farms was devouring lumber by millions of feet, and if this con- 
sumption had kept pace with their multiplication and growth to the present 
time, forestry as an economic question both in the preservation of our orig- 
inal timber lands or in the planting of artificial groves and forests would 
have been one of the most fruitful themes of discussion and it would have 
called forth the best means of preserving the one and of extending the 
other. 

Under our present conditions it is quite probable that our original timber 
lands could be preserved from the ravages of the stump puller and the plow 
and be retained for the exclusive growth of timber, and a few additional 
acres of artificial put out each year, the growth of timber in the State, sup- 
plemented with the lumber from the northern and southern pineries, would 



FORESTRY. 



41 



keep pace with the demand. The old pineries of Michigan, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota if kept employed for that purpose will grow the lumber for com- 
ing generations, though they may have been denuded of their timber for 
our use. 

New sources for the supply of lumber are being opened, the great belt of 
timber that stretches from Texas through Indian Territory, Arkansas, the 
northern part of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and southern Tennessee 
and Kentucky, to, and including the Carolinas, will in the near future equal 
as a lumber supply the pine regions of the north, for already the lumber- 
men from these northern forests are seeking investments there. 

The lumbermen of the forests of Oregon and Washington Territory, with 
the products of their great firs and pines of hundreds of years of growth, are 
meeting the lumbermen from the shores of the great lakes in the Denver 
market, and they have a supply in their forests that cannot for a long series 
of years be exhausted. 

The worn out lands in the New England states, where long long years 
ago our ancestors pastured their herds and flocks are, being deserted and 
though deprived of much of their fertility, are now growing up with native 
tember; and in the no distant future if spared the woodman's ax, will pre- 
sent as heavy a growth as they carried in that long ago when the ax of our 
grandfathers followed by their logging, deadening and burning, made way 
slowly but surely for the cultivated farms of those grandfathers on which 
they reared their sturdy sons who have peopled the " fair west." 

Referring to the Census Report for the year 1885, 1 find reported for the 
whole State 120,737 acres of artificial and 2,164,287 of natural timber, and 
the number of cords of wood cut in 1884 to be 903 950. Estimating the 
value of this wood to be $3 00 per cord we have a total value of wood pro- 
duced in the State in one year of $2,711,850. 

The average size of Iowa farms is 142 acres, and were the timber land 
(native and artificial) equally distributed, each farm would have 12£ acres. 
For useful purposes should not this area be doubled and if it should be, 
giving 25 acres of timber land to each farm, it would call for the additional 
planting of 2,275,000 acres of artificial groves. If this many acres could be 
added to the timber area of the State, would it not arrest the wind sweep 
of the prairies, especially in the northwest part of the State where the prai- 
ries are large and natural groves are scarce and small, and would it not 
afford a cheap and valuable protection to our farm animals from the pierc- 
ing blizzards of winter and the fervid heats of summer, besides affecting 
favorably our raid-fall and atmospheric moisture? A grove of twenty-five 
acres that could be put out without much trouble, or expense in one-half 
that number of years would add immensely to the value of the farm for oc- 
cupation or sale. Such a grove, if containing with other trees, Burr oak and 
Black cherry, would furnish acorns and cherries for the pigs, and mulberries 
might be added for the birds and hickory-nuts, walnuts and butternuts for 
the children. 



6 



42 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Few persons are aware of the rapidity of the growth of forest trees in 
our soil and climate As show'ing this I append the following from the late 
Suel Foster, he says: " A few notes on the relative growth of well known 
species on my grounds may be useful. They are the results of actual 
measurements with line and pole made March 6, 1879. 

Hardy catalpa, twenty-two years from seed, heighth 33 to 41 feet, diameter 

15 to 16£ inches. 

Black cherry, transplanted from woods twenty years growth, heighth 
40 feet, diameter 11 inches. 

Sugar maple, transplanted from woods twenty years growth, heighth 20 
feet, diameter 14£ inches. . 

Soft maple, transplanted, twenty years growth, heighth 35 feet, diameter 

16 inches. 

Chestnut, from seed twenty-four years growth, heighth 30 to 39 feet, diam- 
eter 10 to *16 inches. 

White pine, two year seedlings, growth twenty-four years, heighth 50 feet, 
diameter 19 inches. 

Norway spruce, four year seedlings, growth twenty years, heighth 34 feet, 
diameter 13 inches. 

European larch, one year seedlings, growth ten years, heighth 20 to 30 feet, 
diameter 4 to 7£ inches." 

From cuttings of cotton wood put out thirty years ago last spring, when 
the trees were twenty-five years old, I got timbers to build a wood house 
that squared six by eight inches, and they were from ten to twenty-six feet 
in length. 

DISCUSSION. 

N. T. Case: The hard maple is a slow grower for first ten or fif- 
teen years, and then it is a fast grower. After about twelve years 
from planting they will grow as much in two years as in the first ten 
years. 

M. E. Hinckley: 1 would like to know if Red Cedar becomes of 
any value as timber for first twenty years. I would substitute Black 
walnut for Red Cedar. 

John Wragg: Red cedar does not grow fast in door yard or on 
rocky bluffs, where it is generally found natural, but in cultivated 
ground it grows rapidly. In good ground, if cultivated and given 
good care, grows fast, and in ten years from transplanting will make 
fence posts. The upward growth, after fairly starting, will be 
eighteen inches to two feet. It is one of our most valuable trees. 

C. L. Watrous: One thing is brought out. The necessity of some 
control of the forests. Other countries have public control of their for- 
ests. Men are wasteful and short sighted. They cut trees for cer- 



FORESTRY. 



43 



tain kinds of timber, and the rest of tbe tree is wasted. Our State 
has not as much timber as it should have. With four times as much 
we would have better crops, more fruit and a higher type of civiliza- 
tion. If this Society should pass proper resolutions expressing the 
sense of this meeting, and send them to our representatives in Con- 
gress, it would have a good effect. We should not have a tariff on 
lumber. It brings a little money to the government, but it makes 
people a little more wasteful, and we will get through with our tim- 
ber supply a little sooner. Such resolutions ought to be brought be- 
fore the meeting, and discussed and sent by our Secretary to our del- 
gation in Congress. We ought to adopt some rules by our legislature 
to conserve our own forests along our streams. 

H. W. Lathrop: There is more need of something in our own 
State than in Congress. A piece of timber in our vicinity was cut 
off more than twenty years ago, and the fire kept out; now the tim- 
ber has considerable value. A forty acre tract adjoining had timber 
cut off about a year ago. Now, if stock and fire should be kept out 
for twenty years there would be considerable growth, and in thirty 
years there would be a big growth. There should be a law allowing 
the board of supervisors of each county, to exempt from taxation lands 
that were entirely denuded of timber while it was growiog up, on 
condition that stock should be kept out. These lands could be bought 
cheaply, and would be a good form of investment to leave and grow 
up for timber. Another thing our legislature should do is to exempt 
from taxation all artificial groves. I would go further, and pay a 
bounty for tree planting. Each member of this Society should bring 
it right home to the members of the legislature living in his county* 
In this way our influence will be felt. 

Prof. Budd: I would like to say a word in that direction. 
There are thousands of acres of bluff land in our State of little 
value for any other purpose than timber, and it should be allowed 
to grow up, but this cannot be done if pastured with stock. 

Eighteen years ago I bought forty acres of land recently denuded 
of timber, for two hundred dollars. It was covered with grubs and 
stumps. It grew up thickly — nature's system of pruning. It now 
has a dense growth of timber, twelve to fifteen inches in diameter. 
Land around it has grown scanty crops. The real growth is of more 
value than the aggregate of crops on land around it. As to rapidity 
of growth of hard maple, I have watched for twenty years, a grove 
of hard maple, where seeds were planted, where trees stand. Where 



44 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



seeds are planted where trees are to stand, and given good cultiva- 
tion, they make about as good a growth as any of our hard wood 
trees. The tap root grows down, and after a few years the trees 
start with a rapid growth and do well. It is an important matter 
with some varieties to have seeds planted where trees are to remain, 
as the tap root (which cannot be preserved in transplanting) if left 
where the seed grew, gives the tree an impetus, and a very much 
better growth is obtained. It is same with hickory and most other 
nut bearing trees. This Society should teach that with ash and most 
other trees, it is better to plant seed where trees are to remain. 

N. T. Case: I have hard maple planted with soft maple. The soft 
maple is twenty feet high, while the hard maple are only five to seven 
feet high. I think there must be two kinds of hard maple. 

Prof. Budd: The form of the hard maple found in Iowa, is the 
acer nigrum, of Gray. These grow rapidly if trees are allowed to 
remain where seeds grow and given good cultivation. But the 
eastern hard maple (acer saccharinum), is not well adapted to our 
climate, and its growth with us is very slow. 

A. F. Collman, director of the Third District, read his report. 



EEPORT OP THIRD DISTRICT. 



BY A. F. COLLMAN, CORNING. 



Mr. President: 

For several years I have been deeply interested in our horticultural work, 
and have tried to be a learner; and while many of our reports have been 
full of discouragement, now and then I could see a jewel drop. While most 
of our old varieties are dead, we find that a few varieties are healthy in 
every orchard; this gives me new hope. Just now, when so many are work- 
ing with new varieties and seedlings, we are sure to succeed, and fruit men 
are beginning to see their way through the trouble, and I believe Iowa 
will yet be a fruit State. I have taken pains to ask men all over our dis- 
trict about the orchards, and they nearly all give me the same answer— our 
orchards are dying, only a few seem to be healthy. We are watching with 
interest the work of our horticultural societies, and are in hope that great 
good may grow out of the experimental work of the State Society. I have 
found one variety that seems very promising, namely, ( Varonisk Rosy); the 



REPORT FROM FOURTH DISTRICT. 



45 



tree seems to be hardy, and bears very young. The apple is good- sized and 
very highly colored, and will keep with Jonathan and Grimes Golden, and 
nearly as good in quality. It is one of Prof. Budd's importation. Several 
other varieties that seem to be perfectly hardy and free from blight, but 
have not commenced bearing, will be watched with interest and reported 
to this Society. Now, if we can succeed with a few varieties all over the 
State we can certainly And others. So let us not be weary in well doing, for 
we shall reap if we faint not. 

The apple crop was light all over the district, and the quality poor, owing 
partly to severe storms during blooming season, and the vitality of the trees 
lowered by the heavy crop of apples the previous year; but where the trees 
were protected from the driving storms the fruit was of good size and 
quality. 

Our plum and cherry crop was a failure, and nearly all small fruit, about 
half a crop. When protected during winter, a heavy crop was gathered. 
Winter protection is receiving the attention of our best small fruit growers 
all over the district. 

Our timber plantations are doing nicely, and we hear farmers everywhere 
regret that they did not plant sooner, and more of them. Nearly all our 
evergreens are in a healthy condition, and our farmers are planting largely 
for protecion, and many are planting Red Cedar for timber. 

DISCUSSION. 

A. F. Collman: I have here wood of Varonish Rosy, as heavy 
and health as hickory. 

The President called Vice- President Secor to the chair. 

N. K. Fluke, of Davenport, read his report as Director of Fourth 
District. 



REPORT FROM THE FOURTH DISTRICT. 



BY N. K. FLUKE, DAVENPORT. 



The past year has been one of varied results to the horticulturist in ex- 
perience and profit. 

Notwithstanding the severe cold of last winter, we were favored with 
sufficient snow to partially ameliorate its severity in the protection it gave 
and in the humidity it imparted by its evaporation; so that unprotected 
grape, blackberry and other vines and plants were very little if at all in- 



46 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

jured, while, on the other hand, the fruit buds of all varieties of cherries 
and European plums that I have any knowledge of, were killed by these 
same conditions. 

All varieties of the wild plum bloomed freely, but from the 10th of May 
(the time of first bloom) till the 15th we had cloudy, wet weather, with frost 
enough to make ice three days out of the five; consequently, with these 
two conditions, absence of insects and frost, there were no plums raised in 
our district so far as I have learned. 

Our strawberry- growers were favored with the proper conditions of sun 
and moisture to grow one of the finest crops. Good prices were realized by 
sending north. One of our small fruit growers has a seedling which he has 
originated here, which, if reports are correctly stated, will surpass some of 
the latest leading aspirants for public favor. He says he is willing to and 
wants it thoroughly tested before putting it on the market. 

The leaf-roller and crown-borer did considerable damage to some growers 
laet fall. 

The leading and most profitable black cap (the Gregg) is falling from its 
first estate in the opinion of our growers, leaving the field without a rival 
in black caps. 

The Snyder, the only blackberry heretofore grown, bore a paying crop, 
which were sold in our home markets at an average of twelve cents per box. 
With the advanced steps taken by winter protection, the Snyder, in a few 
years, will be remembered only as the stepping stone to a more profitable 
plane in horticulture, namely, "earth protection." 

The crop of grapes would average about three quarters of a crop, but on 
account of the plentiful supply of peaches from Michigan, grapes and ap- 
ples were very low, paying little profit for the time and care of marketing. 
The rot was quite prevalent on old, over- cropped vineyards, while on the 
same kind that had been well manured it had little effect. The leaves were 
quite seriously affected by fungus at one time, but the conditions of the at- 
mosphere changing to a dryer, stopped its ravages. 

The few remaining varieties of crippled apple trees were loaded with fair 
fruit; fair, not from the absence of destructive insects nor that we used 
liquid poisons, but that after the insects and birds there was plenty left. 

The blight was never more destructive than in the past year. Native 
crabs, Duchess and other varieties never in my recollection blighting be- 
fore, were subject to its ravages Every variety of pear on my grounds, 
except the Birket and a seedling I got from Pittsburg, Pa., blighted, inclu- 
ding ten varieties of the Russians. I had great hopes of 508, as one of 
seeming great promise, but of nine trees only one has escaped. This one 
has been planted two seasons; all the rest from two to five years planted. 
My soil is high, dry prairie, with yellow joint clay subsoil. Of the Russian 
apples, fourteen varieties didn't show any blight, ten varieties blighted 
some, two badly and six very badly. 

The Russian cherries and plums have shown no defects with me yet. I 
don't think we can gain much from the plums, as we have the very be3t 
material to work from in our Natives. But we may indulge in the hope 



REPORT FKOM FOURTH DISTRICT. 



47 



that some of the cherries may help us out, for we haven't a cherry that I 
would now plant for a profitable market cherry. 

DISCUSSION. 

Silas Wilson: To what extent have you fruited Lucretia Dew- 
berry ? 

N. K. Fluke: I have fruited it for about five years, but to no 
great extent, as I desired to raise all the plants I could, and cared 
less for fruit than for plants, and grew it with that in view. J cut 
up most of the plants to use for propagating new plants. I cannot 
say as to its profitableness, but have enough confidence to plant as 
extensively as I could; think it good for family use. 

Prof. Budd: How about it carrying its fruit above ground? Does 
it not grow so flat as to have the fruit in the dirt? 

N. K. Fluked We have to mulch as we would strawberries. Two 
years ago I grew them on trellis, but those up off the ground were 
not as perfect as those on the ground, neither were they as large. I 
do not know that they would be as profitable as blackberries that had 
been covered. 

M. C. Staves: Is the Lucretia dewberry hardy? 

N. K. Fluke: Those not covered appeared to be hardy. 

M. C. Staves: I would like to hear from Mr. Wilson as to his 
experience with the dewberry. 

Silas Wilson: My experience is so limited that it is of no partic- 
ular value. I have grown it more for propagating plants than for 
fruit. 

N. K. Fluke: Not many planting dewberries have Lucretia, as 
most of the plants sent out are spurious. The first I got were most 
of them spurious, and while the Lucretia does not naturally propa- 
gate rapidly, the spurious kind does propagate very rapidly; and the 
vines make a strong growth, but the berries are almost worthless. I 
rooted out the spurious kind, and then the society sent out plants, 
and the ones I got were the same as the spurious kind I had rooted 
out. 

M. C. Staves: I would like to have this subject thoroughly dis- 
cussed. Farmers are buying dewberry plants year after year, and 
yet do not get berries. I have not found a man yet who has made a 
success growing the Lucretia. The Snyder blackberry does well, but 
it is some trouble to lay blackberries down and cover them up. 

A. F. Collmin: My experience has been like Mr. Fluke's. I got 



48 



STATE HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



my plants two years ago from the Experimental Committee of this 
Society, but the fruit is small and worthless. I also have Pride of 
the Hudson. My little boy came in the other day aDd told me that 
the p^gs had got in the garden and were rooting up the dewberries, 
and I told him to let them alone as they were worthless for fruit. 

Silas Wilson: It seems that the Lucretia sent out two years ago 
were sent out by me. I bought them from Crawford or Teas, and if 
they are not genuine, how are we to get anything that we can de- 
pend upon. I am certain I have no desire to send out spurious stock, 
and thought I was buying of parties that could be implicitly relied 
upon. 

James Underwood: I know of two men who have succeeded well 
with dewberries: They are Mr. Frost of Chapin, and Mr. Crips of 
Alden — both have had good results. One eighth of an acre bore at 
the rate of two hundred and fifty bushels per acre. 

Silas Wilson: Mr. Crips bought plants of me. 

James Underwood: I have found out that not more than one 
plant in a dozen of the dewberry have grown when set out. Mr. 
Brackett of Jefferson likes the dewberry. 

W. O. Willard: Think Mr. Wilson got his plants of Teas; I got 
mine of him, and only about twenty five per cent were Lucretia; 
the others were worthless. Lucretia is easily told from the others; 
it has lighter tips and is lighter color generally. The other has purple 
foliage. The Lucretia has heavier foliage. 

N. K. Fluke: I think I can explain how so many have the spuri- 
ous. The Lucretia got mixed with another vaaiety, and as the Lu- 
cretia tips slowly and the other roots rapidly, in a little while the 
largest part would be of the spurious kind, and the Lucretia would 
eventually be lost. The two are not alike in growth. The Lucretia 
starts out, makes a straight growth and makes side branches. The 
other grows up more like a bush in form. Once I got every one this 
kind, not a Lucretia among them, when buying Lucretia. 

Silas Wilson: That is a discription of my Lucretia, and they must 
be genuine. 

A. G. Williams: I had opportunity of observing them with Mr. 
Willard, and got them from Experimental Committee. Those I .re- 
ceived from the Society are not same as the rejected of Mr. Fluke. 
Bartel is better than Lucretia or the other; but none of them have 
given satisfaction; they do not fruit in any quantity. 



REPORT FROM FOURTH DISTRICT. 



49 



B. F. Ferris: The Lucretia in our county are a success. I have 
bought them two or three times, but have not got a genuine plant 
yet. Mr. Frost, of Chapin, does do well with them, and markets 
same as blackberries. 

Prof. Budd: He must put brush for them to grow on; surely he 
does not raise them on the ground. 

A. F. Collman: I protected mine and they grew finely, but the 
berries are only about as large as a pea and are worthless. Triumph 
gooseberry a grand success. 

J. Thatcher: My experience with the Lucretia is limited. I got 
two plants in 1886. I hardly knew where to put them, and next year 
moved them. They ran out laterals and nearly took an adjoining 
strawberry bed; they bore abundantly and the berries were very fine. 
So far as mulch is concerned, they ran into the strawberry bed and 
were consequently mulched. 

C. G. Patten: Were they fine in appearance, or was quality good? 
J. Thatcher: Quality was good and they had small core. 

N. K. Fluke: I cannot say so much for quality; they propagate 
from roots, and the roots grow readily, and when I took up plants 
many came up. Think I have them pure. 

N. T. Case: Does dewberries propagate from sprouts or tips? 

N. K. Fluke: They propagate both from roots and tips. 

N. T. Case: I got some plants from Indiana, and am not certain 
whether they were dewberries at all. 

W. F. Steigerwalt; I have had about the same experience. I got 
a small bill delivered in the fall, in forepart of October. When I 
came to bed the stock and take bundle apart, found three kinds of 
dewberries in one bundle. There was a label on which was marked 
" four feet high and as big as thumb." The agent said he was from 
Wilson's nursery, at Atlantic. 

[Laughter and applause.] 

Mr. Wilson: There are two Wilson's in the nursery business at 
Atlantic. 

R. P. Speer read a paper on " Reserve Material in Trees." 



7 



50 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



RESERVE MATERIALS IN TREES— DEFECTIVE SOILS. 



BY R. P. SPEER. 



As this is the twenty- fourth annual meeting of the Iowa State Horticul- 
tural Society, it will not be out of place to inquire: What have we done that 
is of much value to the orchardists of the Northwest? For many years the 
people of Iowa had faith in our skill and judgment, but they have lost it. 
We cannot deceive them again with American apples and cherries, Siberian 
crabs or upright blackberries; because they have proved worthless after 
being thoroughly tested. We have not only deceived the public, but we 
have allowed ourselves to be deceived by accepting theories as established 
facts. Here 1 will admit that my progress in horticulture has been nega- 
tive rather than positive, and that many of my theories have been false. I 
have believed for several years, that very hardy fruit trees stored up much 
more starch in their piths and medullary rays in the Ml, even in favorable 
years, than tender trees. But Dr. Halsted, who is a skillful microscopist, 
has been studying and comparing the different parts of very hardy and 
tender apple trees under the microscope for several weeks at the Iowa 
Agricultural Experiment Station, and he has found that tender trees con- 
tain as much starch in the fall as hardy trees. He found also, many crys- 
tals of calcium oxalate in both hardy and tender trees, but it is a waste 
product which is neither beneficial nor harmful. No starch was found in 
the buds or cambium layers of well ripened apple cions; but it was found 
in plentiful supplies in the pith, medullary rays and long parenchyma cells 
between the medullary rays. In well ripenen twigs, the starch in the pith 
ends in a well defined cone about half of an inch below the upper points of 
the buds. The most starch is found in the upper ends of the cones which 
are found below terminal buds, and it diminishes to a point midway be- 
tween the buds. The starch which is found between lateral buds, is most 
plentiful also at the upper ends of the starch cones. It is much more plen- 
tiful in the sides of the cones directly under the buds than in their opposite 
sides. In ripe scions, the starch is found only in the cells of the pith 
medullary rays and long parenchyma cells between them in the form of 
grains; while it is found in unripe twigs in mnch smaller grains, scattered 
through all parts of the wood and buds. In the cambium layers and buds 



/ 



RESERVE MATERIALS IN TREES— DEFECTIVE SOILS. 



51 



of ripe cions, there are other reserve food materials, which consist of the 
elements of starch and nitrogenous or albuminous substances in different 
proportions in different kinds of trees. The last named reserve'materials 
are the basis of protoplasm and the buds of well ripened twigs are specially 
charged with them in their richest form; while they are found in buds 
which are not perfectly ripe in a dilute or watery condition. Our old starch 
idol is broken, but the loss will not trouble us, as it has been replaced with 
something which is more valuable, because it is reliable. We know now 
why certain varieties of trees appear to be hardy once in a- while, which 
have suffered severely at other times when the surrounding conditions were 
more favorable. We have not only learned that perfect ripeness is neces- 
sary to enable fruit trees to endure very severe winters, but we have 
learned how to determine when they are ripe. 

The forming of the terminal buds of trees does not indicate ripeness; but 
it is the first preparatory step in the process of ripening. And the bursting 
of the bark of nursery trees in the' fall, is positive proof that they are not 
ripe. When a tree is ripe, its buds and all parts of its cambium layer will 
be comparatively dry; none of its cells will contain protoplasm, but the 
seat' of life in the buds and cambium layer, will be well supplied with the 
rich albuminous reserve materials, which are the basis of protoplasm. But 
the well defined cone of starch in the pith below each bud is a simple, plain 
and certain test of perfect ripeness. Drouths tend to hasten the ripening 
of trees when they have nearly completed a season's growth; while fall 
rains cause delay in the ripening of varieties like the Willow Twig, which 
are not adapted to our short Iowa summers. I have never known a more 
favorable time for the ripening of trees than last fall, and the result of such 
favorable weather is, that well defined starch cones are found in the piths 
of tender trees below their buds now. 

But in Iowa, it is not unusual to find Plumb's Cider, Fameuse and even 
the Roman Stem caught in a very unripe condition. When we shall be able 
to procure a sufficient number of good summer, autumn and winter apples, 
which will ripen their wood perfectly at the close of the most unfavorable 
seasons and remain dormant in the spring as long as the Oldenburg and Te- 
tof sky, we will have no reason to fear the most trying test winters. If 
there was no scarcity of perfectly hardy fruit trees I am confident that we 
oould not make orcharding profitable in Iowa ; except by adopting new meth. 
ods of planting and after care. The greater part of my orchard near Cedar 
Falls, was planted eighteen years ago. It consists of about sixteen varieties 
of what we called " Iron Clad " apples not long ago, but most of them were 
killed by the winter of 1884 and 1885. More than half of it was on a low 
hard ridge, where there was a rich black soil to the depth of three feet, rest- 
ing on a yellow clay sub-soil which contained more or less sand and gravel. 
In the south part of the orchard the sub soil is blue clay in some places and 
blue and yellow clay mixed in others. I planted fifty Oldenburg and t wenty- 
five Tetofsky trees where there was most blue clay, which are healthy now. 
For several years they were very fruitful, but for the last seven or eight 
years they have produced scarcely any fruit, and have made but little 



52 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



growth. Near the east stde of the orchard, where the sub-soil is a compact 
yellow clay, I have six Transcendent crab trees, the bodies of which are 
from twelve to fourteen inches in diameter, and the distance across each of 
their tops is thirty feet. They were remarkably productive when young, but 
for seven or eight years they have been nearly barren, and have shown but 
few signs of blight. None of the Red Astrachan, Willow Twig, Perry Rus- 
set, Walbridge, Plumb's Cider, Tallman's Sweet or English Golden Russet, 
ever produced the twentieth part of an average crop, and it is but seldom 
that the Gros Pomier has produced any fruit. My Ben Davis, Jeneton, 
Grimes' Golden, West Field Seek-no-Further, Wine Sap and Williams' Fa- 
vorite trees, were very fruitful while they lived, but " they were of few days 
and full of troubles." I had about ninety Fameuse trees in different parts 
of the orchard, which were fruitful, but all of them are dead, except three 
quarters of one row, which I saved by heavy manuring. My Oldenburg 
trees, which stand where there is a yellow clay sub-soil, have borne full 
crops annually. I have top-grafted many kinds of apples on Gros Pomier 
and Oldenburg stocks, but all of them have proved barren or u early so, ex- 
cept a few trees that were top-worked with the Dyer, Longfield and Silken 
Leaf. 

The different soils in mv orchard are more suitable for fruit trees than 
the average soils on which orchards have been planted in Iowa. Every- 
where except on our bluff and best loess soils, the general tendency is to- 
wards unfruitfulness. If I should plant another orchard I would use more 
care in the selection of varieties of trees and in the manner of planting them 
than formerly. If I had a bluff soil I would plant such trees as Perry Rus 
set, Plumb's Cider and Willow Twig, if they were sufficiently hardy, because 
such trees have proved fruitful on bluff soils. I would not plant Gros Pom- 
ier, unless I had a moist and very sandy sub-soil, because it has proved 
profitable on such soils and nearly worthless on all others. I like deep root- 
rooting trees, but I can see clearly that my large Oldenburg and Tetofsky 
trees have ceased to bear fruit and make growth, because their main roots 
and most of their little feeding roots are down in the blue clay sub-soil, 
where there is a great scarcity of the soluble plant food which they require. 
If I should be obliged to plant deep rooting trees again, where there was a 
wet or compact blue clay subsoil,! would dig large square holes at least 
two feet deep, and place broad boards in the bottoms of them, which would 
cause the main roots of the trees to be thrown out horizontally before the 
boards would rot. As the general experience of fruit growers has proved 
that orchards can not be healthy and fruitful on wet soils I would not at- 
tempt to plant trees where the outlets for water were not good without 
tile drainage. Wild crabs, oaks and other forest trees are far from being as 
vigorous and healthy where they stand alone, as when they are closely sur- 
rounded by other trees in groves or natural forests. In our very dry atmos- 
phere close planting is necessary to shade the ground and prevent loss of 
moisture by radiation. Our soils are rich, but it is generally known that a 
rotation of crops is necessary to preserve their fertility. In our orchards a 
rotation of trees and other crops is impossible and in a few years they ap- 



RESERVE MATERIALS IN TREES— DEFECTIVE SOILS. 



53 



propriate nearly all ot the available plant food which the soil contains, that 
is adopted to their wants. As my best trees are those which have received 
most manure, I am thoroughly convinced that it is impossible to have healthy 
and pi ofitable orchards without a liberal use of manure, potash and phos- 
phates. 

DISCUSSION. 

R. P. Speer: I have a drawing here, made by Dr. Halsted in 
about five minutes, that will show the subject under discussion. The 
dark part of drawing represents the starch. Here are tips of Repka, 
Malenka or Kislaya. There is no starch in ripened buds, but it 
settles away as the wood ripens, and is more plentiful opposite the 
buds. In imperfectly ripened buds we do not find the starch settled 
down nor opposite buds more plentiful than elsewhere. 

C. L. Watrous: I would very much like to have the captain tell us 
the object of these investigations, and the result. 

R. P. Speer: The object of the investigation was to determine 
whether there was any foundation for the theory that presence of 
starch crystals indicated hardiness. Starch is found in all kinds, 
both tender and hardy. 

Geo. Van Houten: Captain, I think your explanation of the dia- 
gram is not clearly understood by those who have not examined the 
wood of trees with a microscope. Please explain how the starch is 
in all parts, until the wood begins to ripen, when the starch settles 
and forms layers, and this condition indicates ripeness of wood. 

R. P. Speer: Yes, that is so; as the wood_ ripens the starch that 
was mixed all through the wood settles in layers, and this settling of 
the starch indicates ripeness of wood. We have tried every variety 
of apple almost, and all kinds of trees and shrubs, including currants 
and elderberries. We found no starch in currants, and were greatly 
surprised, as we supposed presence of starch to be evidence of hardi- 
ness. We dug out the roots, and there we found the starch stored in 
the root. 

In cutting branches of apple trees we can almost tell hardy varie- 
ties by working the cions, by the hardness of the wood and the gritty 
starch crystals that many varieties have in abundance. Dr. Halsted 
has also tried to find out what causes this brittle quality in the wood, 
but the microscope does not disclose the cause. The microscope has 
proven that there was nothing in the theory of being able to tell a 
hardy variety by the microscope. It does, however, enable us to de- 



54 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



termine whether a variety has ripened its wood, but that is of no 
great practical value. 

George W. Shaw: In 1884 we had a wet growing fall. I have 
been in the habit of enriching my trees in the fall, and manured my 
trees that fall as usual, and I soon found that they were about to 
grow. I dug away the earth for about six inches about the roots, and 
they ripened up their wood and wintered all right. 

James Underwood: I am satisfied that in Iowa as much depends 
on location and soil, as variety. I visited an orchard, and on south 
hillside the Duchess killed, while on the north side the Northern Spy 
did well. Other old varieties on the north hillside did well. 

H. W. Lathrop: That does not prove much. If there had been 
Duchess on both sides, and Northern Spy in both exposures, it would 
have been evidence. 

C. L. Watrous: That is just another instance of trees doing well 
on north side that fail on south side, just as we were talking this 
morning of the north side wooded slopes, being much better than on 
south side. I remember up in Boone county seeing a little beech 
tree, the only one I know of in the west; we are told that in Indiana 
two floras come together; on one side of a ravine are plants 
that are found down to the gulf; and on the other, on a northern 
slope, is another flora that extends to Hudson Bay. So there is a 
great deal in situation. 

M. C. Staves: A man in Western Iowa told me that he does not 
raise apple trees but shrubs. One man tells us he plants twenty feet 
apart, another thirty, and still another forty; my experience is, that 
on the prairies close planting does best; I know of some close planted 
trees doing well. 

H. W. Lathrop: How far apart are these trees, close planted, and 
still doing well? 

M. C. Staves: Twenty feet is better than thirty or forty. I have 
seen Duchess with limbs interlocked, doing well and bearing well. 
They have been set about twenty -five years. 

H. W. Lathrop: Duchess ought to live forty years. How much 
iaterlocking will they stand? 

M. C. Staves: Before they crowd much you have got the worth of 
the trees and can cut part of them out. 

N. K. Fluke: Trees exhaust the soil, and if they are planted close, 
the only way is to cut out part of the trees as manure. 



RESERVE MATERIALS IN TREES— DEFECTIVE SOILS 



55 



C. G. Patten: I would like to ask Mr. Speer if from the conclu- 
sions of his paper we are to discard American apples; and, if so, how 
far, and to what latitude? 

R. P. Speer: In northern part of the State I would discard every 
one. The Duchess is all right, so are Whitney, Tetofaky and Silken, 
and a good many others are all right. Talman Sweet and Plum's 
Cider are tender; Fameuse trees are nearly all dead. Of my own 
trees, the Fameuse not manured, are all dead, and those having had 
three coats of manure, about three fourths are alive. Now and then 
you can find a Roman Stem in moderate condition, and that is gen- 
erally on loss soil or bluff land. On the bluff soils, especially in the 
southwest part of the State, many of the old varieties may do very 
well, but in the north part of the State it is useless to plant them. 
Many of the Russians are good; some blight; some are of good 
quality, and some will keep until April. After testing the old varie- 
ties for twenty- three years, do not propose to be bit again; would 
rather start with the three or five of the best known hardy varie- 
ties and be content with them, rather than try the old sorts 
again. The old varieties do not do well in nine-tenths of the Stste. 
There was a long list of apples that we bragged on, and yet after 
eighteen years' trial none of them ever produced a fair crop. If we 
topwork the Duchess with Dyer, we can raise that variety. There is 
friend Fluke; he succeeds with Virginia crab as a stock. The 
Duchess has failed as a stock with me, except for Dyer. In Bulletin 
No. 3 of Experiment Station, I give a long list of varieties that 
should be discarded on account of blight. Another lot should be 
discarded because they are tender. I have had some of these varie- 
ties for fourteen years. Three or four varieties are very valuable; 
some are hardy but not fruitful. Now, we have a list of apples gath- 
ered from a country bigger than the United States. Some men talk 
about Russian apples. I do not know what they mean; or, rather, 
they do not know what they mean, as Russia is a big country, and 
they hsve a great variety of apples, some of which are suited to our 
needs, and some are not. Everybody can plant just what he may 
please to plant, yet I do not want any more of the old list. By cross- 
fertilization we may produce seedlings that will meet our needs — I 
think we shall. 

J. Thatcher: Whan Mr. Underwood was talking about that or- 
chard, on south and north slope, he was describing an orchard like 
mine, as my orchard ground lays like a saddle. On south side I had 



56 



STATE HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



Duchess and Perry Russet, and on north side Northern Spy. South 
side, Early Harvest, Hubbardston's Nonesuch; on north side, Early 
Harvest, same age, living and good; no Duchess on north side. Or- 
chard planted twenty-two years. Soil, white oak, limestone clay, 
bluff land. 

James Underwood: The orchaid I described was on 'Coon river, 
above Jefferson, in Greene county. 

H. W. Lathrop: Two swallows do not make a spring. I had 
Striped Rambo. One tree bore early and often, and went out early. 
The other did not bear much and lived longer. That proved nothing; 
we want more evidence than that to prove things. 

C. G. Patten: We have heard considerable of experience and con- 
clusions of Mr. Speer. I believe he is not far from the center of the 
State, north and south. Mr. Speer's statement, that he would discard 
all the American varieties of the apple, should be modified to suit 
the experience of ten thousand farmers north of the center of the 
State. Now as to his experience- of fourteen years with Russian ap- 
ples: As Mr. Lathrop says, one swallow does not make a spring. On 
other soils and exposures some varieties of the old list do well. If I 
can go on his farm, and north of his farm, and find forty such places, 
would his trial be conclusive, against the ten or forty places where 
experience was the reverse? In many places, Roman Stem, Fall Or- 
ange and other varieties of the old list are doing well. Mr. Clute has 
some of the old list that are doing well, and even Fameuse is doing 
well with him. I have heard from many of these successes and have 
been over the district in person, and know that others have had a 
different experience. I have had experience with about thirty varie- 
ties of the Russians, and have only had two I would recommend my 
neighbors to plant. I tried ten of Mr. Tuttle's best, but they are not 
giving satisfaction. Mr. Tuttle assured me that Red Queen (Reinette 
Red) was as hardy as Oldenburg. I top worked it seven or eight 
years ago, on three-year trees, but it has not produced an apple. I 
got Flushing Spitzenberg after I got it, and have fruit from it, and 
they are fair. Moscow blights, Tetovka may be good in Russia, but 
it blights on our soil. The Lowland Raspberry is a fall apple, but 
not as good as many of the old list of fall apples. They are root- 
grafted, and I cultivated them faithfully. From my experience with 
Lowland Raspberry, it is among the best, and would cultivate it if I 
could get no better varieties. Now, we have *heard much of a tree 
maturing its wood to be hardy, and that to be hardy they must ma- 



RESERVE MATERIALS IN TREES— DEFECTIVE SOILS. 



tare their wood. But that is a defect with them. They will mature 
their wood, and thoroughly, and there is an unadaptability on that 
very account. They mature so early that they have a second flow of 
sap, that they know nothing about in their own country. In their 
native home they do not make a second growth; that occurs in our 
warm, wet autumns, and they kill out hare as blackberries would in 
their country. 

R. P. Speer: I would like to say something on one point, and that 
is of second growth of matured wood of Russian apples. It never 
has occurred in a perfectly ripened twig. Some ripened up prema- 
turely might show a defect, but when perfectly ripened they will rest 
until spring, and no amount of heat will start them into growth until 
they have had their rest. At the experiment station we began on 
the 18th of November, putting cuttings of apple trees in propagating 
house. We cut five sections of each. Fifteen days later we put out 
five more sections of each variety, and again in fifteen days put out 
more of each variety, and so we have continued to the present time, 
and expect to continue right along until spring. We find that the 
crabs and hybrids have started into leaf, and that none of the Rus- 
sians have yet started. When we take the transverse sections of the 
Russians, we find them thoroughly ripened up like the currant. We 
find that the starch has settled away, indicating that they are ripened, 
and that the tree is at rest. You cannot start a currant bush into 
growth after it has ripened its wood in August. I have tried it in 
the cutting bench, but failed to get them to start. If trees do not 
start in fall it is a sign that they are at rest, and ripened; and if they 
do start it is a sure sign that they are not ripened. We tried to start 
a number of other things in green- house, but when wood was well 
ripened we could not start them into growth. It is in the spring sea- 
son that the cambium layer gets slippery enough to start, and then 
the freezing does the damage. I have seen Ben Davis bark burst 
from the wood. We must have trees that will lie dormant until 
spriDg. 

C. L. Watrous: I wonld like to have the Captain tell us how they 
obtained their varieties of the apple in Russia. 

R. P. Speer: It is merely a surmise with me, but Russia is an old 
country, and apples were carried further and further north, gradually 
and in the course of many generations they were carried to the Volga, 
four hundred miles east of Moscow. Thick leaves are an indication 



8 



58 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



of hardiness. The hardy varieties were obtained by selecting the 
hardiest and best, until after many hundreds of years they got many 
hardy varieties. There will be hardy varieties in abundance pro- 
duced here, but we will not be here to see them. 

H. W. Lathrop: Somebody else will be here to see them, and get 
the good of them. 

R. P. Speer: We can take silken leaf, and such varieties as Roman 
Stem, and by crossing them, get what we want; but it will take time, 
as only a few out of a great number produced will be suited to our 
needs. 

C. G. Patten: I wish to make a remark, and that is, that it makes 
no difference what a man's theories are, if facts are against him. If 
a tree has a leaf as big as a cabbage leaf, and is tender, the theory of 
big or thick leaves amount to nothing. If an orchard was dead in 
the spring, would you go on planting the'same varities again? When 
a man stunds up and tells that thick-leaved trees will stand, when the 
facts are against him, what does it amount to? I do not believe it 
wisdom to throw aWay a thing that is good, and known to be good, 
for something that is unknown. I have no faith in any variety until 
we have tried it. 

S. L. Morrison: I have had twenty-one years' experience in south- 
ern Iowa; we used to talk about a great fruit country back east, but 
I think we can raise as good fruit here. It may be as Captain Speer 
said, that hardiness has more to do than location, and that location 
does not make much difference; but in southern Iowa it is useless to 
try to grow an orchard on southwest exposure. We must select 
varieties suitable to our locality, then we can raise as good fruit as 
they can in Ohio. Trees shipped from our locality to western Iowa 
do not do well. If we pay more attention to varieties suitable to 
locality, we will do better. 

R. P. Speer: I tried to make it appear that it did make a great 
difference, and a tree may fail in one locality and within five miles 
may do well. In Harrison county many varieties do well that fail 
elsewhere in same latitude. Where I live I can grow Red Jacket 
strawberry successfully, and on other grounds within twenty rods, 
cannot grow them at all. Mr. Patten says that I got thirty varieties; 
I got seventy- six varieties at one time. At four years some were kill- 
ing, and some were so small that I threw away all but fourteen varie- 
ties. I have as little faith as Mr. Patten has in many of the Russian 
varieties. Roman Stem and Fameuse have come nearer giving satis- 



TOP GRAFTING. 



59 



faction than any others of the old list. I can make a list of ninety 
varieties of Russian apples that are not adapted to Iowa. 

Mr. Patten assumed the chair as President. 

Mr. N. K. Fluke read a paper on top grafting: 



TOP GRAFTING. 



BY N. K. FLUKE, DAVENPORT. 



The topic assigned me is in its general principles familiar to all. And I 
will acknowledge my inability to prepare a paper that will enter into the 
problems, the rules of which rule and govern tree -growths and their unions 
with each other. May be my honored friend, Mr. Speer, (I see he is down 
for a paper on the same subject) will touch on this phase of the subject 
which he is well qualified to do. What I may have to say may not be new 
to you, but I will deal with the most practical part, that we can readily see. 

Top grafting, or budding, has been practiced away back in time for the 
continuation and increase of seedling fruits which were thought worthy of 
preservation. I think I speak advisedly when I say that within the memory 
of some here present; root,graf ting was not practiced to any extent in the 
propagation of trees for orchard planting. 

The desire to grow cheap, clean, straight trees, was the prompting motive 
which led those who first engaged in it, not thinking that climatic condi- 
tions, over which they had no control, would make any difference on the 
life of a tree whether grown as a root or top grafted tree. In the eastern 
and southeastern States with their mild or moist winter weather, trees 
grown on stocks or roots grown from our common apple seed proved hardy 
or adapted to their surroundings. But we of the west found that here by 
root grafting a hardy variety it generally stood longer than a tree of the 
same variety budded or top grafted on promiscuous seedlings. Thus the 
lesson was learned that the indiscriminate use of seedling stocks was haz- 
ardous, and that only such varieties could be used as a stock to top-work on 
which were known to be hardy, and in other ways adapted for the purpose, 
and these stocks must of necessity be grown as root grafts. 

To top work varieties on stocks grown from seed of a well known hardy 
tree, you ma> not get as large a proportion of tender stocks as from trees 
grown from seed of indiscriminate selection. Even seedlings of the Duch- 
ess and other fairly hardy kinds have with me proven unfit by blight and 
winter killing. And if stocks are used from seeds of the Siberian crab 
family, they may be more or less imperfect in their union with our culti- 
vated varieties, or subject to blight which is very common to them. 



60 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Then when we consider the question of stocks from seed of apples or 
crabs grown in France or any other country having as mild a climate, we 
cannot have the least hope that they will stand our erratic climate. All are 
familiar with the climatic conditions in which they are grown with their 
warm, even temperature, and no such extremes as we experience. How 
anyone that ever gave the question a thought (after the experience we have 
learned in the last ten or fifteen years) could use them and expect them to 
stand, I never could see, when our own seedlings grown under very trying 
conditions are not able to stand the test. 

What are suitable stocks? This is a question that is easier to ask than to 
answer, and can only be known by experiment and proven by continued 
experience. That one stock may be found that will prove good to work all 
varieties on, is not to be supposed. A stock may prove hardy, a good 
grower, may make a perfect union, and produce a shy bearer. Another 
stock may grow freely while young, when at maturity almost cease growing 
and so be imperfect under a large top. The Duchess and some of the Si- 
berians I think will prove this under vigorous growers. The Duchess is 
also an inveterate sprouter below the collar. 

Here are five conditions mentioned that are necessary in a successful 
stock. In the absence of either one there would be a failure. 

The Wealthy unites well with many kinds, but lacks a great essential 
hardiness. Mr. Gideon says of the Wealthy grown on crab stocks, *■ The 
fruit was not large, and few would have known they were Wealthy." 

An apple grown and used some as a stock around West Liberty, the 
Shreve, is a large-growing tree of apparently hardy constitution, a shy 
bearer on its own roots, but when used as a stock has proven a fruitful 
stock for all the varieties which have been worked on it. How it would 
succeed when moved further north, will be known only by trial. 

Varieties worked on Duchess and Haas have proven shy bearers. The 
Koman Stem, while not hardy enough, has been a prolific stock. The Rus- 
sians may furnish us some good stocks to work other varieties on, but these 
will only be known by an extended trial. Hardiness is only one of the 
requisites needed. 

The Virginia has proven the most satisfactory with me. It has un- 
doubted hardiness, a good grower, trees planted for fruit attain very large 
size, and makes a perfect union with everything so far tried except the Sou- 
lard crab. The Golden Russet has been a shy bearer; but everything else 
has borne bountifully on it. 

I am now trying a large Native crab for a stock. It is a good grower and 
makes a perfect union with our cultivated apples, as far as tried. Its wood 
is not so hard as the Soulard and whiter in color, and much of the charac- 
ter of the Virginia. 

Mr. J. V. Cotta, of Nursery, 111., has been using Whitney's No. 20, Mil- 
ton, Duchess, Wealthy, Lake Winter, Briar Sweet, Aztalan, Kenyon and 
Homestead for some time as root-grafted stocks, but has discarded all but 
the four first mentioned. He considers Whitney as the best for general 
purposes, for the varieties top worked on it. Of 70 varieties worked on 



TOP GRAFTING. 



61 



Whitney, 46 made a perfect union, 17 slightly overgrew the stock, 7 too 
large an overgrowth. His experience is not extended enough to judge of 
of their longevity or fruitfulness. 

DISCTJ8SION. 

Prof. Budd: I have been giving some attention for past five years 
to the question of influence of stock on early maturity of fruit. 
Many varieties are grafted on Duches stock, and, so far as I know, 
in all cases there is a tendency to early ripening of fruit. Mr. Guil- 
ford, at Dubuque, had Ben Davis grafted on Duchess, that was ripe 
in October. Mr. Speer says he only knows of one successful combi- 
nation — Dper on Duchess. I have two successful combinations — 
Grimes' Golden on Whitney No. 20. We have had but little experi- 
ence with them, but fruit seems to ripen prematurely on that stock. 
We should at least select fall varieties for stocks. The Hibernal 
matures in autumn, and wherever used for stock promises to be very 
valuable. Mr. Fluke has a good stock in the so-called Virginia crab. 
Mr. Fluke, what is the season of the Virginia? 

N. K. Fluke: It is a fall variety, a little later than Transcendent. 

Prof. Budd. We have in Benton county kept them until late in 
the fall. How large are your trees, Mr. Fluke? 

N. K. Fluke: They are four feet in circumference and sixteen 
inches in diameter, having had twenty-two years' growth. 

Prof. Budd: The Virginia is not a Siberian crab. It makes a 
much larger tree, and differs essentially in leaf, bud, wood and fruit 
from the Siberians. It is a variety of the indigenous apples found 
towering up to the heights of timber trees of East Europe. In Hen- 
frey's Vegetation of Europe, this type of the apple and timber grow- 
ing pears of East Europe are frequently noted. We have the best 
reasons for believing that it will make an excellent stock for many of 
our hardier varieties of the old list. 

Motion to adjourn to 7 p. m. 

Carried. 



62 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



EVENING SESSION — FIRST DAY. 
Called to order pursuant to adjournment. 

On motion, Mr. Chas. Patterson, of Kirkville, Mo., and C. C. Bell, 
of Booneville, Mo., were voted honorary membership. 

Mr. Bell thanked the Society for the honor conferred, and said he 
hoped this Society would send delegates to the Missouri Society. 

Mr. Patterson also thanked the Society for the honor conferred 
upon him, and said that while the methods for planting and caring 
for orchards was different in the two States, each could learn much 
from the other. We have one advantage over Iowa horticulturists, 
as we can raise many varieties that you cannot raise. It seems that 
the Iowa horticulturists have not visited the Missouri Society as 
much as they have other societies. We would be very glad to have 
you attend our meetings. Our summer meeting, the past summer, 
was held so near to your State that we hoped to see several of your 
members at our meeting; but we were disappointed, as not one was 
present. 

Geo. Van Houten: I had fully intended attending the summer 
meeting of the Missouri Horticultural Society, held at Oregon; but 
my old enemy, rheumatism, prevented my going. Some years ago I 
attended the winter meeting of the Missouri Horticultural Society, 
held at Warrensburg, and must say that I received a hearty welcome 
and enjoyed the meeting very much. It is true that in Missouri they 
can raise many varieties that we cannot successfully grow. But I 
happen to remember that in making up lists by individuals, as they 
have a habit of doing, I think every one recommended Duchess. At 
that time there was no apple in Missouri more highly recommended, 
unless it was the Ben Davis. Missouri has much in oommon in fruit 
growing with Southern Iowa, and the people of Southern Iowa, in 
my opinion, can learn more from Missouri, horticulturally speaking, 
than in any other State outside of our own. I hope this Society will 



PRESIDENT'S ADDKESS. 



63 



appoint a delegate to the Missouri Society, and maintain the cordial- 
ity existing between the two societies. 

The President called Mr. Secor, Vice-President, to the chair. 

Mr. Hinckley moved that the President appoint a committee to 
procure plates for the fruit display, and that a superintendent be ap- 
pointed to take care of the fruit. 

Carried. 

President Patten read his address, as follows: 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



Members and Friends of the State Horticultural Society: 

1 bid you a cordial greeting. We have come up to our annual feast bring- 
ing the year's experience with us. But our feasting is not with wine, not 
with strong drink. We bring no emblems that shadow forth blight, degre- 
dation and destruction of men. 

But we come in the strength and purity of a noble purpose, in the gran- 
deur of true manhood. 

I cannot forbear to say for the great honor of this society that during the 
sixteen years that I have met with you, I have never seen a member of this 
society whose intellect was clouded with that slayer of humanity, strong 
drink. 

We come here to supplement the efforts of all other earnest workers in 
the cause of humanity, to build up the home. To make the flowers more 
beautiful and abundant, to make the shrubs more numerous and more per- 
fect. We come to embellish the streets and parks and home grounds with 
the beautiful trees of all lands that are sufficiently adapted to our climate. 
In a word, we are here to encircle the home with all the emblems of culture 
and refinement that grow out of horticultural art. 

As a society we may well take courage and congratulate ourselves upon 
the progress that we have made. 

Our experiments have already very largely determined what we can, and 
what we cannot do. 

Our failures also teach us lessons, and make us, as they no doubt will, 
tolerant of opposing views. We have ample funds to carry forward any ex- 
periments that we deem to be good for the best interests of the State. 

DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 

Our action in giving material aid to the district societies, has, I believe, 
met with universal approval, and I earnestly recommend that you increase 
the annual appropriation to $150 to each of three district societies. 



64 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



A premium is often considered of far more value than the dollars and 
cents that it represents; and by offering small premiums upon a large 
variety of horticultural products, these societies will be enabled to enlist 
the interest of many producers, and add largely to their active member- 
ship. 

EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS. 

We are asking, and will continue to ask an increasing amount of labor of 
our station experimenters. They cannot afford to do so much without 
remuneration, and as we are able to at least partly compensate them for 
their services, it would be just and wise to do so. I would therefore recom- 
mend for your favorable consideration the payment, annually at our winter 
meetings, the sum of twenty- five dollars to each experimentor, who makes 
a report, under the rules of this society, and attend our annual meetings, 
and the sum of fifteen dollars to those who report, but do not attend our 
meetiDg. These experimentors are men whose presence at our yearly meet- 
ings will be a great benefit to the horticultural welfare of the State, and I 
doubt not that under such an arrangement there would be a general attend- 
ance. Some of them have but little pecuniary interest in horticulture, and 
if they have they may not feel able to incur the expense that the journey 
imposes upon them. These men are doing valuable labor both for the pres- 
ent and future horticulture, and so far as we are able, their services should 
receive some substantial recognition. 

FORESTRY. 

1 cannot let this occasion go by without calling your attention to this 
subject; but so much has been said and written upon it, and so eloquently, 
too, that I cannot hope to do more than again call your attention to a sub- 
ject that has in it so much of the future of horticulture. 

Every person who has given considerable thought to this subject, agrees 
with every other one, that it is one of vast national importance. But after 
all that has been said upon it, there seems to be a general lack of informa- 
tion and appreciation of its magnitude and bearing both for the present, 
and for reaching the future of our State and nation. Statesmen, scientists 
and specialists in forestry, in agriculture, in horticulture, men of the high- 
est intelligence, have appealed to the averice of men, to their intelligence, 
to their patriotism, to their love of humanity, to plant trees and stay the 
waster of our forests; they have pointed them to countries that were once 
fruitful and prosperous, but now barren aud desolate because the land has 
been robbed of its forests. 

But still the work of destruction goes on, and there seems to be no way 
of reaching permanent and satisfactory results upon this all commanding 
subject, but through the general information of the people. Practical in- 
formation in reference to tree planting should be tanght in our schools, and 
in some way the earnest attention of the whole public should be directed 
to it. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



65 



The merchant, the mechanic, the artisan, the men who are directly en- 
gaged in the commerce of the country, and especially every farmer and 
landholder, and those who are intrusted with our State and national legis- 
lation, should become profoundly interested in it. 

The economic and climatic value of trees, and a love for trees, should be 
taught in all the schools, and in every newspaper of our land. It should be 
one of the most important topics for discussion at our Farmers' Institute 
and Horticultural and Agricultural Societies and should give it far greater 
prominence, and by and by public sentiment would crystal] ze into law, and 
the intelligence and conscience of the people would sustain it. 

Land owners should realize that there is a financial profit in planting 
trees, and that it is a duty, aye, a religious duty, to do it. 

We do not live for ourselves alone, and while we plant wisely for our- 
selves, we should also plant wisely for the generations that come after us. 
The dictates of a far-reaching economy will foster and even command the 
planting of trees and forests. 

The future agricultural and horticultural prosperity of the State and 
nation waits upon the planting of trees, and arresting the needless waste of 
our glorious woodlands. All the industries, the arts, the sciences, and the 
highest State of civilization will ever go hand in hand with an exalted esti- 
mate of the importance of tree and forest planting. 

There is another subject that has a direct and weighty influence upon the 
progress of horticulture, to which I will call your attention. It is not a 
new subject to this Society, but neither its age, or what we have done, or 
that we are still doing, detracts anything from its importance, or lessens 
our obligation to redouble our efforts for the accomplishment of the 
greatly desired results, to-wit: The production of new fruits that are 
adapted to Iowa. 

Upon this subject I wish to speak with great care, but if I speak with 
earnestness, you will understand the pressing necessities for earnest speech 
and action, and if there has ever been any jealousies or unharmonies, in 
reference to the best methods of obtaining fruits that are especially adapted 
to our climate, the time has come when they should be dismissed and for- 
ever forgotten. 

We are situated nearly in the center of the finest agricultural regions 
upon the earth. Nature has showered upon us her choicest material gifts, 
she has given us a soil of marvelous fertility, easily cultivated and generally 
capable of enduring great extremes of drought and rain-fall. 

She has placed us nearly midway between the steaming waters of the 
Gulf of Mexico, with a constant temperature of about 75 degrees above, 
and a winter temperature in the southern dominion of Canada of 60 degrees 
below, and between the great lakes and the barren elevated plains that skirt 
the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains. 

Dr. Hinrichs told us last year, in his truly valuable paper on the Climatol- 
ogy of Eastern Europe and the Upper Mississippi Valley, that the highly 
heated air of this great continental expanse produced the northerly flow of 



9 



66 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



winds that carried the moisture of the gulf all over the Mississippi valley, 
where it descends in fertilizing rains, making it the best watered valley in 
the world. 

High temperature and abundant moisture are the two great essentials for 
the development of the highest quality of fruits. 

Right here lies the secret of that " luxuriant foliage and great abundance 
of fruits, of the apple, plum, grapes, cherries and berries that grew in all 
the groves along the streams and in all the copses that were scattered all 
over the prairies of primitive Iowa" that Mr. Lathrop told us about at our 
last annual meeting under the misnomered (if I may be allowed to coin a 
word) title of his paper, " Decline and Death of Orchards." It should have 
been " The Bow that Spans our Horticultural Horizon." 

In the facts that I have briefly set forth I find the most assuring hope of 
a great horticultural future for our State. How to soonest realize this hope 
is the question before us. 

Some of the finest apples of the United States or of the world have been 
and are still, valuable in Iowa The Grimes, Golden and the Willow Twig 
will long hold a place in Southern Iowa, and they originated in Virginia. 

The Jonathan originated in New York, and the Ben Davis in Kentucky. 
The Roman Stem, that is so valuable over more than one-half of our State, 
and that- in favorable locations in Floyd county has lived to be nearly thirty 
years old, originated in New Jersey. The Talman Sweet, that long bore 
heavy crops in our northeastern river counties, and that I have seen at 
thirty years old in Wisconsin, one hundred miles west of Lake Michigan, 
bearing thirty bushels of apples in one season, had its origin in Rhode 
Island. I might mention Fameuse, St. Lawrence and other varieties, that 
in favorable localities in Northern Iowa have for years given reasonable 
satisfaction. 

Is there no value found in the knowledge of the origin of these apples? 
Remember that nearly all of them originated in climates that are far more 
favorable for fruit culture than ours, and that they are the direct offspring 
of the best race of apples that the world has yet produced. 

I have never seen but one apple that originated in Eastern, Western or 
Southern Europe that would thrive even passably well anywhere in Iowa, 
that to my taste is equal in quality to the Fameuse. That apple is the Ger- 
man Borsdorf , and it has not one- fourth the value for Iowa of any apple that 
I have named. 

Shall we rely wholly upon crossing these varieties with a lower race of 
hardier trees, bearing a much lower quality of fruit? or shall we learn wis- 
dom, as it were, almost wholly from blind chance, that has produced these 
excellent apples that are so nearly adapted to Iowa, and to so large a portion 
of this upper Mississippi valley? 

While we are planting the seeds of the hardiest varieties of foreign origin 
and cross-fertilizing them with our best sorts, shall we not imitate nature, 
and plant with an unsparing hand, not as she does, the good and poor alike, 
but selecting the best seeds from the choicest inbred apples of homogeneous 
production and plant them with the liberality that will in the near future 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



67 



^accomplish our purpose and challenge the admiration of every ardent worker 
for the present and future good Let them be planted not alone at our Ag- 
ricultural College, not alone at our experiment stations, or at exceptional 
places, but in every township, in every county, and by ten thousand farmers 
and horticulturists throughout the State, always avoiding as much as possi- 
ble the influence of the pollen from inferior seedlings or grafted sorts. 
Plant them thus, and if the examples of high perfection that have come to 
us through chance have any value, if the conclusions of gardeners and nat- 
uralists and scientific breeders of animals and plants is not a myth, then 
there can be no doubt of the issue 

Recently myself and others were asked by a respected Horticulturist 
through a public journal: ' " If you had imported Russian seeds would you 
not plent them with greater confidence in the result than if planting the 
seeds of American varieties?" 

I know no better place to answer this question than in a State Horticul- 
tural meeting, and I answer it with an emphatic Nol 

First. Because we have the best of the Russian apples already fruiting 
under the genial influence of our summer skies; and the climate of America 
is noted for its prod uction of the highest quality of fruit. 

Second. Because Dr. Hinrichs showed from the best scientific observa- 
tions, that the climatic conditions in the region from which these apples 
came, resemble Michigan: Northern Wisconsin, Minnesota and Dakota, 
but not Iowa. 

Third. Because the accumulated evidence of horticulturists throughout 
this country, proves beyond a doubt, that fruits almost always succeed best 
when planted near the place of their origin, which by the way— is a strong 
argument in support of the general planting that I have advised. 

I should expect better results from the seeds of one bushel of each of 
Iowa grown Tetofsky, Duchess, Wealthy, St. Lawrence, Fameuse, Perry 
and Golden Russet, Jonathan, Utters Red, Grimes' Golden, Willow, Ben 
Davis, Talman Sweet and Iowa Blush, than from all the seeds that have 
been produced, in all parts of Europe, in a most fruitful year. 

Faither; let us hope that this society will not adjourn without instructing 
its committee on seedlings, or appointing another, whose duty it shall be to 
purchase, at least five bushels each, of the best and most nearly adapted 
cherries and plums, that are grown in Iowa next summer; and also as many 
pears, of the best seedlings to be grown by him, one year, and the trees dis- 
tributed to our Experimental Stations, and to other horticulturists, who 
will undertake to grow them. 

Friends, you know the urgent necessities for this work; shall we not per- 
form it? I believe we shall, and that the results will surely gratify a 
worthy ambit'on, and return a thousand fold, in pecuniary value for every 
dollar that it has cost. 



68 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



POMOLOGHCAt SOCIETY. 

It seems desirable that our State should be represented in the National 
Pomological meeting to be held in Florida next month. 

We cannot, as a society, afford to be unrepresented at such national meet- 
ings. And I call your attention to it, that you may act upon it, and ex- 
press your pleasure in reference to it. 

In conclusion, it becomes my sad duty to announce that since our last 
meeting, one of the oldest and most respected horticulturists of the State, 
has passed to the " life beyond." Mr. A. J. Haviland, of Fort Dodge. He 
had met with us many years and will be greatly missed in the councils of 
horticulture. You will therefore take such action as is appropriate to the 
occasion. 

Motion by H. W. Lathrop that the President's address be referred 
to a committee, and that the committee be appointed by t the Chair. 
Carried. 

Prof. Budd read a paper entitled, "Air Drainage, Air Circulation 
and Culture of Orchard Trees," as follows: 



AIR DRAINAGE, AIR CIRCULATION, AND CULTURE OF OR- 
CHARD TREES. 



BY PROF. J. L. BUDD, AMES. 



Mr. President and members: 

The topic assigned me in programme is "observations on the horticulture 
of the Pacific coast." 

Some of the peculiar features of California horticulture were noted in a 
paper read by request before the eastern society on the "Relative profits of 
fruit growing in California and Iowa," hence, at this time I ask permission 
to speak of some generally recognized principles underlying profitable or- 
charding on the Pacific coast which have been too generally overlooked iD 
Iowa. 

Air drainage— I think this expression is more common on the west coast 
than with us, but it will be quite generally understood to mean a selection 
of orchard site that will permit a flow of cool night air and fogs to a lower 
adjacent level. 

The observing tourist in California will soon notice that the finest orchards 
are on the higher mesa lands toward the foot hills, and the would- be pur- 



AIR DRAINAGE, AIR CIRCULATION, ETC. 



69 



chaser finds that such lands are held at prices that seem ridiculous when 
compared with the price of the lower and richer valley lands. 

During the progress of the boom in South California the extreme desira- 
bility of confining commercial fruit growing to the higher levels has been 
disregarded, and tens of thousands of acres of oranges, lemons, apples, pears, 
cherries, plums, peaches, grapes, etc., have been planted from Los Angelos 
south to Pomona, which are proving a heavy bill of expense to the planters. 

The trees and vines live and bear fruit if given the needed culture and 
water, but there is little or no home demand, and the grade and quality is 
too low Cor shipment, canning or making into wine or raisens, for a very 
distant market. In the case of oranges and lemons on these lower levels, 
the low quality is not the only trouble, as often the foliage and fruit are in- 
jured by frosts which do not reach the higher mesa lands. 

With increased experience the growers of apples, pears, cherries, plums, 
apricots and strawberries are finding that the highest grades in quality must 
be grown in South California in the mountainous valleys with an elevation 
of from two to four thousand feet With these temperate zone fruits the 
question is one of intensity of summer heat, as well as air drainage. 

In Northern California fruit growers are also discovering that the gilt 
edged fruits are now grown in the valleys north of Oakland and Sacramento 
at an elevation above the bay of from 800 to 2,000 feet. 

Air circulation. —Critical observation will also exhibit the fact that brisk 
air circulation has also much to do with the health of the trees and the per- 
fection of fruits in the Golden State. Neither the relative elevation nor the 
character of soil will explain the fact that the oranges and lemons of River- 
side, the Red Lands, Colton, and a few other points in south California, are 
free from fungus spots, and in all respects clean and bright, while those at 
other points with about the same elevation, and on about the same volcanic 
waste soil, are low in grade and the trees infested with scale. The not very 
gentle breath of the desert, which at such points come through the passes 
of the Sierra Nevada range, often scouring the foliage with sand-storms 
that would not discredit the Sahara Desert, may not be pleasant or desirable 
lor the ease-loving tourists, but it is surely a blessing to those who expect 
to make a living by growing the citrus fruits. 

Other things being equal, the not sheltered position is found the least 
desirable for the orchards fruits in all parts of California west of the Sierras * 
and the points that have the best air drainage and the freest air circulation 
are the best. 

Culture.— With the culture given here to orchards no man in California 
would expect to realize enough from his fruit trees to pay for the water 
needed for irrigation. 

Through the season the culture is as thorough and continuous as is that 
we give to our cornfields, and long experience has shown that it is as imper- 
atively needed as is our corn culture. Even at the north, where irrigation 
is less needed, the culture of commercial and amateur orchards is an abso- 
lute requisite to success. 

Incidentally it may be well to add that what we call sun-scald of stem is 



70 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



well known in the land of continued green foliage. Even the citrus fruits 
are liable to injury on the south side of the stems prior to attaining a full 
spread of top. Hence experienced orchardists now favor low stems, and 
the protection of the stems until the tops make sufficient shade, by wrap- 
ping, or with " shakes " stuck in the ground. 

I need hardly say that in trying to apply these essential conditions of west 
coast orcharding in Iowa, we do not find similar reasons for fruit tree grub- 
bing. 

In the lower valleys from San Francisco south to Pomona they are grub- 
bing up tens of thousands of acres— or contemplating the work— of the 
citrus and other fruits, not because the trees are dead or fruitless, but for 
the reason that the fruit borne is scabbed or in other ways too low in grade 
for profitable shipment to distant markets. On the other hand, we are grub- 
bing out dead trees, or those so low in vitality as to be neither ornamental or 
useful. 

As to the matter of varieties, it may be said we are searching for those 
that will live and bear in our climate, and the west coast fruit-growers are 
as eagerly searching for the varieties which on their best soils will produce 
regular crops of gilt-edged fruit that will bring profitable returns from dis- 
tant points of shipment 

In both sections horticulture is still experimental. With systematic 
growing, handling and shipping, we now realize the largest profits from our 
thousands of acres of small fruits in the west, and in the near future, when 
our hardy lists are better perfected, we expect to realize as much from our 
orchard crops. Although our average yield may be less it will cost us far 
less to market it. 

But if we reach this happy consummation of our hopes, and a plentiful 
supply of home grown fruits, we must ever keep in mind the Pacific Slope 
ideas of air drainage, air circulation, low stems, shaded stems, and orchard 
culture at least in the first stages of growth. 

For our commercial orchards we must look to wholly unsheltered sites on 
the higher bluff lands of our streams, on the prairie divides between our 
rivers, and on the high moraines found here and there over our State. In 
the location of home orchards on the prairies, the points most perfectly 
above the frost and fog lines should be chosen for the orchard, and the 
thought must ever be kept in mind that tree windbreaks are desirable to 
protect the home grounds, but the orchard needs all the air movement from the 
west and north it can get 

As to the stems, experience in all countries now favor low heads, the set- 
ting of the trees at a marked angle toward the 1 o'clock sun, encouraging 
the heaviest top on the south side, and even screening the trunk on the 
south side until the spread of top will sufficiently protect from sun scalding. 

As to culture, we may not need the continued stirring of the soil required 
in drier climates, but all experience favors stirring the soil in the early part 
of the season in young orchards, and shading the soil with a crop of buck- 
wheat during July and August. 



AIR DRAINAGE, AIR CIRCULATION, ETC. 



71 



Our experience also favors the idea that seeding down after the trees come 
into bearing is attended wich grave difficulties in the way of hardening, dry- 
ing and impoverishing the soil on which the trees must feed and perfect 
their crops. 

If we must seed down manure liberally, and leave all the grass on the ground 
in the latter part of the season,feeding it off with calves, hogs, or sheep, up 
to the first of July. 

The reasons why airy positions above the light frost lines are best for or- 
chards, and why fruit trees in rather low sheltered positions are neither sat- 
isfactory in fruit or tree, must be inferred if not known, as I have already 
reached the limits of a paper that any one will read. 

DISCUSSION. 

J. Thatcher: Do they succeed in raising good berries in Southern 
California? 

Prof. Budd : I noticed that orchard management was changing. In 
some of the elevated valleys, two thousand to four thousand feet 
above the sea, they escape many of the disadvantages encountered in 
the low lands, and they raise as fine strawberries as I ever saw any 
where; so with pears and other fruits. 

J. Thatcher: I found it the same way in Northern California. 

H. W. Lathrop: I would like to ask Prof. Budd if the fruit grow- 
ers are having trouble in Southern California? 

Prof. Bund: Yes, grapes are not doing well on low lands, but on 
high land, where air drainage is good, they grow fruit successfully. 

In the low valleys, the temperature is cold, as the air settles at 
night. Some of these valleys have fogs, but away off toward the 
mountains they are not troubled with fog, and can raise good grapes, 
and can dry them without artificial heat. 

J. Thatcher: Many people have been misled by glowing discrip- 
tions of fruit growing in Southern California. There has been a great 
boom in that country; but a man who leaves Iowa to go to California 
takes big chances. Except on citrous fruits and grapes, we can raise 
a better quality of fruit than they can in California. 

H. W. Lathrop: Tastes differ; some like out grapes better than 
California grapes; I do myself. 

Silas Wilson: I recently visited my old home in the Ohio valley. 
They raise fine apples on low land, but better apples on the high land, 
and they keep better and longer. Now, there is an other matter that 
I wish to speak about, in regard to the question of the quality of 
grapes, referred to by Mr. Lathrop. In October Mr. Reed, an exten- 



72 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



sive fruit grower in California, on his way to New York and Boston 
to dispose of fruit, stopped awhile with me. I had some very fine 
Wealthy, Fall Wine, Maiden Blush, Rambo and perhaps a few other 
varieties of apples, and he said to me that they were the finest apples 
he ever saw. I had some Worden grapes, and he said they were 
ahead of the grapes they had in California. 

George W. Shaw: In selling pears I have had to give a certificate 
that they were not California pears, as ours are better. 

J. Thatcher: California pears shipped here are not as good as 
pears in California, as they must be picked before ripe in order to 
reach their destination in condition to be sold. 

Acting President appointed the following committee on President's 
address: H. W. Lathrop, R. P. Speer and A. F. Coleman. 

On motion of H. W. Lathrop the report of Secretary to be referred 
to the same committee. 

Acting President Secor announced the following committee for 
procuring plates for fruit and a janitor for fruit room: C. L. Wat- 
rous and John Wragg. 

President Patten assumed the chair as president. 

H. W. Lathrop: I think we should appoint a committe consisting 
of Mr. Watrous and Mr. Wilson, to present the matter of forestry 
preservation to the legislature, and if necessary prepare a bill and 
have some plan presented tp preserve our native forests, and induce 
the planting of new ones. Mr. President I make this as a motion. 
The motion was seconded and on motion of B. F. Ferris amended by 
adding Mr. Lathrop to the Committee. 

Motion carried. 

C. L. Watrous: Since we are on the subject of forestry I think it 
well for our Horticultural Society to say something on lumber tariff. 
I remember some years ago I wrote a letter to Senator Allison on this 
subject, and he wrote me, that in order to get the votes of certain 
men in lumber regions for measures of interest to us it was necessary 
to retain the tariff on lumber. 

I will move that it is the sense of this society that the entire tariff 
on lumber should be repealed. 

Motion seconded. 

Silas Wilson: If the tariff should be repealed I do not believe it 
would make lumber any cheaper. 

Geo. Van Houten: I am opposed to the question being considered 
by this Society. During the past several months we have heard the 



AIR DRAINAGE, AIR CIRCULATION, ETC. 



73 



question of tariff vigorously discussed. It is really a political ques- 
tion, and I am opposed to its consideration. I am also opposed to the 
resolution on general principals; like Mr. Wilson I do not believe the 
removal of the tariff would materially reduce the price of lumber. 
Canada now has an export duty on logs which are on our free list, 
and if lumber be put on the free list they may put an export duty 
on lumber. Free trade has a tendency to unsettle prices rather than 
to make cheaper goods for a continued length of time. 

J. M. Proutty: I agree with the secretary and I oppose the discus- 
sion of the question. It is a political question and for that reason I 
oppose it. We produce no pine lumber and import no hard wood 
lumber. The question before this society is timber and groves for 
Iowa, and I do not think that a national question. 

J. J. Smart: I am surprised at the gentleman for saying we have 
no pine timber in Iowa. In several of the northeastern counties of 
Iowa we have pine timber, and should have more. 

C. L. Watrous: I never thought of bringing any political dis- 
cussion into this meeting. I am surprised that men look at it in the 
way they do. It seems that some are blinded by politics, and can 
look at questions only from political standpoints. I never thought of 
such a thing as that there could be any difference of opinion on this 
subject. My only object was to devise some means of preserving our 
native forests, and induce our people to plant new ones. 

Geo. Van Houten moved to lay the motion on the table, which mo- 
tion prevailed. 

C.C.Bell: This reminds me that at our Missouri Horticultural 
meeting a resolution was introduced reccomending Hon. Norman J. 
Coleman, present Commissioner of Agriculture, to the favorable con- 
sideration of the incoming administration for a cabinet appointment, 
or appointment to his present position. The resolution stirred up sucl 
a discussion that it was withdrawn. (Applause.) 

Prof. Budd: The Honey locust has been overlooked in selecting 
trees for general planting. Scald the seed and plant while moist. It 
is a satisfaction next time you go to see them in a few days, to find the 
young plants about four inches high and out of the way of weeds. 

H. W. Lathrop: And quite a satisfaction (?) the next time you go 
to see them, to find that the potato bugs have eaten them up. 

J. J. Smart: That accounts for the destruction of many of my 



10 



74 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



trees. The young trees disappeared and I could not determine the 
cause of destruction. 

On motion the society adjourned until 9 a. m. to-morrow. 



WEDNESDAY— SECOND DAY— MORNING SESSION. 



Society met pursuant to adjournment. 

The President announced the following named gentlemen as Obit- 
uary Committee, H. Strohm, H. W. Lithrop, J. L. Budd, J. Thather 
and R. P. Speer. 

C. L. Watrous, in behalf of Bardell & Haviland, presented the so- 
ciety a unique collection of different varieties of apple wood, so ar- 
ranged as to show the damage and discoloration, if any, to the 
respective varieties by cold. There were a large number of varieties, 
including Russians, Gideon's Seedlings and many common varieties. 
Mr. Watrous said that this was the work, in large part, of the father 
of W. C. HaviJand, the lamented A. J. Haviland, who in the last days 
of his life expressed great anxiety that the work should be completed 
as soon as possible, and presented to this society. 

Geo. Van Houten moved that we accept the valuable collection, and 
that a vote of thanks be tendered Messrs. Bardell and Haviland for 
the gift. 

Motion carried unanimously. 

Report of Second District, by F. H. Bruning: 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF SECOND DISTRICT. 



F. H. BRUNING, KENT. 

In making my report for this district I shall be brief. 

The apple crop with us was not more than half a crop; what there were 
were poor and scabby and moth eaten. The price ranged from 30 to 50 cents 
per bushel. 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF SECOND DISTRICT. 



75 



Mo3t of the orchards are in poor condition; the trees have been neglected 
and allowed to grow up in weeds, and the bark louse has taken possession 
for the last few years, but I am glad to state that by close examination I 
find out that most of the bark lice have disappeared in my orchard, which 
I think is mostly due to excessively heavy rains in June and the first of 
July. 

A good many of the old varieties have died out, but there are some trees 
that have stood the test for about thirty years, and are still in good condi- 
tion, of which I would mention the Cole's Quince for one; Dutchess, Sweet 
June, Daniel, St Lawrence, Mollie's Favorite Hass, the Wine Apple, Ful- 
ton, Jannet, Jonathan, Tallman Sweet and Willow Twig. 

The planting of young orchards and forest trees has been much neglected. 

Pears were a failure on account of late freezing; the same can be said of 
plums. 

Cherries there were none, the old trees nearly all dead or dying. We will 
have to resort to new kinds before we can expect much fruit. 

The grape crop at first promised fair. First came a dry spell followed by 
excessively heavy rains, which caused them to crack open; nearly half of the 
berries were cracked, which spoiled the balance, but the earlier brought a 
good price; all sorts cracked alike. 

Blackberries weie a good crop; mostly Snyder. 

Baspberries were a failure, currants and goose berries also. 

Strawberries about one-fourth crop. What there were were very poor. 
They were injured by late freezing. 

DISCUSSION. 

J. Thatcher: This is strong evidence that districting the State in 
three fruit districts is not the right thing to do. There is as much 
difference in longitude as there is in latitude. Last year I made the 
poorest report for the first district that was ever made for it. They 
made a good report last year. Now they make a poor report, and we 
make the best that we have made for some time. They report great 
injury from insects. Our fruit was free from insects and the best 
•crop we have had for several years. 

George W. Shaw: On Grand river divide our trees went into win- 
ter quarters in good shape. The fruit crop throughout Wayne, Lucas, 
Clarke and Decatur was the largest we have ever had. Apples are 
plenty now, and can be bought fey the car load at twenty- five cents per 
bushel. 

H. W. Lathrop: There must be something wrong when prices are 
so different in places so near together. Mr. Shaw says that with him 
apples are only worth twenty-five cents per bushel, and can be bought 
by the car load at that price. We had an immense crop, but not 



76 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



enough winter apples to do us. We are now using New York and 
Michigan apples, which sell with us at twenty five cents per peck. 
We should be able to get them from Garden Grove to Iowa City at 
seventy five cents per bushel, and give the transportation companies 
and dealers a fair profit. 

George W. Shaw: It cost me fifty three dollars to ship a car load 
of apples from Garden Grove to Des Moines; I have the receipt in 
my pocket. 

S. L. Morrison: Apples may do well in one locality, and same 
varieties fail in another. My brother sold an assorted car load of ap- 
ples at thirty cents per bushel. They were as nice apples as I ever saw 
grown, and they were clear of moth, while just across the country a 
few miles apples were badly moth eaten. 

George Van Houten: The question of the distribution of the fruit 
supply is a very important one. Some localities have a surplus of 
fruit, and yet cannot find a profitable market for it, on account of the 
high rates of transportation, and the unsatisfactory methods and com- 
missions of dealers. If fruit growers combine, and properly repre- 
sent their interests, as the nursery men did their interests, doubless 
we could get better rates and more expeditious handling of our pro- 
ducts. I refer to this matter in my report as Secretary, and hope 
some action will be taken, as with present arrangements even a good 
fruit crop may not prove profitable. 

Silas Wilson: This is not a new question; there has been short 
crops in the east part of the State for the past two or three years, 
while we in the west have a surplus, and the eastern part of the State 
has been getting fruit from Chicago. The railroads charge as much 
for a short distance in Iowa as they do from Chicago to the same des- 
tination. Nurserymen used to have to pay on nursery stock boxed 
first class rates, and then they forwarded it just when they saw fit. By, 
that classification, they compelled nurserymen to pay very heavy ad- 
ditional freight rates, because of the perishable nature of the goods, 
and then forwarded them when they saw fit. The American Nur- 
seryman's Association appointed committees, and called attention of 
the transportation companies to the injustice of the classification to 
producer and purchaser of nursery stock, and the result was that nur- 
sery stock was changed from first class to third class. This has been 
a great benefit to those who raise and to those who plant trees and 
other nursery stock. With present arrangements, if we have a sur- 
plus in any part of the State we can not supply them with our fruits, 



LANDSCAPING. 



77 



because of the discrimination made against us, because the shipments 
made outside of our own State, get better rates than we can get, even 
to near points. 

C. L. Watrous: I am glad to hear Mr. Wilson talk this way; he 
has fought this question in the legislature for two terms. I know if 
you take the sayings of certain newspapers as a guide we can do noth- 
ing. They call us a set of hot heads, and say the people are wrong, 
and abusing the railroads. But we are not going to submit. We are 
not going to agree to pay freight to Chicago and back again, on our 
products to a market in our own State, forty or fifty miles from the 
starting point, as we are now doing. 

James Underwood: There are so many ways to take advantage of 
the shipper we should be armed and ready for the attack in any di. 
rection. I once asked a dealer where he got his fruit, and he said, 
Michigan. After examining the fruit I came to the conclusion that 
it was not grown in Michigan, and I told him so. He then acknowl- 
edged that the apples were grown in southwest Iowa, but he said he 
sold it as Michigan fruit, because Michigan fruit had a better reputa- 
tion. Apples grown in Southwest Iowa and Missouri are fuully as 
good or better than Michigan apples, and are selling cheaper. 

Geo. Van Houten read the following paper on Landscaping: 



LANDSCAPING. 



BY GEO. VAN HOUTEN, LENOX. 



Whatever can be done to beautify and adorn, surely helps to purify and 
enoble. As no one can afford to be regardless of personal appearance, so 
no one can afford to be indifferent as to the surroundings of the home. 

As the coal-heaver and hod- carrier need not always be found in their 
soiled garments, so the man who owns land, whether he be poor or rich, 
can do at least something to add to the beauty of the landscape. There 
may be, and in fact must of necessity be, on all farms or village lots, places 
less attractive than others; yet even the manure pile need not necessarily 
be a pestilential cesspool of filth. Neither does it require a lavish expendi- 
ture of money to make home attractive. In fact, some of the most beauti- 
ful surroundings I have ever seen, and some of the most pleasing sensations 



78 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



I have ever experienced, was to find in some secluded or unexpected spot a 
combination of flowers and trees tastefully arranged; and possibly at a tri- 
fling outlay at first in money, but, with intelligent care, soon developing 
into objects worthy the admiration of any one. 

It is useless, in our busy, practical age, to advocate any elaborate system 
of adornment of home and home surroundings, because the masses— those 
I should desire to reach— would be deterred from making the attempt, and 
the few who could afford the necessary outlay for such elaborate improve- 
ments would desire a more experienced instructor; therefore l shall make 
no attempt at anything like an extended review of systems of landscaping, 
but may make soma suggestions and give a few warnings of such a nature, 
possibly, as will aid a beginner, or one who expects to do but little, and yet 
desires to do something in the way of beautifying the home. Even though 
the home be small and the surroundings be unpleasant, if each land-owner 
would do his part, even though he owned but a village lot, an example 
would be set that would be of great benefit; and even if alone, the contrast 
would be the more striking, and even as an oasis in the desert, the attract- 
ive place would look more beautiful because of the surrounding dreariness. 

Some grave mistakes are made in the endeavor to copy after some beauti- 
ful place; for the difference in the lay of the land, the difference in execu- 
tion, or because of different buildings, or soil, the attempt may be a signal 
failure. 

^Nearly every attempt at landscaping has some good points, but an at- 
tempt to copy even a very beautiful effect should be avoided. A hint may 
be, however, obtained, or an idea gained here and there, and if properly put 
together present a pleasing effect. 

The rigor of our climate makes the growing of many of the desirable 
trees and shrubs very uncertain, and many failures occur on this account. 
Because a tree is known to thrive in this latitude, either east or west, is not 
by any means conclusive evidence that it will do well or even live here. 
For example, many of the trees of the eastern part of the United States do 
not thrive when planted in the more arid and changeable climate of the 
West; and the trees west of the Rocky Mountains invariably prove tender 
when removed east of that mountain range. Many failures occurred before 
these facts were known, but bitter disappointment ar?d discouragement fol- 
lowed these efforts and thus the work was retarded. Luckily the region 
from the top of the Rocky Mountain range eastward to the more humid re- 
gions approaching the Eastern States, with the specimens that have come 
from the more trying conditions of the Eastern Continent, give us a fairly 
good selection. 

If a person could choose a place to beautify, the task would be an easy 
one, for we could select a variety. We could then have hills and hollows, 
bold views and secluded dales. How easy then to have clumps of trees 
here and there, with gently curved roads and paths, or more abrupt turns 
to conform to the natural conditions. But the vast majority do not have 
this opportunity of selection. The home is usually selected first, and such 
trees put out as will soonest meet the requirements of shade and protection 



LANDSCAPING. 



79 



from wind sweep. Even the trees are often, in fact generally, put out with 
little thought of their beautifying effect; and it is only after taste has been 
developed, or means acquired, that the desire to beautify takes possession 
of the land-owner. Then the work of tree-planting and arrangement of 
buildings of former years are found not only not what is desired, but are 
actually in the way, and often the greatest obstacle to home adornment. 
How often we see the attempt made to grow evergreens or flowers beneath 
the mammoth cotton wood or under the dense shade of the soft maple. Of 
course such attempts are failures, yet the stately cottonwood will not be 
sacrificed, and not even a few of the soft maples are cut down to give the 
more desirable though slower- growing varieties a chance to live and beau- 
tify the home. 

I can even admire the love for trees, especially the ones we have seen 
grow to large size, that will keep the axe from these old pioneers, those 
trees that have helped to clothe the bleak prairies and give the grateful 
shade. Yet if we would succeed, we must either cut them down or go a 
considerable distance from them to plant the trees that are desirable; and 
and if this is not done, it is best to retain these old friends and resolutely 
eschew the new. Or, in other words, no success is possible where the at- 
tempt is made to plant trees or shrubs in proximity to old trees of rapid- 
growing varieties; and, especially for ornamental purposes, the attempt 
should not be made. 

Again, while it may be said that no landscape gardening is perfect with- 
out a good turf, preferably of blue grass, yet it may be said that the horti- 
cultural part of landscaping cannot be properly done, or even approximately 
well done in a tough sod. The more wealthy beginners will persist in mak- 
ing such mistakes. They will without hesitation, cut down the towering 
poplar or cottonwood or spreading maple, but hesitate to sacrifice a spear of 
grass, insisting that where the sod was broken to place a tree, that it must 
be carefully replaced. Trees planted in sod have low vitality, make a feeble 
growth, and their future uncertain, except they are certain to disappoint the 
planter. 

The general rule for winding roads and curved walks is good, and for 
parks and pleasure grounds should be strictly observed; yet in the orna- 
mentation of country homes and grounds that are being constantly put to a 
practical use, the rule may well be disregarded. 

On the farm where thousands of trips are made to the barn or outbuildings 
in the course of the year, in care of the stock and other necessary duties, 
where but few trips are made for pleasure, it is useless to talk to the practi- 
cal man about winding roads and paths. The barns and other outbuildings 
are arranged as close to the dwelling as proper consideration will j ustify; 
and the weary laborer after the necessary toil of farm life, does not care to 
have the distance, necessarily traveled so often in his vocation, lengthened 
because of any sentimental notion of aesthetics. His nature is not emo- 
tional, but practical. When tired he naturally desires the shortest roads 
and drives straight toward the object; and having experienced such condi- 
tions, I admire his judgment and approve his conclusions. 



80 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Neither does this imply that the farmer's home should not, or may not, be 
made beautiful. I have seen some rarely beautiful rural homes, where the 
idea of curved walks and roads was never attempted, either in theory or 
practice, and very little attention paid to the promiscuous planting and care- 
ful grouping so strenuously insisted upon by many people who write or talk 
on landscaping. I do not wish to be misunderstood, for if circumstances 
would permit, without sacrifice of utility, I would even in adorning farm 
homes avoid the straight rows and rigid lines, so often seen in fairly well 
arranged farm home surroundings. But I do protest that to make a road 
crooked, or even curved, solely and wholly to avoid being straight, is to say 
the least, not necessary. 

If the barn is built farther from the road than the house, a slight angle or 
curve to reach it from the house is both beautiful and natural. If the en- 
trance from the road is the same or adjacent for both house or barn, a very 
pretty effect is for the road to start toward a point between house and barn 
and at a point to be governed by the lay of the ground or other conditions, 
divide; and one road curve toward the barn, and the other turn so as to 
reach the barn. 

In like manner, a walk toward the house form the front, may start in such 
a manner as to reach a convenient point to separate, and one walk turn to- 
ward each door to be reached, or if it is desired to reach a back door, the 
main walk can, at a slight angle or curve, go toward a corner of the house, 
separating at a point, so that the front door or porch may be reached with- 
out an abrupt turn. 

But whatever the ideas of artistic beauty, they are largely controlled, or 
at least modified by circumstances that already exist. If starting new, and 
means are at hand, it is an easy matter to lay out beautiful grounds, and so 
plan that the effects will be highly desirable; but we must deal with exist- 
ing circumstances, fixed conditions— conditions that we have no desire to 
change, yet we may add to the beauty of the surroundings and by screening 
unsightly objects make a really attractive home, and at a comparatively 
small cost. 

One of the essentials of success is good soil in good condition. If not 
rich, a plentiful use of well rotted manure will bring it to a proper richness. 
After planning grounds, including walks and drives, determine the kinds 
of trees and plants to be used, paying particular attention in assigning each 
its place, the probable future development of each variety. As a rule the 
slower growing and dwarf varieties should be planted near the house. At 
the parting of walks flower beds may be arranged, and at a division of 
drives shrubs or dwarf trees may be planted, while further away the larger 
kinds may be appropriately grown. 

Without any attempt to give a list for planting, a few suggestions may 
help those who do not know the different varieties suitable for planting. 

Of shrubs a good collection is desirable and a selection of a few good ones 
is indispensable. Snowballs, Lilacs in variety, Honeysuckle, High Bush 
Cranberry, Red Bud, Flowering Plums, Flowering Almond, Spireses, Wig- 
elia, Rosa, and others of the hardy shrubs make a good list to select from. 



LANDSCAPING. 



81 



For arbors or covering outbuildings, Virginia Creeper, Wisteria, Trumpet 
vine with the climbing Honeysuckles and some of the stronger growing 
hardy grapes, give variety and beauty. Of deciduous trees Hard Maple, 
Ash, Kentucky Coffee, the white, th8 weeping and cut leaf Birches, the yel- 
low Birch, with Elms and our best native trees, give abundant room for se- 
lection. A very few varieties, such as Elm, two or three of best Birches 
with Ash, Hard Maple, etc. , form a contrast and a pleasing effect, even if 
only a few trees are planted. 

Evergreens in great variety and excellence can now be had. For the lawn 
or ornamental grounds nearly all are suitable if properly planted, and a 
sufficient amount of room be given to the spreading growers, such as Aus- 
trian pine and others, which may be planted at a considerable distance from 
other trees, or in the back ground. For small lots, Dwarf Pine, Savins and 
with a little more space Rocky Mountain Blue Spruce cannot be surpassed 
for beauty. It should be better known and more extensively planted. For 
some surroundings on the farm a place may be found for all the common va- 
rieties of pine, White and Norway Spruce, Balsam Fir, Red Cedar and Ar- 
bor Yitse. The Red Cedar and Arbor Vitse being especially desirable for 
screens and windbreaks, which, by clipping, can be kept dwarf and without 
injury to the trees. The clipping can be most profitably done just before 
the end of the growing season. 

Russian Mulberries and Willows are sometimes planted on the lawn. 
Avoid this mistake, but plant such if desired, on the outskirts or near the 
barn or feed lots. There, they do not damage and if a variety of willows 
are planted adds to beauty and makes contrast. 

The subject of landscaping is a very large one, and while I have written 
at a great length I realize that much more could be said. 

DISCUSSION. 

N. T. Case: I sent to Nebraska and got some native evergreens, 
many of them died, and those that lived, barely lived. I do not know 
the varieties; I put them in various exposures and soils. I have had 
success with evergreens before, and have sixteen varieties growing. 
The trees I got from Nebraska are some kind of pine. 

John Wragg: A good many of our Rocky Mountain pines, JPinus 
Ponderosa and Pinus Resinous, are hardy and make a good growth. 
Some varieties taken from the forest do not do well. With such, 
success can only be had with nursery grown trees. Red Cedar and 
Juniper can be successfully removed from the forest. 

Johnathan Thatcher read the following paper on pruning: 



11 



82 



STATE HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRUNING. 



BY J. THATCHER. 



The subject allotted to me is a hackneyed one, and but little can be said 
to the farmer or orchardist, that has not already been said; hence I shall 
address the major part of this paper to the tree producer or nurseryman, 
whom I hold responsible to a great extent for the forked and ungainly trees 
we see in the majority of our orchards. 

For my text I will take the old proverb, '* as the twig is bent," etc. Now, 
if a tree is started right all experienced orchardists must admit that half 
the battle is won, and with due diligence each spring and summer thereafter 
but little use will be found for the pruning knife or the saw. With the ex- 
ception of a few varieties, the nurseryman can train his trees so that there 
need be no forks that will split down to disfigure and ruin the tree after it 
is set in the orchard; and to accomplish this the training must commence 
from the very first. Every tree cannot be made to grow perfectly straight, 
but a near approach can be made with proper care. 

The Winesap, Pameuse and Oldenburg are inclined to take off in a tangent 
of about thirty degrees to a vertical line as soon as they commence growing, 
and continue in the same direction until they are from one foot to eighteen 
inches high, resulting in a crooked stem when the older tree attempts to 
right up. Now, this can be remedied by pulling the tree a little past per- 
pendicular in the opposite direction from which it leans, and tramping the 
earth solid against the side to which it did lean. This should be done about 
the last time the trees are cultivated the first year of their growth, and it 
will be surprising to see the improvement in the looks of the trees and will 
well repay the producer in the amount of saleable trees. And where a two 
or three- year old tree has fallen down from the ground washing or any other 
cause, and a nice water sprout has started above the graft to grow vertical, 
cut off the main body and you will very soon have a nice saleable tree that 
is easily trained to your liking. 

The Jonathan, when two years old, is badly given to bending down, from 
its immense branches and foliage, especially when loaded with moisture, and 
the stem naturally delicate; frequently a sprout starts from the apex or top 
side of the bend, eighteen inches or two feet from the ground; if the whole 
body be cut off just above the sprout, it will make a vigorous and saleable 



PRUNING. 



83 



tree after one year's more growth and the body will be so well proportioned 
to the top that it will ever after be able to support itself. 

Now, as a practical test is of far more value than the finest spun theory, 
I will give my experience in the nursery with trees badly injured by the 
winters. The winter of 1884-5 injured my trees very badly on bottom lands. 
We cut most of our two-year olds off a little below the snow line after shoots 
had started, leaving only one shoot to grow up straight. The next year they 
looked so well that we cut all the rest back in the same way, finding that 
the wood was discolored, so that they would not sell; and the result in both 
cases has been that we never had better trees. 

Please pardon these digressions, for the subject of pruning is not insepa- 
rable from them. 

Now for the nurseryman's part of the pruning for the future orchard. 
The first requisite to prevent splitting forks is a central stem or body which 
should be at least one year older than any of the branches; and I think all 
the better if two years older. To accomplish this: First, after your year- 
lings go to rest, and before the sap starts in the spring, take a sharp knife 
and cut off every branch, cutting at a right angle to the stem of the branch, 
and just at the outside of the swell where the branch joins the main stock. 
If there be a fork, leave the one that runs the nearest perpendicular, even if 
it be the smallest; providing it is straight above. In this condition the 
branches that start out in the spring will leave the main stem some distance 
before they turn upward; hence no forks will be formed that are liable to 
split, even if all the branches should start from near the same point on the 
main stem. Second, if two-year old trees have not made a good growth- 
say not over five feet in height, I would serve them in the same manner, 
taking off all the branches; and then branches will start at the point where 
the second year's growth commences, which should not be less than two 
feet six inches, and higher preferable. Trees with well balanced heads are 
much the most saleable, but I would advise farmers not to refuse a tree 
that is good otherwise, because the top is most on one side; but in prefer- 
ence take such and set that side to the southwest, and the tree will soon 
right itself properly. 

Now, a word to the farmer arid orchardist, and I am done. In the first 
place, get such trees as are described above, if you can; if not, strive to get 
them in that shape as soon as you can after planting them. In selecting 
your trees, do not be too particular about the straightness of the body if the 
tree has a good top at the proper height from the ground, for the crooks will 
only hurt the looks, and the tree will soon outgrow that. (Bear in mind I 
will have no trees to sell when this report is published ) I give the benefit 
of my experience, as I think, unbiased. Next, keep and maintain a central 
stem in the top of your tree, as near as you can, and allow latteral branches 
to grow from it as long as they are not in your way too much in climbing to 
pick fruit, or as they do not come in contact with or cross other branches. 
If they should become such obstructions, use the saw freely; this central 
stem and branches will keep the top spread properly, while if the center is 
cut out the top of the tree will naturally close in. I have known persons to 



84 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



cut out the center of their tree tops to make spreading tops. This is a fatal 
mistake, as it will invariably have the opposite tendency. 

There can be no arbitrary time fixed for pruning, either with the thumb 
or knife, as the seasons are not upiform enough for that; but through the 
months of May and June you can generally rub off the young shoots or 
watersprouts with the thumb, and you may even jerk them off with the 
hand into July most seasons by jerking sideways or at right angle with the 
main branch or stem; but the latter practice must be stopped whenever it 
tears up the bark too much on the main stem or branch. The best time to 
prune with the knife or saw is just at the close of the first growth; the sap 
is then too thick to exude from the wound, and the second growth will heal 
the wound sufficiently for the first season. The stage between the first and 
second growth is generally in the fore part of the month of June, sometimes 
earlier and sometimes later. Do not hesitate to cut off large or small 
branches (because they are full of fruit) if they should be interlocked with 
others or are chafing them. 

DISCUSSION. 

Ohas. Patterson: It occurs to me that the paper is against some 
ideas of mine as to nursery work. He contends that the tree should 
be started right in nursery, and so they should . need but little atten- 
tion afterward. It makes no difference how much care you give a 
tree in nursery, it cannot be started in shape in nursery, so as to be 
as it should two or three years after removal. We must have 
branches and leaves to properly develop a tree, and some of these 
limbs will need to be cut off after the tree is established in orchard. 
These surplus limbs can be cut out with but little trouble or damage x 
to the tree. We cannot always shape our trees as we would like to 
have them in the nursery, and the orchardist should go over his trees 
at least once a year and remove such limbs as should not remain. 
As to time of pruning some contend that the pruning should be done 
when the trees are in leaf. But at that time the orchardist cannot 
see so well what limbs should be removed. When no leaves are on 
the trees the pruner can see better what limbs should be removed, 
and the pruning can be done at a time of year when he has more 
time to devote to the work. Apple trees have a peculiar tenacity of 
life, and every limb wants to become a leader. It should be the ob- 
ject of the orchardist to control and direct the growth of his trees, 
and to do this properly he should give them some care and attention 
each year. 

W. F. Steagerwalt: It does not matter so much as to the straight- 
ness of a tree as it does to the length of the body; some say high 



PKUNING. g5 

tops, while some contend for low tops. I have seen trees with high 
tops that looked like they had been planted in a two gallon funnel. 
I would not recommend either a high top or a low top, but have 
come to the conclusion that three feet is about the right distance for 
tree to head. Some, yesterday, contended for tops five or six feet 
high. 

N. T. Case: We were discussing the question what the nursery 
men should do, and how they could grow trees, so that the public 
could get the kind of trees they need. If limbs are cut off the year 
trees are transplanted, they are not in condition to heal and may not 
heal over the next year, in which case the trees will become unsound. 
The trees should be so pruned in nursery that they need not be 
pruned until well established in orchard. 

John Wragg: Let me say to the gentleman (Mr. Steagerwalt) 
who wanted medium height trees, that this rule is like the railroad 
law; it should be flexible. Some very upright growers will bear to 
be headed lower than Jonathan or Willow Twig and other varieties 
with flexible or drooping branches. Heads should be formed four to 
five feet, according to the habit of the variety. 

Geo. W. Shaw: As an orchardist, I like to have trees so that a 
man standing on a ladder four to five feet high can gather most of 
the apples. A man picking from a ladder ten or twelve feet high 
will only gather about ten bushels of apples a day; while a man 
picking from the ground or a low step ladder, can gather 100 bushels 
per day. This makes considerable difference with gathering a large 
fruit crop, while gathering from high ladders, we can only do about 
one-tenth as much work as we can from the ground or low ladders. 

R. P. Speer: If I remember correctly, at our meeting at Atlantic, 
we spent nearly half a day discussing the time to prune. After 
thoroughly discussing the question, the Society took a vote and de- 
cided that the best time to prune was just after the buds open into 
leaf. I have tried this plan for many years in pruning nursery trees, 
and find that trees pruned at that time heal over better, are smoother 
and more saleable than trees pruned at any other time. I think like 
Mr. Thatcher, that if wounds are exposed in the fall, the wood will 
become black and the tree diseased. Now, as to high heads, and the 
experience of different gentlemen with high topped trees. Mr. Pat- 
terson recommends high topped trees, but he lives at Kirksville, Mis- 
souri. I was past there, recently, and from there, all the way to St- 



86 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Louis, some prune as high as six feet, and I suppose that is all right 
for that part of the country. I believe in lower heads. Very few 
varieties do ripen properly in the fall. Next year if the trees are 
left alone the sap will go to the upper buds, unless killed, and 
the tendency is to run up higher and higher. This is all right for 
forest trees to raise for timber, but I do not believe it to be the best 
plan in growing an orchard, where fruit, and not timber, is the object 
sought. I get much better trees by cutting off at the ground after 
first year's growth. Next year cut off the surplus shoots and bank 
up in the fall; and have found no damage resulting from such man- 
agement. I have stripped down trees in nursery soon after coming 
into leaf, so as to make the heads form, as I desired. If the body of 
the tree is low, it is not so liable to lean as if longer. Longer bodied 
trees all lean, except a few hardy varieties like Duchess and Tetof- 
sky. I think we should grow trees with lower tops instead of higher. 

S. Park: I would like to ask if it be a fact if trees put out too 
much brush? I am often asked by planters when receiving trees 
from the nursery, if part of the limbs should be pruned out. And I 
would like to ask the judgment of this Society, if newly taken up 
trees should be pruned at time of transplanting, or after growth 
starts, say in June, or would it be better to wait until the next spring? 
I have been often told that trees would be more likely to live if 
pruned when transplanted. 

Chas. Patterson: I admit I am somewhat of a crank on the high 
head tree subject, but am not so strenuous in the advocacy of the 
doctrine as I am in practice. I have high, very high headed trees. 
I often get a rap on the knuckles for my views on this subject. Last 
night, at the hotel, I got a rap by Prof. Budd. I thank him for it > 
but am not, as yet, convinced that I am wrong. There are certain 
things to be considered, such as location and latitude; I am open for 
conviction. I got a letter from a man seventy miles south of me, 
who said he was not having good results in orcharding. His orchard 
was about the same age as mine; and I went there to see his trees; 
the man was not at home, but his orchard was. The ground was not 
only cultivated, but deeply plowed. The trees were actually low 
headed, half boot-leg and boot-leg high; he had as many deceased 
trees and sun scald trees as I have. As to pruning, I would do that 
when the limbs are small, that they can be cut with.a penknife. I 
want one straight leider. 



PRUNING. 



87 



H. W. Lathrop: I would like to ask whether Mr. Patterson would 
prune in summer or in winter? 

Chas. Patterson: I would prune in winter. 

R. P. Speer: I would like to reply to part that has been said. A 
few years ago, about the 20th or 25th of April, the weather was clear 
and hot for the time of the year, the mercury standing at 80 degrees 
in the shade. I examined several trees, and had examined them a 
few days before. The trees were all right at both these examina- 
tions, but ten days afterward I examined them and found the inner 
bark brown and damaged. At the time trees go to rest in the fall 
the starch is stored, and if the trees are well ripened, warm weather 
will not start them into growth again until they have had a rest. 
But after the trees have had a rest, and warm weather should occur 
early in the spring, the starch dissolves and the sap starts to circula- 
ting; then, if cold weather occurs, the tree is damaged. At this 
time of year the cambium layer is filled with albuminous matter and 
protoplasm. This mucilaginous matter is started into agitation by 
the heat and chemical changes take place, and when cold comes again 
it injures the bark and ruptures the sap vessels. From the first of 
March until time the leaves open is time of greatest danger. After 
the leaves open the sap rises more rapidly, say at the rate of two and 
a half feet per hour, and the cold sap condenses the moisture, and as 
the sap is rapidly ascending into the top and being constantly sup- 
plied from the cold ground, there is no danger of sun scald. There 
is no danger of damage from sun-scald when the tree is growing- 
When not growing the sap circulates on the south side, and then 
when the change of weather comes the sap being sudden frozen pro* 
duces what we call sun scald. I have proved this to my satisfaction. 

M. C. Staves: I would like to ask Mr. Patterson a question. My 
customers, in buying trees, are very particular. The first require- 
ment is, " don't bring me forked trees." The question of difference 
of cost between proper pruning and improper pruning should not de- 
ter the nurserymen from having the trees in proper shape when 
they leave the nursery. If trees are not properly pruned in the nur- 
sery, should we recommend the planter to cut the leaves off at once, 
or would it be better to leave them until after the tree has made one 
or two years' growth? 

Prof. Budd: On the subject of sun-scalded trees, I want to state 
one thing. Four or five years ago we had a collection of stems of 



88 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



native trees from A. R. Whitney and College Farm. There were 40 
specimens of trees grown in isolated places. Not one of these trees 
had the heart in the center.' The hoar wood, in nearly every in- 
stance, was in the south side of the tree. Position with them did 
make a great difference. Go to Mr. Gaylord's, in Northern Iowa, 
and he will run you around until you are tired out, showing you the 
effects of sun-scald. Sun- scald may be worse as you go south, but 
about Nora Springs is as bad a place as I have ever seen for sun- 
scald. It is not necessary to have low-stemmed and branching kinds 
to have the bodies shaded. 

President Patten: A practical thought has been overlooked. A 
man planting trees on the prairie without protection, would naturally 
plant lower trees than when planting in protected places. 

Gov. Larrabee being in the room, was called out by the President, 
and spoke in substance as follows: 

Gov. Larrabee: I did not come in here to interrupt the proceed- 
ings, and besides, this is not a society that goes on dress parade. It 
is a pleasure to me to step in and see how you are getting along. I 
like to hear and see the men who have helped to place Iowa in the 
advanced position it now occupies. Many wonder why Iowa has 
taken such a prominent rank, but it is because of the intelligence of 
the masses of the people. You come from all parts of the State, 
and you know of its wonderful resources. We have a good climate 
and excellent soil, and are prepared to contribute to the world's sup- 
ply. I take pleasure in welcoming you to our Capitol city, and trust 
your stay will be both pleasant and profitable. In ancient times, he 
who tried to correct a fault was not welcome. He was not received 
as a friend, but had to lie in a dungeon. It is not so to-day, for he 
who corrects our faults is welcome. Especially is this so of Iowa. 
I am pleased to see so many are helping in this good work. I have 
made quite large contributions myself, in the way of experiments, 
and at considerable cost. I did not, however, experiment for the 
public; neither did some of you; yet the public profited by our ex- 
periences. At first I was induced to believe whatever a nurseryman 
told me; now I am skeptical. Now I have to have a good recom- 
mendation, and a long recommendation, before I am fully satisfied 
as to the value of a new variety. I am satisfied that with the knowl- 
edge we have and the varieties we have, to be supplemented by seed- 
lings and Russians, we will get varieties that will supply our needs. 
I did not come in to interrupt your proceedings, but to spend a few 



PRUNING. 



89 



minutes listening to the papers to be read and the discussions that 
follow. 

President Patten: I see Lieut.-Gov. Hull in the room; we would 
like to hear from him. 

Gov. Hull: I should not be able to instruct the gentlemen present 
in their chosen profession. 

President Patten: You will please come forward and look the 
audience in the face. 

Governor Hull coming forward said: Gentlemen, I was only invited 
by your president to come forward and look you in the face. This 
is an easy matter. I have not had as much experience in horticul- 
ture as your governor has had, yet I have had a little. Some years 
ago I got a start of trees from Prof. Budd and set them on a town 
lot; but our rapidly growing city demanded the land for building 
purpose and interferred with my horticultural operations. But you 
can raise apples and other fruit in Iowa, as is proven by the premiums 
taken at the Centennial and other World's Fairs. Yet you compel 
us to send to Michigan and Missouri for apples. We must change 
this, we must send apples to Michigan and Missouri. Gentlemen 
you are engaged in a great work. You are developing one of the 
greatest interests of the country. I hope you will not only get a 
profit out of this business, but, you will go on until people will have 
sufficient faith in our State. 

President Patten: We feel highly gratified that Governor Larra- 
bee and Lieut. Governor Hull have favored us with their presence 
and words of encouragement. The Hon. Silas Wilson will please 
say a few words for the society. 

Silas Wilson: I appreciate the pleasant duty assigned me, of re- 
sponding to the cordial greeting of Governor Larrabee and Lieut.- 
Governor Hull. I cannot do better than to assure them that every 
member present responds to the cordial greeting. This capitol build- 
ing and the city, is an honor to the State of Iowa. We accept this 
welcome to this young and flourishing city. Our work is for the 
benefit of all classes; and while we pursue it as a business, and some 
of us make a living that way, yet others can profit by our experience, 
These words so kindly spoken to us, are not only words of welcome 
but words of encouragement, and will be treasured by those reaching 
out" after horticultural knowledge. A few years ago we were told 
that we could not raise fruit in Iowa, but a visit to our fruit room in 



12 



90 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the basement of this building, will convince the most skeptical. 
The man that says we cannot raise fruit in Iowa does not know 
what he is talking about. We come here from every part of the 
State to talk horticulture and compare experiences, and exchange 
views. Fruit growing has not taken an equal place with stock grow- 
ing and grain farming. We have horses and cattle on a thousand 
hills, and in number and value of hogs no State can equal us. I am 
glad our stock interests are so prominent. Fruit growing is of great 
importance, and we would like to see this industry take the rank it 
deserves, and to that end, our utmost energies will be directed. In 
conclusion, would like to invite the people of Des Moines to come 
to our meetings, hear the paper and discussions and examine our 
fruit on exhibition and become better acquainted with our work. 

C. L. Watrous: If I may be permitted to say a few words. Gov- 
ernor Hull raised a question that has not been answered yet. As he 
is a candidate for governor, it is a good time to talk to him, and have 
him answer a few questions. He says we ship apples from Michigan 
and Missouri. I would like to tell him, that during this meeting, the 
fact has been brought out, that in the south part of this State, apples 
can now be bought at twenty-five cents per bushel, and it costs fifty 
cents to get them to Des Moines; while they can be brought from 
Michigan for less money. The reason why we often eat goods from 
Chicago, is because it costs more to transport the same class of goods 
a short distance in our own State. Before we elect him governor we 
would like to hear his views on this question. 

Lieut.-Gov. Hull: We have in Iowa a general assembly, whose 
duty it is to right such wrongs. It is the duty of the executive to 
see that these laws are enforced — possibly his duty to recommend 
the passage of such laws. Mr. Watrous has been a member of the 
legislature and may be again, and knows how such laws are made, 
and something of the difficulties in making and enforcing them. Any 
man worthy to fill the high office of governor will see that all rights 
of the people are respected. 

On motion of C. L. Watrous, the society adjourned until 2 p. m. 



SMALL FKUITS, 



91 



AFTERNOON SESSION— SECOND DAY. 



Paper on small fruits, by Chas. Root, of Hopkinton, was read by 
the secretary. 



SMALL FRUITS. 



BY CHAS. ROOT, HOPKINTON. 



The field assigned me is so large I cannot hope to touch but briefly upon 
it. And in coming before you, who have had so much more experience 
than the writer, makes him feel as Thackery did in the presence of Macau- 
lay, in speaking of his knowledge of English history, like a boy with a six- 
pence in his pocket in the banking house of the Barrings. 

I can only tell you of my experience and my ideas which I practice, and 
which has given me a measure of success. I will divide the subject into 
three parts: Markets, Sorts to Cultivate in Our Section, and Cultivation. 

First and foremost see that your location is such as to give speedy and 
reliable access to markets. Your home market to be considered first, as 
they are always the best; but for your surplus you must be sure of a market 
within twelve or fifteen hours' carriage. Some sorts of strawberries will 
carry in express cars twenty -four hours, but if the weather is hot and 
showery fifteen hours will be long enough. A north and south railroad is 
the best, as for every fifty miles of latitude there is about one day's differ- 
ence in the ripening of the crop. If you ship three hundred miles you have 
no competition with home grown berries for about one week. I have suc- 
cessfully shipped Crescent seedlings five hundred miles for the first week's 
picking. Your boxes must be neat and clean, using if possible, the wire 
staples instead of tacks, to avoid the bottoms breaking down, as they often 
do with tacks; besides, it is much cheaper, as with the machine made at St. 
Joseph, three boys can fold and staple 6,000 boxes per day, while with tacks 



92 



STATE HORTICULTURAL . SOCIETY. 



1,000 is a man's work. The saving on tacks is much greater; it requires one 
pound of tacks for 1,000 boxes, costing 26 cents per pound, as you must 
have the Swede's iron tack to clinch properly. We made 70,000 boxes last 
spring with the stapling machine at an expense of $1 80, for wire. You can 
easily see the difference; seventy pounds tacks at 26 cents per pound, is 
$18.40; for wire, $1.80. I never turn berries out of the boxes after they are 
received from the pickers, except from new or suspicious pickers; though 
for every fifty pickers I have a vigilant, active man in the field among them 
always. All rows are numbered, and a record kept of the row each one 
picks, so they know they will be detected if the row is not picked clean or 
the vines injured. I consider the clean picking of fruit of the greatest im- 
portance, as if ripe berries are left they are certain to find their way into the 
boxes at the next picking, and are so soft they destroy the whole box. I 
believe carelessness in this matter is responsible for much of the dripping 
fruit found in our large cities. Pick your fruit green for distant markets; 
for your home markets have a patch separate and pick them thoroughly 
ripe. Strawberries for long shipment should be gone over every day, as in 
two days they will be over ripe, especially in showery, hot weather. I can- 
not dwell too strongly on the importance of your home market. Do not 
give them your small, inferior berries, except for canning, at a reduced 
price. You will find that your demand at home will nearly double yearly, if 
you give them nice, ripe fruit; besides, your home market is the great outlet 
for your Saturday berries. You cannot ship very far that day. I make it a 
practice that day to reduce the price one cent per quart by the case on straw- 
berries, for canning, and have sold one hundred cases in our immediate 
neighborhood per day. They soon understand it, and will wait till Satur- 
/ day, when your whole pick will betaken. This is my experience; but last 
year I made arrangements with two customers three hundred miles distant, 
to receive berries shipped Saturday. Our train leaves at 9:00 p. m., and the 
berries traveling all night, reach their destination at 8:00 A. m. Sunday. 
They immediately place them in their ice-boxes for Monday. It was a great 
success; they were the only ones who had berries till Monday night. The 
result was, from an order of five cases, they increased to twenty- five cases 
before the close of the season. I dwell thus particularly on this matter be- 
cause it offers a solution of the problem so troublesome to the practical 
fruit grower on a large scale, what to do with the Saturday fruit. 

I attribute my success to one other cause; I do not send to commission 
men or to large cities. A customer for five to ten cases daily, in a town of 
3,0C0, is worth more to me than one for twenty-five in a large city. 

To our small towns whole car loads of fruit cannot be sent in refrigerator 
cars from the overloaded Chicago or Minneapolis markets or from Michigan 
or central Illinois. You can get better prices and a less fluctuating market. 
To this rule there is one exception. If you have some very fancy berries - 
you can get fancy prices in our large cities. For some Bubach No. 5, care- 
fully selected, this year I realized 25 cents per quart at St. Paul. But of one 
fact I am certain; our small towns are not one-quarter supplied with small 
fruit at the present time. I know towns in this State where it is impossible 



SMALL FRUITS. 



93 



to obtain small fruit more than one day in a week, and then it is poor or 
nearly spoiled, coming from commission men, and from two to four days 
old. 

Our town of about 800, consumes about sixty cents per capita of small 
fruits, and it is increasing rapidly. I have found in all small towns and 
cities up to 10,000, that dealers in fruit are anx«ious to deal with the growers 
direct. And for the last three years I have not lost a single customer, and 
the demand grows much faster than I can increase my business though I 
began with two acres four years ago, and now have forty. 

Now, for the sorts to raise. My strawberry crop has been principally 
Crescent SeedliDg. I was like all new beginners, at first was completely 
captivated with glowing accounts given of wonderful berries and the gor- 
geous engravings of highly colored fruit as large as Baldwin apples. But I 
found, after investing hundreds of dollars, that in ninety-nine cases out of 
one hundred they were a failure with me, and that the common every day 
Crescent for dollars and cents distanced them all. Though lately some 
strawberries have been listed on my ground that are very promising. 

First among them I placed Bubach No. 5. It is a strong grower, entirely 
free from dust, very prolific, of good quality, better than Crescent, very large, 
of good color, but soft, though if carefully picked green, will carry 300 miles 
as I have done. I shall plant largely of it another year. Jessie done poorly 
with me last year, it does not seem to have vitality to ripen its fruit as some 
berries were fine, others would not ripen until they began to wither or scald. 
The vine is vigorous, but not so much as the Bubach, nor is it so prolific or 
so large, though the quality when fully ripe is superb. 

Marfield No. 2 is another that is fully as vigorous as the Crescent; fruit 
large, of fine quality, and seems to be prolific. 

Windsor Chief is another berry that holds a position below its merits. 

The Old Wilson I still use to fertilize Crescent, though of late it seems to 
lack vigor. 

Cumberland is a good productive berry, but too soft for any market more 
than three or four hours distant. 

Haviland I have not tested sufficiently to form an opinion of it, though it 
promises well. Same can be said of Itasca and Logan. 

Jewell is a flat failure; I have hundreds of plants that have not put out a 
single runner this year. Besides, the fruit is too bright colored, of poor 
quality and soft. It must pass into the list with the Sharpless, Manchester, 
James Vick, Miner's Prolific, etc., etc. 

Of the latest sorts I think Gandey's Prize and Cloud's Seedling, the most 
promising with me, but to the new beginner I would say plant Crescent 
Seedling and Bubach No. 5, with Wilson to fertilize, and test in a small 
way some others until you find something better. But you will find at the 
end of the season that the Crescent has brought in the money to buy the 
new sorts. 

Of raspberries, the Turner is perfectly hardy, but the berries, like the 
Crescent, get so small and soft toward the close of the season that were it 
not so early it would be discarded. 



94 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The Cuthbert, we depend on for our main crop of reds. It is not hardy 
in this latitude, and requires laying down, but with this exception it is by 
far the best red raspberry we have, and to it we look for our profits as we 
do the Crescent among the strawberries. 

Though if the Marlborro does as well in the future as it has in the last 
two years it will supersede the Turner, as its season is about the same. The 
berries are fully as large as the Cuthbert. It is an enormous dropper, 
though the berries are not as good in quality, and it is perfectly hardy so 
far, besides it is a stalky grower (something very desirable where you have 
many acres), and ripens its wood better than any raspberry on our grounds. 
I consider it a great acquisition, but in my experience it requires rich land, 
while the Cuthbert does best on land not so rich. 

The Shaffer's Colossal is also hardy; is a good cropper, but very unman- 
ageable, and the berries are of so bad a color that they do not sell well, and 
are the only red raspberry I could not ship into Minnesota. Though for 
home market, when they become known they are taken for canning purposes 
before others. Housell is too small. Rancocus is no improvement over the 
Turner. Brandy Wine with me is a feeble grower, and not desirable. 

Among the blacks the Tyler or is best (they are alike as far as 

I can discover), they have proved perfectly hardy for three years. They are 
early and of good quality, and easily managed. 

Gregg I rely on for my late black caps, and have never been disappointed. 
Last winter we laid down a part of our Greggs, but those that stood up were 
loaded as well as those laid down. They are far the finest black caps we 
have in my experience, and we raise them by the acre. 

The Nemaha I have not tested sufficiently to judge of its merits. 

Ohio is too tender with me, and is a small inferior berry. 

I have tried and discarded other kinds; among them the Mammoth Clus- 
ter. The latter blasts nearly every 3 ear, and the berries are too small to be 
saleable. My pickers called the Mammoth Cluster and Turner plantations 
the " torturing patches." So I would say to the new beginners, for reds, 
ptant Marlborro and Cuthbert; for blacks, Tyler and Gregg. But you must 
lay down your Cuthberts, but the cost is small; not over $5 00 or $6.00 per 
acre. They do not require covering, only held down to the ground by throw- 
ing a little dirt over the tops. It will pay, even if it costs $20 00 per acre. 

Of blackberries, I have tried only the Snyder, Ancient Briton, Taylor's 
Prolific and Kittatinny. The latter is very tender, and must be entirely 
buried. Taylor is but little hardier. For our main drop we must plant 
either Snyder or Ancient Briton, and there is not much choice between them. 
They both gave me enormous crops; are alike as to hardiness. The Ancient 
B. bears as well, and the berries are not quite so prone to turn red as Snyder. 
Both must be laid down like Cuthbert raspberries. Stone's Hardy I have 
not planted. 

I will close with a few remarks, as I fear I have already made this paper 
toojong. 

But I have barely touched many points. My strawberries I plant with 
a spade. One man and two boys can easily plant an acre a day. I plant 



SMALL FKUITS. 



95 



the rows four feet apart, and with strong kinds, eighteen inches in the row. 
The man and the boys plant of the pistillate sort three plants in the row, 
and then leave a space for a staminate, then three more, and leave a space, 
and so on till the piece is finished, and then they take the staminate plants 
and fill out the patch. I use the Planet Junior cultivator and cultivate once 
a week, hoeing as often as weeds make an appearance. When they begin to 
run I take a disk cultivator, and spread it to 2b feet, and driving astride the 
row cut off all runners, and repeat it as often as the runners grow across? 
I have found by experience that by cultivating and throwing the runners 
into row makes them too thick. In the fall we cover with prairie hay or 
straw just deep enough to cover the leaves out of sight. 

Tn the spring the mulch is raked between the rows and left there. 

I have found the best soil for strawberries an old meadow or pasture 
heavily manured, then broke up and planted to corn or any other hard crop, 
then plow it up the next spring ten or twelve inches deep and plant your 
berries. In planting raspberries after the ground is prepared we run a two 
horse plow where the rows are to be, then boys drop the plants in place, a 
man following with a hoe, hauling on dirt sufficient to cover the roots from 
the sun. Then another man follows and hauls dirt on the plants and tramps 
the ground firmly. They are left then until the first cultivation, when the 
furrow is filled up. Same with blackberries. All you have to do then is to 
keep them clean. The second year I summer- prune all sorts. 

I will conclude by saying, if you are going into fruit, intending to make 
it a secondary business, don't! Make it your exclusive business, and if you 
have the energy and the brains you will succeed. There is a demand for many 
times more than we raise. 

One acre of strawberries well cared for will bring you more money than 
a whole year of labor by the month on a farm at common wages. It is a 
work in which women can largely engage. Some of the finest fruit I have 
seen in Iowa has been raised by women. There is'no business so lucrative 
that can be started with so little capital. A gracious God has given us these 
fruits, it is our own faults if we do not have them in abundance. He has 
also given us the knowledge of his laws whereby we can, by cross- fertiliza- 
tion, create, as it were, new sorts, and if we would all take advantage of 
them we could not only have better sorts of small fruits, but apples that 
would endure the climate as, well as pears, cherries, etc. 

As I believe, the time is not far distant when we will have our orchards 
as well as our plantations of strawberries and raspberries in Iowa. 

The Secretary stated that the committee on the award of fruits 
asked for an interpretation of the rules, and that owing to the fact 
that no fruit list had been adopted one year ago at our annual meet- 
ing, the matter was still further complicated. According to the list, 
in the award of premiums on plates, the word " approved" relating 
to varieties, gives chance for dispute and misunderstanding. 

Motion by C. L. Watrous, that the award may be made, to any va- 



96 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



riety in the list, of either one of the district societies, as published 
in our last report. This is to govern premiums on plates and not on 
collection. 
Motion prevailed. 

On motion of George Van Houten the list was amended by 'striking 
out the word " any" and inserting the word " each" in lieu thereof, 
where such words occur, in* relation to award of premiums on plates 
of apples. 

Prof. C. P. Gillette, of the Iowa experiment station, read a paper 
entitled "Entomology for the Horticulturist," and illustrated the 
same with charts. The paper was as follows: 



ENTOMOLOGY FOR THE HORTICULTURIST. 



BY C. P. GILLETTE. 



Mr. President and Members of the Horticultural Society: 

I deem it unnecessary that I should occupy any of your valuable time en- 
deavoring to impress upon you the need of a more thorough knowledge of 
injurious insects and the methods of preventing their damages. None, bet- 
ter than you, know that their number is legion, and none can feel more 
keenly than you the great loss that the country sustains each year from 
them. It shall be my object, therefore, in what I may say upon the topic 
announced, to make my remarks as practical as possible; first, by stating 
some things that I think every horticulturist and farmer can know and 
should know in order to enable him to successfully protect his crops from 
insect depredations; and second, by giving such of this information as lean 
in the short time allowed me for the present paper. 

It is utterly impossible to definitely draw the line and say just how much 
entomology the horticulturist or farmer should know. There is no limit to 
the information that one might gain in the study of insects that would be a 
benefit to him in devising methods of prevention and remedy. I shall not 
go outside of what may be called the essential knowledge to successful war- 
fare against our insect foes. 

The horticulturist should be able to distinguish inj urious from beneficial 
species. The majority of insects are vegetable feeders but there are a great 
many that feed upon or within the bodies of other insects, causing them to 
die. These latter are called predaceous or parasitic, and, in the main, are 
beneficial, as they destroy many injurious forms. When the lice have been 



ENTOMOLOGY FOR, THE HORTICULTURIST. 



97 



mostly eaten from a plant by the lady beetles, the orchardist, finding many 
of the latter and few of the former, naturally attributes the damage to the 
beetles, and proceeds to destroy all that he can find. Nature's check is in 
this way removed, and the lice increase again, and the injury goes on per- 
haps worse than before. It is not at all uncommon for entomologists to re- 
ceive these little friendly insects from farmers or fruit growers who report 
them as doing much damage to some tree or plant. The lady beetles, or 
lady birds, as they are. often called, are among the most beneficial of our 
predaceous insects. Their food consists almost entirely of plant lice and 
the eggs of insects, and they should always be protected. Nearly every one 
knows these insects in their adult state. They are rather small, and are 
shaped much like a Colorado beetle, and are usually decorated with bright 
white or black spots. Who has not said, when a child, " Lady-bird, lady- 
bird, fly away home," etc.? 

Two other very beneficial insects that I can only mention are the larvae of 
the Syrphus flies and the beautiful lace-winged Chrysopa. These are most 
commonly found in colonies of plant lice, of: which they devour large num- 
bers. 

The horticulturist should always be familiar with the more common in- 
sects that attack the particular fruits that he grows. The attack may be 
upon root, stalk, branch or leaf. In fact the injury is often done by insects 
that are submerged from view in bark or wood, and the plant or tree sick- 
ens and dies before the owner becomes aware of the cause of the mischief; 
when, if he had known at what time of year and upon what part of the plant 
to look for the various injurious insects that attack it, he might have been 
on his guard and saved the plant from destruction by the timely application 
of the proper remedy. Neither is it sufficient to know an insect in any one 
of its stages of growth, but, if possible, the husbandman should be able to 
recognize it in all stages of development, that he may plan to destroy or 
protect it whenever and wherever it is found. An illustration oi the value of 
this knowledge is found in a study of the habits of the plant lice, insects 
are usually fought in their larval or growing stage, as it is in this stage that 
they attract most attention by the mischief that they do. Hence, the treat- 
ment of plant lice has usually been after the lice become numerous on the 
plants and the leaves are found to be curled and dying from their attack. 
At this time the lice are collected on the under side of the leaves, and it is 
almost impossible to treat them successfully. Nearly all out-of-door forms 
of plant lice spend the winter in the egg state, the eggs being laid on the 
bark and twigs of the plant on which they feed. Taking advantage of a 
knowledge of this fact, in the spring of 1887 I treated numerous trees and 
plants with a strong soap suds, and with a strong kerosene emulsion, for the 
purpose of destroying the eggs that were present in very large numbers. As 
there were no leaves at this time to prevent the application to all parts, the 
treatment was very thorough and very beneficial results obtained. Had the 
insecticides been applied a little stronger, as they might have been, I think 
the remedies applied would have given perfect protection. However this 



13 



98 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



may be, another experiment that 1 tried met with perfect success. JLice that 
attack out-of-door plants usually hatch early in the spring and then rest on 
the twigs and swelling buds for several days before the leaves begin to ex- 
pand. Knowing this to be the habit of the species that attacks the apple 
tree, I visited an orchard in the vicinity of Lansing, Michigan, on the 25th 
of April, 1887, and found the lice clustered in large numbers on nearly every 
twig and bud of some of the worst infested trees As many as fifty lice 
were in some cases couated upon single buds that had not yet opened. The 
day following, two of the worst infested trees were treated, one with a ker- 
osene emulsion of the usual strength, and the other with a suds made of 
whale-oil soap- Two days later the trees were visited, and it was only after 
much careful looking that a single living louse was found. These young, 
newH -hatched lice had not yet taken their first meal, and were much more 
susceptible to the action of the insecticides than were the hard- shelled eggs 
or the full-grown individuals, and, being unprotected, the application was 
made at less expense. Hence, as a practical suggestion, I would say that 
plant lice may be treated in the egg or fully developed state, but it is much 
better to treat them j ust after the eggs have hatched, and before the leaves 
have expanded to give them protection. 

Had I not been on the lookout for the first appearance of these insects, 
and I had not known their life history, I should not have thought of the 
spring treatment. And it is because of the lack of this knowledge on the 
part of farmers and fruit growers that more rapid progress has not been 
made in discovering methods of prevention and remedy. 

It is important to know what remedies to apply to the particular insect 
that it is desired to destroy, so as not to lose time, material and crops in ex- 
perimentation. The best remedies known for many of the injurious insects 
are far from satisfactory, but the fruit grower should, so far as possible, 
keep up with the times in the use of insect remedies. Reading carefully 
the best horticultural journals will do much to keep him posted, but, I am 
sorry to say, these publish many bogus remedies. Aside from these, all 
who can, should obtain experiment station bulletins and the entomological 
publications of the general government, and I would recommend in highest 
terms one book, Saunders' Insects Injurious to Fruit. 

The horticulturists should know the standard insect remedies, and should 
be able to prepare and apply them in proportions that will destroy the in- 
sects without injuring foliage. If I should give a list of the least num- 
1 ber of insecticides that should always be found on any fruit farm, they 
would be as follows: London purple or Paris green, hellebore, pyrethrum 
and kerosene emulsion. There are many more that might be given that are 
very useful, but there are comparatively few cases where one of the above 
remedies will not answer the purpose. There are a great many patent rem- 
edies on the market, but aside from pyrethrum (also called buhach, Persian 
insect powder, etc.), I do not think that 1 could recommend any. These are 
in most cases preparations of arsenic with flour, plaster or other dilutent, 
and are much more expensive than are the ingredients when purchased sep- 
arate. 



ENTOMOLOGY FOR THE HORTICULTURIST. 



99 



I said that the fruit grower should know how to prepare his insecticides. 
As 1 have named but four, I will in a few words give directions for their 
preparation. 

London purple or Paris green, if used dry, should be used with flour or 
plaster in the proportion of about one to twenty. Some foliage, as that of 
potato vines, can stand a much stronger mixture, but tender plants, like cu. 
cumbers or melons, should have the mixture not stronger than that given 
above. If these poisons are to be applied in the wet way, they should be 
used in the proportion of one ounce of the poison to eight or ten gallons of 
water, or a level tablespoonf ul to an ordinary pail of water. 

The dry preparation is best applied when the foliage is damp, either early 
in the morning or after a shower. 

Hellebore, when applied dry, may be diluted with four or five parts of 
flour. W hen applied wet, one ounce should be put in three gallons of water, 
or two rounding tablespoonf ulls in a pail of water. If used in the dry way 
it, like the arsenites, should be applied when the foliage is moist. 

Pyrethrum, if applied dry, may be diluted the same as hellebore. It is 
very commonly used without dilution, in which case a much smaller amount 
is needed, and I think this is usually a better way. When applied wet, it 
should be applied the same as helleboie. 

Kerosene emulsion is one of the most useful of the insicticides, and may 
be easily prepared, as follows: Dissolve one half pound of hard soap, best 
whale-oil soap, in four pints of water, by boiling. When the soap is all dis- 
solved, remove from the fire and add eight pints of kerosene and agitate 
the whole briskly until a stable mixture is obtained. This is best done by 
using a force pump and pumping the mixture with force back into the ves- 
sel that contains it The emulsion may be diluted to the desired strength 
and used at once, or it may be allowed to stand and be used from when 
needed. 

The strength ordinarily used is prepared by diluting one part of the emul- 
sion in ten or twelve parts of water, which makes the kerosene about one- 
twentieth of the whole. 

The horticulturist should be able to sufficiently classify insects and insect 
remedies, to be able to tell what application would, in all probability, give 
protection in a given case, although he may never before have seen the in- 
sect that he desires to treat. Scientific knowledge is not essential to this. 
It is only necessary to know the feeding habits of insects and the nature of 
the remedies to be used. 

All insects may, in a general way, be divided into two classes; those that 
have well developed jaws and injure plants by gnawing them, as in the case 
of cut-worms, cabbage- worms, potato- beetles, etc.; and those that obtain 
their nourishment like a mosquito, by inserting a sharp proboscis or beak 
through which they suck the juices of the plants on which they feed, and 
thus sap their vitality. At first thought it would seem that the mandibu- 
late or gnawing insects would do more harm than the suctorial or sap- suck- 
ing species, but in the latter class are included the chinch bug, the squash 



100 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



bugs and all of the plant lice and leaf hoppers, as well as mosquitos, beet 
bugs and many others. 

The gnawing insects may be again divided into two classes; those that 
feed on the foliage of the plant and those that bore in twig or trunk or 
infest the roots. The presence of the first class is easily detected by the 
ragged partially eaten foliage while the latter are often not discovered until 
too late to save the plant from destruction. 

All insects that feed by gnawing parts of the plant may be destroyed by 
the use of Paris green or London purple if the application can be made to 
the part that they feed upon; hence the great value of these remedies 
against the codling moth, the canker worm, the potato beetle, etc. Where 
these remedies cannot be used without danger of poisoning fruit that is to 
be eaten, hellebore can often be substituted in their place, as it is much less 
dangerous to life. This remedy is especially effective in destroying saw fly 
larvae, common examples of which are known as, currant worm, raspberry 
worm, strawberry worm, cherry slug and rose slug. 

Borers, as a rule, can be managed with a jacknife by cutting in and de- 
stroying them or by cutting off infested twigs and burning them. Our 
worst apple tree borers, however, may be kept in check by the use of a 
wash prepared by adding a strong solution of washing soda to common soft 
soap, until the mixture reaches the consistency of paint. With an old 
whitewash brush this may be applied to the body of the tree early in June 
and again three or four weeks later. 

The flat-headed borer, which has long been considered one of the worst 
of the apple tree enemies, is best kept out of the orchard by keeping the 
trees vigorous and healthy, as they almost never attack a thrifty tree. Es- 
pecially is it necessary to keep the tree free from snn-scald as it is nearly 
always beneath these dark burnt spots on the southwest side of the tree 
that the borer is found. 

The suctorial insects are not killed by the use of poisons that kill by 
being taken internally, but by substances that kill by coming in external 
contact with the body. No one that knows the feeding habits of the plant 
lice would think of killing them by the use of arsenic in any of its forms. 
The plant might be coated with this poison without doing them any harm 
for their little sharp beak is thrust deep in leaf or branch before any food is 
taken. Two of the insecticides mentioned above kill by coming in exter- 
nal contact. These are Pyrethrum and kerosene emulsion. There is no 
insect that can stand wetting in kerosene and live. The emulsion is made 
for the purpose of diluting the oil to make the application less expensive 
and to prevent the destruction of the plant on which it is applied. The 
insects against which this remedy is most often used are bark lice, plant 
lice, leaf hoppers, chinch- bugs, etc. 

Pyrethrum is manufactured in only one place in this country and that is 
by the Buback Manufacturing Company, Stockton, California. This rem- 
edy should be purchased direct from the manufacturers or obtained through 
a druggist whom you can trust to purchase a fresh article and sell it to you 
unadulterated. 



ENTOMOLOGY FOR THE HORTICULTURIST. 



101 



As already stated, pyrethrum, like kerosene emulsion kills by coming in 
external contact. Insects treated with it are thrown in a few minutes into 
violent convulsions, which are followed by stupor and finally death. Some 
insects, however, as chinch-bugs, seem to be little effected by this substance, 
while others after lying for some time in a condition of stupor, revive and 
appear to be none the worse for the treatment, 

This remedy is especially useful in destroying soft bodied insects of all 
kinds where the foregoing remedies cannot be used; as for example, the 
destruction of house flies, plant lice and cabbage worms. 

During the past summer I found this remedy a very effectual destroyer 
of the striped cucumber beetle. To be most effectual, it must be applied in 
the dry way and in the early morning while the dew is still on and before 
the beetles become active. Dusted pure in this manner from a muslin bag 
it was wonderfully efficient, but when applied later in the day, it did little 
or no good. I believe all out-of-door applications should be made very early 
in the morning or just after a rain, if the best results are to be obtained. 
In-door applications are usually made in the evening so the dust may take 
effect during the night. 

Lastly, the farmers and fruit-growers of the State of Iowa should know 
that the Agricultural Experiment Station, located at Ames, was established 
for their benefit. As entomologist of the station, I wish to say that I hope 
to be promptly informed by the people of the State whenever injury to crops 
is being done by insects. Specimens of the insects and the inj ury done by 
them, as well as all possible information concerning the attack, should in 
every case accompany the communication. It will be my pleasure when re- 
ceiving such letters to suggest the remedies that seem to be indicated and, 
if the importance of the case seems to demand it, I will go in person and 
conduct such experiments as seem to promise relief. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Gillette: The leaf hopper did very much damage to the 
young nursery trees last summer. 

President Chamberlain: I will take time to ask Prof. Gillette 
about spraying with poisons. On my farm in Ohio, I had my man 
spray with London purple, but a late frost killed the forming apples, 
and we could not well estimate the value of the operation. At Ames 
I noticed that the spraying killed the foliage on some of the trees. 

Prof. Gillette: London purple should be used one pound to one 
hundred gallons of water; Paris green, one pound to one hundred and 
twenty-five gallons of water. We do not use arsenic because if it is 
dissolved it is most sure to burn the leaves. It is also difficult to 
estimate the strength of arsenic; sometimes it will be of full strength, 
and other times not so strong. Leaf hoppers can be killed by the 
kerosene emulsion. 



102 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

A paper on Evergreens, by John C. Ferris, was read by the Secre- 
tary. 



EVERGREENS FOR PRAIRIE HOMES. 



BY JOHN C. FERRIS, HAMPTON. 



To argue the need of trees around our homes would be a waste of words. 
Every forlorn- looking habitation upon the treeless farms belonging to non- 
resident landlords stands as a witness to their greed or indifference to 
everything but their share of some other man's labor. Every shivering ani- 
mal upon such a farm is a protest against some man's neglect. Resident 
land owners always plant trees of some kind. The pioneer has been com- 
pelled to use the soft wood trees because only cuttings have been available. 
Iowa has passed her frontier stage, and our prosperous and progressive 
farmers should and may have the best. The kind of trees to plant has 
always been an important query, much more than the style of architecture 
used in building, since trees will be progressing when buildings have 
crumbled. If the planting is for profit, many deciduous trees may be pre- 
ferable to junipers or conifers, but if beauty and shelter is the object sought, 
then evergreens should be largely used; first, because they are a windbreak 
in winter as well as in summer; second, because they are beautiful all the 
year round; and third, because they are the most economical windbreak that 
can be planted. The expense of windbreak includes the cost of the trees, 
the cost of planting and cultivation, and the use of the land occupied by the 
shelter belt. The evergreens cost more per hundred than deciduous trees, 
but as it requires fewer trees and less ground to accomplish the end desired, 
the expense is less than in the case of deciduous trees, and the result much 
more satisfactory. 

The purchase of the trees being the first outlay, many are deterred from 
planting because of the high price charged by the agents of dealers and 
jobbers. If farmers would order by letter or in person from the responsible 
nurseries, the cost of the tree3 would hardly be a considerable item in the 
expense of making the shelter belt. As a grove of pines is much more im- 
pervious to snow than a grove of deciduous trees the belt may be made 
nearer the buildings than in case of the latter, but to preserve the pines 
from breaking under the snow a snow break should be grown some rods 
outside of the pine belt. 

The Scotch pine is a very rapid grower and easily transplanted, and con- 
tinues to be a favorite wind-break tree in northern Iowa. If beauty is es- 
pecially desired, the spruces, balsams and cedars are used, and as the 



EVERGREENS FOR PRAIRIE HOMES. 



103 



branches of these are more flexible than of the pines, they are not so often 
broken under the snow. If timber is the object of planting, the White 
pine is of more value than any named above The White pine, is also a 
beautiful tree and should be in all collections where variety and fine effect 
is sought. 

I have found the Yellow and or Sand pine an easy tree to transplant from 
the forest and a rapid grower, but it is not beautiful. The Norway pine is 
a difficult tree to transplant. The foliage is beautiful, but the habit of the 
tree is too open for beauty. To encourage the planting of evergreens for 
ornament and shelter, nurserymen should make the price within the reach 
of all and publish it, and when this is done the farmers should respond by 
ordering freely and planting wherever needed. 

We are blamed for employing agents, but it is the fault of the farmers 
that this expense is added to the cost of production. They seldom order 
trees unsolicited, and they read too little horticulture, hence do not know 
what, when, or how to plant. 

DISCUSSION. 

L. A. Williams: An important point in the management of ever- 
greens is the time of the year to transplant. About the best and 
only season in my opinion, for successful planting of evergreens is 
just when the buds are swelling in the spring. 

B. F. Ferris: I am glad to hear this papef. This is about the 
first good word said in favor of the Scotch pine in this meeting. I 
am growing both White and Scotch pine, but by the time the White 
pine gets ten or fifteen feet high, the leader is killed, and the Scotch 
is uninjured. The Scotch pine does well everywhere about Waverly, 
and we will continue to plant it. In planting evergreens we can 
begin planting as soon as the frost is out of the ground, and continue 
until late in the season ; but early planting is more sure as a rule. The 
reason is plain; we have rains in the spring and are not certain to 
have later. If we delay the planting, we may pass the season of 
rains and in that case cannot have as good results. 

H. W. Lathrop: I would like to ask Mr. Ferris the comparative 
value of White and Scotch pine, when they have reached the height 
of thirty or forty feet? 

B. F. Ferris: For wind-breaks I like the Scotch pine; it makes a 
better and quicker wind-break than the White pine. We have no 
large Scotch pine in our vicinity. 

H. W. Lathrop: How is the Austrian pine? 

B. F. Ferris: Grows too slow, does not come from the nursery, 
and get up to useful size as fast as the Scotch pine. Takes too long 
to make a valuable wind-break of it. 



104 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



H. W. Lathrop: What is yonr opinion of Norway Spruce? Will 
they not grow close and make a better wind-break? 

B. F. Ferris: Yes, perhaps in time; but it will take longer. 

H. W. Lathrop: How long? In fifteen years will Norway Spruce 
be as good as Scotch Pine? 

B. F. Ferris: They may be as good or better, but I have only been 
in Iowa twelve years, and that is the extent of my experience. 

President Patten: I live in the same country as Mr. Ferris, and 
the Austrian Pine is not as good as the Scotch Pine. Neither is the 
Norway Spruce as good. 

R. P. Speer: White Pine does not grow as fast at first as Scotch 
Pine, but after a few years it will do better. White Pine will be 
twenty-four feet high, while Scotch Pine planted at the same time 
will be eighteen or twenty feet high. White Pine will have value 
when Scotch Pine does not. White Pine retains its beauty, after 
Scotch pine looks bad and is worthless. 

President Chamberlain: What about the Norway spruce? What 
is its value compared with others? 

R. P. Speer: In its native forests, it is not a long lived tree, and 
I do not think it would live to any considerable age with us. 

John Wragg: I agree with Mr. Ferris and President Patten. For 
the first few years the Scotch Pine is 50 per cent, ahead of any other 
variety. The Scotch pine has 50 cent, more foliage, and in conse- 
quence gives 50 per cent, more protection for the first ten or fifteen 
years. White pine is more beautiful, but the Scotch is more valuable 
for protection. If I wanted the best, after a considerable time, would 
take Norway spruce. For two best, would take Scotch pine and Nor- 
way spruce. Put the Norway spruce next the buildings, and the 
Scotch pine further away; then you have gained both points — orna- 
ment and protection. After having been out ten or twelve years, the 
White pine will make the fastest growth. The faster the trees grow, 
the farther apart the whorls will be, and if the trees grow too fast, 
they do not afford as good protection as if they had made a medium 
growth. In regard to the time to plant, I prefer a little later plant- 
ing than some others do. As a rule our best authors, such as Hoopes 
and Downing, recommend rather late planting, say when the buds 
are swollen; in this latitude generally from about the 20th of April 
to the first of May. 

M. C. Staves: As to late and early planting people differ greatly. 
Some say, plant in June, others say in the fall. I have had twenty 



EVERGREENS FOR PRAIRIE HOMES. 105 

years experience. I have planted more than a hundred thousand ever- 
greens, and would plant as soon as frost is out of ground in spring, 
and consider that the best time. The smaller the trees are set out 
from the seed bed the better. Very small ones have done the best 
and made the best windbreak. The best tree for windbreaks is Scotch 
pine. Trees of this variety on the Rankin place near here, have been 
out twenty -two or twenty three years, and are still doing well. They 
are not as pretty as the White pine or Norway spruce, but for wind- 
breaks they are very desirable. 

Professor Budd: In the eastern part of the State, in nurseries 
where Scotch pines were raised, some of the trees were left and grew 
up thickly, and they make extra stock shelter, and stand tramping 
better than other varieties of evergreens. Some of these trees have 
been used for that purpose for twelve years. I know of no other va- 
riety that will stand such tramping. Another thing that people do 
not seem to know, is that nearly all the trees we got years ago, were 
Alsace pine. Now we get Riga pine; it accounts for the disagree- 
ment. The Alsace pine, with age gets ragged and scraggy. The 
handsomest pine that we get in the west, is the Red pine. It is scarce 
and likely to be, as it is difficult to get forest seedlings to grow, as 
they are difficult to transplant. But when you grow them from the 
seed, they are easy to transplant. We ought to call attention every 
year to our White spruce; there is nothing prettier, except the Rocky 
Mountain blue spruce, which is too scarce to talk about. 

S. J. Councilman: I have a friend in Mitchell county who got a 
bundle of evergreens by mail. He planted them out and in ten years 
they obscured the house. I got several thousand Arbor Vitse and had 
trouble to get rid of them. I kept a good many of them; they never 
cost me more than twenty dollars. They would have cost me hun- 
dreds of dollars if I had bought them. 

Silas Wilson read a paper on protection of orchards as follows: 



14 



106 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



WINTER PROTECTION. 



BY SILAS WILSON, ATLANTIC. 



Mr. President and gentlemen of the Society: We heard during the last po- 
litical campaign a great deal about protection to American industry, but 
heard nothing about protection to Iowa orchards and vineyards. What is 
the cause or .causes of the premature old age and decay of our apple orchard 
trees? Is it alone attributable to climate, severe winters and bright warm 
sun, or our late growing autumns, or want of protection by timber belts, or 
to the system of propogation by root grafting weakening the constitution of 
the tree? My impression is, the first, and perhaps the greatest cause of in- 
jury to our fruit trees is the lack of winter protection by timber belts on 
the south and west sides of our orchards. Leave the east and north ex- 
posed, and the more evergreens you have in this belt for protection the bet- 
v ter. If they were all evergreens it would afford the most ample protection. 
My observation convinces me that orchards planted on land sloping to the 
north, the steeper the better. The most vigorous, healthy orchard I have 
seen is in central part of Cass county; it is sitnated on a steep hill side, fac- 
ing northward. The varieties are, Fameuse or Snow, Ben Davis, Jannetin, 
Roman Stem, Winesap, Jonathan, Sweet Romanite, Grimes Golden, Fall 
Wine Sap, etc. , etc. Of course we can't all find hillsides on which to plant 
orchards in Iowa, but we can all find good winter protection by planting 
liberally of evergreens and forest trees to protect our orchards from the 
strong south winds and winter's sun. 

This Society has ever impressed upon the people the importance of timber 
belts for protection to orchards. 

Another thought I wish to impress upon your minds and that is, I think 
a great deal can be done in planting an orchard with a view to protecting 
the trees from winter's sun. Plant the rows north and south, twenty- four 
feet apart, and the trees sixteen feet apart in the rows, thus you see, rows 
so planted will afford considerable protection to the bodies of each other. 
However, in my opinion, the most ample protection will not make long 
lived trees on the prairies of the northwest. I wish to emphasize this, that 
all fruit trees will be short lived What is the remedy? Plant a few trees 
every two or three years, and you will always have some healthy, vigorous 
trees in fruiting. 



WINTER PROTECTION 



107 



My Jonathan and Grimes' Golden trees, seven years planted, bore two to 
three bushels to the tree, of fine, large, highly colored apples, now in cellar at 
their beat. I think good protection on the south and west, help to prevent 
early blooming, not only to apple but other trees; plum and cherry as well. 

Grapes and other small fruits should be protected by laying down and 
covering with earth. I believe in fall pruning. Grapes should always be 
planted in rows north and south, if the lay of land will admit of it. Plant 
fifteen to twenty inches deep; that is to say, place the lower system of roots 
at least fifteen inches deep, or twenty inches is better. 

Blackberries and raspberries can also be protected profitably by laying 
down and covering with earth. 

The best small fruit farm I ever saw was two or three miles west of 
Denver, Colorado, known as Wheat Pride. There I saw many varieties of 
red raspberries, considered too tender to grow here. Also Lawton and An- 
cient Britain blackberries, in all their glory. In fact, all the varieties 
seemed to be growing under their load of fine large berries, and these plants 
were all protected by laying down and covering with earth. 

Mr. Bomberger, of Harlan, Iowa, read a paper before the Western Iowa 
Horticultural Society setting forth the advantages of winter protection to 
raspberries and blackberries. 

The best mulching for currants or gooseberries is, I believe, coal ashes; 
it keeps the ground cool and moist, better than any other mulch I have 
seen. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Budd: I do not want to criticise, but question whether the 
protection on the west side is an advantage. We used to protect our 
orchards on the north and west sides, but they were short-lived and 
full of trouble. On the west side, an improvement on the old plan 
is practiced by some; that is, to allow the protection on the south side 
to extend beyond the orchard grounds, and in this way the orchard is 
protected from the southwest, without the disadvantages arising from 
having the windbreak along on the west side, Would avoid protect- 
ing on the north and west sides. 

N. T. Case: Now as regards deep planting of grape vines: I have 
sandy soil, and black soil right adjoining. I planted three hundred 
vines the same day, and where the soil is deep and rich we set about 
twelve to fourteen inches deep; those on the hillside and sandy knolls 
failed. Now I plant on sandy soil, the depth of spade, handle and 
all; if tops will not reach out I leave a basin to be filled up as the 
vines grow. 

B. F. Ferris: I have too much timidity to criticize as I might, but 
my experience has been opposite to that of Prof. Budd. The theory 



108 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



that warm weather is harder on trees than cold weather, I cannot ac- 
cept. I find that I must gather scions before very cold weather, to 
have them free from damage. It is safer to cut as soon as the leaves 
are off. When the mercury runs down to thirty or forty degrees, I 
consider that scions are worthless. My brother came to my place 
once after a severe cold spell, and asked me how my trees were win- 
tering. I told him I thought they were all right. He said he doubted 
it; so we went out to examine the trees. We found them all badly 
damaged. The Wealthy was the least damaged, while Walbridge, 
and other varieties supposed to be hardy, were dead or so badly dam- 
aged as to be worthless. We had had no warm weather, so that heat 
could not have damaged them. 

J. M. Prouty : I would like to ask Mr. Wilson what kind of coal 
ashes he speaks of? My experience with Iowa coal ashes is that it 
is certain death to any kind of shrubbery. 

Silas Wilson: I referred to Iowa soft coal. I have my best cur- 
rants in such mulch. 

S. J. Councilman: We want a fertilizer more than a mulch. 

Prof. Budd: I did not mean that a Rambo apple could be taken 
up north and wintered, but we do want air circulation, and the want 
of air circulation causes the death of many trees that is attributed to 
other causes. 

B. F. Ferris: I am not finding fault with that theory at all, but 
the theory that warm weather injures trees. I cannot think that 
warm weather is as dangerous to trees as cold weather. 

The subject of Meteorology was introduced by J. M. Elder. 

J. M. Elder: I did not know until three or four weeks ago that I 
was expected to write a paper on this subject. Circumstances were 
such that I prepared no paper, and not expecting to come, I recently 
wrote a letter to the Secretary, and as my affairs finally did take shape 
so that I did get here, will read the letter, so as not to be entirely in 
default. 

Prof. Budd: Judge Bacon has an orchard in Harrison county, and 
he raises Ben Davis, Fulton, Jonathan and other varieties, and he has 
trees in good condition, of many varieties, that fail even a considera- 
ble distance south. He has a fine, airy situation, and there the proper 
conditions exist for ripening up the wood. Well ripened trees will 
stand cold that would kill trees in an unripened condition. In Judge 
Bacon's orchard, trees have stood forty degrees below zero without 
injury, and ten miles away, another member of our Society had 



* 



WINTER PROTECTION. 109 

Wealthy killed. His conditions are favorable to a late growth, and 
his trees were not prepared for severe cold. As Captain Speer says, 
trees must ripen in order to endure the cold. Yes, they must have a 
determinate growth, and should ripen up the wood like the currant. 
The President called Vice-President Secor to the chair. 

B. F. Ferris: In thinking on the argument on the paper just read, 
I was thinking it was strange that in Missouri the voting on Ben 
Davis was unanimously in its favor; in south Iowa not so unanimous, 
in central Iowa less so, and with us it will not do at all. If the theory 
is correct that cold weather does not kill trees, why not plant these 
varieties up with us? Eleven, nine, eight, seven and six years ago we 
had &n abundant crop of apples, following mild winters; five, four 
and three years ago we had a light crop after hard winters, and our 
varieties are thinning out. 

S. L. Morrison : I live in southern Iowa, and if I were planting an 
orchard of one thousand trees would plant nine hundred of them Ben 
Davis. 

C. C. Bell: If you will indulge me a little in discussion of varieties 
of apples, as a dealer, will give you a little of my experience. I live 
in the central part of Missouri. Some twelve years ago I began the 
study of shipping apples. Then the Ben Davis was not as largely 
planted as now; then, though, as now, the Ben Davis was the leading 
apple. As a dealer I preferred to handle them, but there is danger of 
planting too many of them. The Ben Davis has been more profit in 
our State than any two varieties. But we have other good varie- 
ties, and there will be a demand for fruit of better quality. I have 
known farmers to plant nine hundred acres all to Ben Davis. But I 
believe the time has come when we will make improvement. At the 
last meeting of our Missouri Society some thought the Gano would 
take the place of Ben Davis. I do not know how far north this va- 
riety will endure; it does not do as well in the north half of Missouri 
as it does in southern Missouri. We want an apple to do the best in 
the market we are shipping to. The Ben Davis has good shipping 
qualities, and that makes it popular. While I admire the apples you 
have on your tables, I cannot agree that Iowa is up to Missouri in „ 
apple growing. We have two large cities in our State, St. Louis and 
Kansas City, but they are poor apple markets. My market extends 
from Georgia to Texas. I try to buy apples that suit the people; and 
as it ships well of course it suits the shipper. Of late years I have 



HQ STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cautioned our people against planting all Ben Davis. Yet up to this 
time it has sustained itself as to profit. The time is approaching 
that I must leave, but I wish to say that I am well pleased to have 
met the Iowa horticulturists. This is not the first time that I have 
visited your city, but it is the first time that I have visited your So- 
ciety. I believe from what I have seen and heard that you are on the 
road to success, and that you are more practical, or take a more prac- 
tical view, than we do. Oar State meetings attract larger audiences, 
but we do more in the way of ornamentals, especially at our night 
meetings. We inculcate a taste for the ornamental, and have made 
headway, in beautifying our school grounds and other public grounds. 
Oar State is slow, and as the Democrats put it, "poor old Missouri;" 
but we have many natural advantages and resources. You talk of 
thirty to forty degrees below zero; we think it cold at fourteen de- 
grees below. The farm resources of Iowa are very great, and you 
have a great State. This grand building in which you meet is an or- 
nament to the State, and you have splendid rooms, fitted to your use. 
Oar State has not done so much for us. Oar Central Missouri Horti- 
cultural Society at Booneville had hard work to organize, and for a 
time had only about fourteen members. Now we have two hundred 
and fifty members, paying annual dues of fifty cents each, and we ex- 
pect to build a horticultural hall as soon as possible. We held an 
exposition, and while we only charged ten cents admission, we had 
an apple display that was only second to the St. Louis exposition. In 
conclusion, as I said, this is my first visit to your Horticultural So- 
ciety, and I hope some of your members will visit our Society. I was 
pleased to see your Governor and Lieutenant Governor in your meet- 
ing. I do not wish to criticize, yet when your Lieutenant Governor 
talks about selling apples to Missouri, I think that cannot occur, as 
fruit is our crop. Each State has some principal product, as for in- 
stance, Texas has its cotton and Missouri has its fruit. You surely 
will find varieties that will meet your needs. I wish to thank the 
Society for the honors conferred on Mr. Patterson and myself, and 
the courtesies extended daring the time we have been with you. I 
wish to say to you that if you wish to go to a warmer climate, and 
where apples will pay better than anywhere else in the world, I invite 
you to come to Missouri. One acre here will sell for enough to buy 
two down there. (Laughter and applause.) We don't talk politics 
in our horticultural meetings, but we don't care how many Republi- 
cans come to live among us, as they have a civilizing influence. 



WINTER PROTECTION. 



Ill 



J. A. Speer: 1 have heard a good deal of talk of Russian apples 
and I heard there would be some here on exhibition, but I have not 
seen any of them yet. I have had but little experience with Russian 
apples myself, and if the Lord will forgive me for what I have done, 
I promise never to plant another one. 

Vice President Secor: Perhaps Prof. Budd can tell us whether 
there are Russian apples on exhibition. 

Prof. Budd: I took a carpet sack full to the Western Iowa Hor- 
ticultural Society, and have taken them to other places- I brought 
samples in my pocket, and will place them on tables in the fruit 
room. Our friend from Missouri speaks of the Gano apple; I do 
not know what it will prove to be worth in Southern Iowa, but think 
it is not hardy enough to stand our climate. Two of the apples were 
sent me from Missouri, and the day I got them, I received some 
Varonish Rosy from Mr. Collman from Corning. I also got Varonish 
Rosy from two other places in the State, east and north, and they 
were in good condition, while the Gano was decaying and way 
past maturity. 

President W. I. Chamberlain, of the Agricultural College, made a 
brief statement as to the work and objects of the college, and placed 
upon the table copies of the picture pamphlet of the college for 
those who wanted them. 

Mr. H. W. Lathrop, of the Fifth district, was called upon for his 
report as director of said district. 

H. W. Lathrop: Before reading my report will say, that the di- 
rectors of this Society ordered us to collect any promising seedlings, 
or any other desirable varieties,* in our respective districts, and if 
necessary visit the orchards, obtain fruit, examine trees, and report 
characteristics, etc. In pursuance of that order I visted several 
orchards, and procured fruit of some varieties that I considered 
desirable, and have them here on the table for your inspection. Mr. 
Lathrop then read his report as] director of the Fifth district. 



112 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE FIFTH DISTRICT. 



BY H. W. LATHROP, IOWA CITY. 



Another year of fruit growing is added to our calendar, and its events 
have become history. Our trees, vines and shrubs came through the winter 
in fair condition. The spring was rather a cold and damp one, but proved 
to be a most favorable one to the apple crop, which was a heavy one, con- 
sidering the condition of the trees, as many of them have been almost 
killed by the rigors of the past severe winters. In most of our orchards all 
the trees that had any vitality left bore full crops. The apples were large, 
well colored, free from scab, and comparatively free from worms. The 
cold drizzly days when the trees were in bloom, and for sometime after- 
ward, must have had a chilling effect on the codling moth, as they did but lit- 
tle damage. 

There was a frost on the 12th of May, soon after the strawberries com- 
mence'd blooming, that cut off most of the blooms then open, but enough 
were uninjured to insure a moderate crop. Grapes in some localities suf- 
fered from the same cause, but a fair crop was harvested, though they were 
late in ripening. 

Of raspberries and blackberries there was a good crop, and they found a 
ready market. P. J. Fisher, an extensive grower of these fruits in Linn 
county, who has nine acres of these varieties laid down and covered, re- 
ported that he got at one time a draft for a thousand dollars for a portion of 
his crop that he marketed in Cedar Rapids. 

After our markets had failed to get supplies of home grown grapes, con- 
siderable quantities of the Concord were shipped in from the east and they 
found a ready sale. 

Plums and cherries were a failure, the former from the effect of the spring 
frost, and the latter from the decay and death of the trees. The Fifth Dis- 
trict produces all the summer and fall apples needed for the supply of its 
markets, they being sold as low as twenty-five cents per bushel. Roman 
Stem, Willow, Black Annette and Iowa Blush, being the only winter varie- 
ties we can rely upon for hard trees. 

The Cicada Septendecem, or seventeen year locust paid us another visit 
this year, and it has proven very destructive to young orchards and nurser- 
ies that were planted on original timber land. Wherever bodies or limbs of 



REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF FIFTH DISTRICT. 



113 



trees have been stung by them they should be cut oil below the lowest place 
stung. 

About the 10th of December, I visited the orchard and cellar of Mr. Jesse 
Pearson near Ainsworth, in Washington county, where I found a seedling 
winter apple that will prove to be a valuable addition to our list of winter 
fruits, keeping till into March and later, and being of good quality for 
desert and cooking. The tree is 45 years old, the body measuring four and 
a half feet in circumference four feet from the ground, and from 33 to 36 
feet in heighth, and it is to all appearances perfectly healthy. It has been 
propagated and disseminated to some extent, and proves to be a good 
orchard tree. It is now being planted in nursery by C. N. Stewart of Wash- 
ington, Iowa. 

Subsequently I visited the farm and cellar of T. G. Ishewood, near Mt. 
Vernon, in Linn county, where I found in orchard four trees that were 
planted in the spring of 1863, from a nursery in Geneva or Rochester, New 
York. These trees are in a row next to a row of Fameuse, and they are 
better and healthier than the latter, and these trees are reported to bear 
more fruit than all the other trees in the orchard, which originally con- 
tained 120 trees. The apple is of large size, good for cooking and eating, 
though not in condition for eating till after the holidays, and it will keep 
till March or later. 

I also visited the farm of Joseph Caldwell near Solon in Johnson county, 
where I found a seedling apple tree 41 years old in a healthy condition, and 
it is an abundant and constant bearer, of apples medium to small in size, of 
good quality, that will keep till February. There are seven other trees in 
the same orchard propagated from sprouts of the old tree. Trees of this 
variety are being propagated in nursery to a limited extent by Budd & 
Royce of Shellsburg, in Benton county, and Abner Branson of West Branch. 
A person who has taken some pains to give it notoriety has named it Kish- 
kekosh. 

The tree on Mr. Pearson's place, the fruit of which was named Pearson 
by the late Suel Foster, has had all the care it needed, while those on the 
farms of Mr. Ishewood and Caldwell have had all the neglect they could 
endure. 

These apples will And themselves in good company in our apple list of the 
Central District with the Pearson. 

DISCUSSION. 

J. Thatcher: There is one thing in report from First and Fifth 
Districts in which they agree, and is worthy of consideration. Mr. 
Shaw, from the western part of the First District, says they had an 
excellent fruit crop, and Mr. Lathrop brings the same report from 
his district. My district (First) is at an elevation of 440 feet above 
the sea, at the low water mark at Keokuk. The altitude increases as 



15 



114 



STATE HORTICULTUK A L SOCIETY. 



you go west where Mr. Shaw lives, in Decatur county, when if you 
will describe a circle from Mr. Shaw's place to Iowa City, you will 
find the altitude nearly the same. It may be that altitude has some- 
thing to do with success in fruit growing. 

Report of Sixth District by C. L. Watrous read as follows: 



REPORT OF SIXTH DISTRICT. 



BY C. L. WATROUS. 



This report may better be brief, because things horticultural are in a 
transition condition. Probably one-half the apple trees in the district have 
been ruined by the extremes of the past six years. The living, whether 
sound or crippled, united in showing a laudable willingness to do their best 
in fruiting. There have been more home-grown apples in the Des Moines 
market the past season than in any other one of the past five. 

Cherries were nearly a failure, and most of the bearing trees are dead or 
dying. Native plums are ready for business, but shirked their responsibili- 
ties in 1888. They owe us a big crop in '89. 

Grapes and small fruits did fairly well, as appears by the letters received, 
and planters are in no wise discouraged in growing them for profit. 

In fact it may be said of the year that its most important showing is that 
planters, generally, are not in the least discouraged. The orchards and 
fruit gardens of Central Iowa are going to be replenished with new trees 
and plants in place of injured ones, and our people will resolutely strive to 
eat fruit of their own growing. Some seedling apples are under trial and 
giving good satisfaction. I have seen or heard nothing to indicate that 
planters are discouraged on account of the late severe seasons. They seem 
to be calling for and planting prelty largely of the old, well tried varieties, 
in spite of the late misfortunes of some of them. Meanwhile they are 
anxiously looking for new and better things that can be shown to have be- 
haved well here during a period long enough to warrant confidence. High 
priced specialties are not so easily palmed off as they were, because men 
are becoming better educated and more conservative. 

Valuable letters have been received from Messrs. Wragg of Dallas, Lewis 
of Madison, Graves of Story and Mathews of Marion, which I will read 
and transmit to the Secretary as part of this report. 

Waukee, Iowa, January 15, 1889. 

Hon. C. L. Watrous: Dear Sir— The past year has been one of encourage- 
ment to the horticulturist. While it will not be famous as a year of great 



REPOKT OF SIXTH DISTRICT. 



115 



crops of fruit of any kind (unless it be melons), yet the close observer will 
have noticed many things that point to a general advance on the line of 
horticulture. 

There was a fair crop of apples in this district, if we consider the great 
loss of trees of our most popular sorts, in the last ten years, and prices have 
ruled low. One noticeable fact, in travels through this part of the State, 
was the fine crop of Jonathans. When I say fine, I mean by comparison. 
You well know that the most of the older trees of this favorite sort are 
dead or badly crippled; but this year every tree, it seemed, that could bear 
did its best. Grimes' Golden is growing in favor. Pewaukee and Wal- 
bridge are both giving fair satisfaction, considering that most of the trees 
are yet young. On my own grounds, the heaviest bearer of the new varie- 
ties was Yellow Transparent. 

Plums were an entire failure, except in a few favored locations. The De 
Soto was the only one that bore on my grounds. I have a very fine young 
experimental orchard of plums now planted, of what are supposed to be 
the best of our native sorts and a few of European origin or crosses. I ex- 
pect great results in a very few years. 

Cherries were a failure, because our people neglected to keep planting. 
The older trees are all dead, or nearly so, and the failure was so sudden 
that there were few young trees of bearing age to replace them. The ex- 
ception to this is the " Wragg." Young trees bore very full of extremely 
fine fruit, and Mr. Humphrey writes me that the original trees are healthy 
and productive at twenty-five years of age. I quote from letter of M. J. 
Graham, of this county, in Horticultural Art Journal for August: "The 
Wragg is a little larger, later, and more productive than English Morello, 
and one tree of Wragg at six years old will produce more than fifty Early 
Richmonds at same age. I have the trees all growing in same soil and con- 
ditions, and speak from experience." I have also planted a small experi- 
mental orchard of the Russian cherries. I like the behavior of the trees, 
but as yet can say nothing as to their value. 

Grapes were fairly good, where taken care of by covering. Mr. Graham 
has thirty varieties in bearing, and is growing very fine fruit, but he takes 
good care of his vines, 

The Shaffer is the raspberry for Iowa. Hopkins is also doing well. Can't 
speak yet as to dewberries. Blackberries, fair crop. 

Evergreens did remarkably well; very little loss in transplanting where 
trees have been carefully handled. Forest seedlings a failure, so far as my- 
self and others that I have heard from are concerned. I am now testing 
some twenty or more varieties of conifers new to the Northwest. I expect 
a few of them to be a success, and a great addition to our list of beautiful 
conifers; but time must prove it. 

The Horticultural Societies and newspapers are surely educating the peo- 
ple, and I am heartily glad to see it. There is a growing interest in trees, 
fruits and flowers— a disposition to learn of those who have made it a 
study, and to prove things before they either approve or condemn them. 



HQ STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Having already made this letter longer than I intended, by one-half, I 
remain, yours, 

John Wragg. 
Ames, Iowa, January 10, 1889. 

O. L, Watrous, Des Moines: 

Dear Sir— In compliance with your request for a report as to condition 
of horticulture in this county, I would report: 

After passing through the drouth of 1887 and the severe winter following, 
the spring finds our fruit trees and small fruits in much better condition 
than had been expected. The spring of 1888 was quite favorable for setting 
small fruits and nursery stock generally, and when planted early and care 
used in mulching, etc., it has succeeded fairly well. 

Strawberries were a fair crop on the older beds. Raspberries and black- 
berries were somewhat injured by dry weather. Currants and gooseberries , 
a full crop. Grapes were pretty well loaded, but did not seem to ripen prop- 
erly, nor in their usual season. Cherry crop, very light. Plums were a fair 
crop, thongh somewhat thinned by late frost. 

Apples of summer and fall varieties, seemed to do very well. Winter 
apples, scarce. 

The closing months of 1888 seem to have been quite favorable for matur- 
ing both trees and shrubs, and with the mild weather thus far this winter, 
may we not hope that our extreme seasons have passed? 
Respectfully yours, 

A. J. Graves. 



Winterset, Iowa, January 7, 1889. 

Friend Watrous: 

In response to your inquiry I will say the season of 1888 has been with us 
in Madison county rather difficult to deal with. Very dry at first, quite wet 
later, and dry again still later, made a combination trying in the extreme. 
Our fruit crop has been quite as good as such a season could give us. Straw- 
berries, where well cared for the season before, gave a fair crop of some- 
what defective fruit, owing, I think, to rains during the blossoming season. 
Of these, Crescent, as usual, took the lead in quantity. Downer's Prolific 
was small and defective, James Vick of fair size, but a lighter yield than 
usual; Sharpless all rotted; Jessie seemed soft and smaller than I expected 
to see, and Bubach gave me large and perfect berries. I have great hopes 
for Bubach and Mt. Vernon. 

Raspberries were a light crop. Some growers in this vicinity had some 
very good Gregg, but the yield of all varieties was disappointing. Blackber- 
ries were of fair quality, but a light crop, mainly Snyder, with a few of 
Stone's Hardy, and some others. 

Cherries failed entirely, a neighbor, with a large orchard of bearing trees, 
not marketing a box, but at present writing the promise is good for the next 
crop. 



REPORT OF SIXTH DISTRICT. 



117 



Of apples we have enongh to supply our market with home grown fruit, 
and some have been sold abroad. Passing the summer varieties, those bear- 
ing most this year, were Fameuse, Roman Stem, Jonathan, Winesap and 
Janet. Winesap does not usually do much for us, but occasionally helps us 
in an off year, as it did this season. 

We had more blight than usual on apple trees, the Russian and Iron Clad 
sorts seeming to get more than their share. 

Grapes were of medium quality and about half a crop. 

Of the evergreen trees, to which attention has lately been attracted, we 
have in our county trees of fifteen to twenty feet, of several kinds. I think 
of those here the Engelman spruce is best. It is of beautiful form and 
color, and bears the climate well, and I think more uniformly colored than 
the Menzies spruce, but it may be owing to the fact that the Menzies spruce 
are of smaller size. The Douglas spruce is good, but the finest trees are the 
ones in partial shade. Pinus Pondorosa is hardy, but is quite open in habit 
of growth, which makes it undesirable either for ornament or shelter. 

This statement has drawn out longer than I intended, but you can draw 
your pen through what is not wanted. Yours, ete. 

W. H. Lewis. 

Knoxville, Iowa, January 7, 1888. 

Hon. C. L. Watrotjs: Dear Sir— In answer to yours of 3d inst., con- 
cerning the behaviour of old and new fruits, I could say that we had a mag- 
nificent crop of apples last fall and summer. About all the well known 
sorts producing abundantly. First class apples are being peddled about 
town as low as 95 cents per bushel— cheap enough for January. 

Among the varieties not so well known which have demonstrated their 
Talue here might be mentioned the Red Sweet Pippin, or Moore's Sweet. I 
know of trees which have been in orchard for forty years and are still in 
good health and productive. Duling, or Duling Sweet, a desirable early 
sweet apple, which we have had for the past thirty-four years, seems to be 
like the Moore's Sweet, plenty hardy enough for this portion of our State. 
I recollect the original trees of the Duling, in Coshocton county, Ohio. 

Belle du Havre, Baltimore and Fanny are also desirable. 

I find the trees of Haas, Walbridge, Peck Pleasant, Utter's Red, English 
Golden Russet, Tetofsky, Perry Russet and Jefferson County all hardy to 
very hardy, but unfruitful and utterly unprofitable. 

For a handsome, good and hardy fall apple, 1 like the McLellan. 

The Russian apple No. 240, of the government importation, bore well this 
season, as it has done for many years. It ripens about middle of Septem- 
ber, a little before, but has the habit of dropping its fruit so badly that by 
the time it reaches maturity the apples are about all on the ground. Early 
Joe is as hardy and durable as it is good in quality. 

Saxton and Plumb's Cider have come through the late winters unscathed, 
while Lowell, Fall Orange, Twenty-Ounce, Westfield Seek-no-further and 
Winter Sweet Paradise have shown themselves hardy enough for this lo- 
cality. 



118 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ShiaDassee Beauty, a seedling of Fameuse, has done well. Tree hardy 
and productive, fruit like that of the Snow, but much larger, and on that 
account more valuable for market. 

Stark, Hawley, Potter's Early, Jersey Sweet and Bed Warrior have suc- 
cumbed to the late severe winters and taken their places with the " silent 
majority." 

Red Ox not productive. Hog Island fairly hardy and fruitful, but not 
desirable for appearance and quality. 

Whitney persists in ripening here in August, thus coming into competi- 
tion with larger and handsomer apples, consequently is of but little value 
as a market fruit. 

The weather last spring destroyed the blossoms of both plums and cher- 
ries. Have fruited the Mariana two years and find it much smaller, later 
and not so good as Wild Goose. Golden Beauty is better and evidently 
a hardier tree, without the habit of " gumming " like the Mariana. Ripens 
about first week in October. 

Pear orchards yielded well, the fruit being large, handsome and good 
Howell and Mt. Vernon are profitable with us. I have over 350 pear trees 
in orchard, embracing nearly fifty sorts. No blight within the past ten 
years, but one of our severe winters made a raid on them, which proved to 
some extent demoralizing— the first serious trouble experienced here from 
the winters. However, but few of the trees were killed outright— merely 
reminded of the uncertainties of sublunary affairs. 

Very truly yours, 

B. A. Mathews. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Budd: I believe there has been no cherry talk at this meet- 
ing. At all the horticultural meetings this year the cherry was re- 
ported to have failed. We have cherries imported from Mosselle., 
and the cherries from east France have failed. Varieties of the hard- 
iness of Early Richmond and English Morrello have all gone out. 
Varieties imported from Silescia and further north have stood about 
thirty degrees below zero and have never shown any defect. This is> 
not a year for stone fruits. Not even De Soto plums fruited this 
year, but several of these cherries fruited. 

Pres. Patten: I have been growing the Ladimer cherries nine or 
ten years, and they fruited three or four years ago. I had Plum-stone 
Morrello, English Morrello and Wragg. The Ladimer was most 
promising until last year; on one side was Early Richmond, and on 
the other side Wragg. These stood until two or three years ago. 
The two Ladimer trees are nearly dead. The Wragg and Plum-stone 
Morrello are nearly dead. The Ladimer were grafted on black Mor~ 



EVENING SESSION. 



119 



rello. I am very sorry that it is not hardy enough to stand with us. 
It made me more cautious to see that this tree that fruits away out 
on the plains of Russia, cannot stand in north Iowa. The Ostheim, 
introduced by a German gardener, near Minneapolis, is the hardiest I 
have had. Twenty three Oreil was recommended as quite hardy also, 
but it is an entire failure with me. Most of those that lived that I 
got from the College have proven entire failures. While there may 
be several varieties that have fruited on the College Farm, I consider 
the seeds of more value than the trees that bore them. We can get 
better trees from such seeds than any trees that we will ever import 
from Europe. I raised about one quart of cherries from English 
Morrello this year, and now the trees have gone out. I consider 
these seeds of value, as we are liable to get trees from them that will 
meet our wants. 

C. L. Watrous: In regard to these twenty-five varieties of cher- 
ries that I received from the College Farm, there are two classes. 
One is upright, like the cherries of the eastern States; the other is 
smaller, like our English Morrello and Early Richmond. I have 
three-year trees of these varieties, and will plant seed from these to 
be budded on Mahaleb, and I will report. I will do my best to get 
more trees, and after a few years we can tell what to expect. I, like 
Mr. Patten, have more confidence of getting something more valua- 
ble by planting seeds than by importation. 

C. L. Watrous moved to adjourn until half-past seven o'clock. 

Carried. 



EVENING SESSION— SECOND DAY. 



President Patten in the chair. 

H. W. Lathrop, on part of Obituary Committee, read the following 
report: 

Whereas, The late Henry Avery, A. J. Haviland and D. C. Williams 
have since our last meeting been called from their labor in our horticultural 
field to their final earthly rest, and to the enjoyment of the heavenly par- 
adise; therefore, 

Resolved, That in their departure we have lost three faithful co-laborers, 
and that we will attempt to continue the work they have left behind them, 



120 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



by emulating their virtues and practicing the good examples they set for our 
imitation. 

Besolved, That we will extend to the mourning friends our heartfelt sym- 
pathies for their loss. 

Besolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted by our Secretary 
to the families of our departed brothers. 

DISCUSSION. 

H. W. Lathrop: Mr. President, there was only, one of these, of our 
deceased members, with whom I was acquainted; and must say that 
when I come up here and he is not here, I miss his cordial hand-grasp 
and his genial presence. I refer to Mr. Haviland. Within the last 
few years death has taken some of our most useful members. "When 
I come up here to these meetings, I especially miss such men as A. 
J. Haviland, Suel Foster and John N. Dixon. During the early his- 
tory of this Society, Suel Foster's name was connected with all our 
work. They were wheel horses that did hard work and did it well. 
Suel Foster's name will ever be connected with the Wealthy and the 
Catalpa, and Dixon's name with the spraying of orchards and econ- 
omic entomology; and nobody was ahead of Father Haviland in the 
introduction of hardy fruits for the Northwest. A feeling of loneli- 
ness comes over me, and I miss this trio. nI wish I could see two 
generations of Dixons and Averys, like we can see two generations 
of Havilands. 

Silas Wilson moved the adoption of the resolution by a rising vote. 

Prof. Budd: Before taking the vote I would like to say a few 
words. Many of the members of this Society had no personal 
acquaintance with Henry Avery, but all knew of his work. He was 
a member of the old Northwestern Fruit- Growers' Association at a 
very early day; and perhaps he did more than any other man in the 
Northwest, outside of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, to unravel the 
nomenclature and advance the interests of horticulture. To the time 
of the death of Chas. Downing, Mr. Avery was his leading western 
correspondent; he also rendered great assistance to Dr. Warder, and 
those knowing the original act endowing this Society, will know of 
of his work in its behalf. He was indeed a wheel horse. On his 
grounds at Burlington he was constantly carrying on experiments 
until the time of his death. All honor to the name of Henry Avery. 

Carried by an unanimous vote. 

Secretary read the following report, which was referred to Com- 
mittee on President's Address: 



SECRET ART'S REPORT. 



121 



REPORT OF SECRETARY. 



As we have twelve Directors, who are expected each to report for his dis- 
trict, I do not consider it necessary to go into any considerable detail in 
reporting the condition of fruit growing to members who are as well or bet- 
ter informed as to the condition of fruit growing in their localities, and the 
reports of the Directors, the papers to be read and the discussions to follow, 
will, it is hoped, present a valuate fund of information. 

The worst fears of the past few years have been realized in the decline and 
death of most of the orchards of the State. It is true that in almost eveiy 
county many trees and some orchards survive; yet in all the northern and 
eastern parts of the State new orchards must be planted before a sufficient 
home supply of winter apples can be grown. 

I have frequently said that in southwest Iowa sun-scald was the greatest 
enemy to successful apple growing. Some of our close-observing horticul- 
turists now assert that even in the northern part of the State many varieties 
will endure the cold and yet cannot endure the sun shining on their trunks. 
If this theory be true, and I have no doubt but that it is true, there is yet 
hope for some of the old varieties over a considerable portion of Iowa. 

RUSSIAN APPLES. 

The discussion so vigorously carried on for the past few years, will no 
doubt continue, and the reasons are obvious to the thinking man. The 
various (I may say the conflicting) reports as to hardiness, quality and 
season of the Russian apple does not imply dishonesty or necessarily preju- 
dire. We have an extensive country called Iowa; we have considerable dif- 
ference in latitude and altitude, and a great variety of soils, which, with the 
different exposures, may account for the different and conflicting reports. 
The test of experience is being applied and the evidence both pro and con. 
is accumulating, and there need be no hurry as to the final verdict. 

SEEDLING PRODUCTION. 

The amount being done aggregates enormous proportions, and the results 
already attained gives hope of ultimate success. President Patten, of this 
Society, with Professor Budd, Captain Speer, and others, are making special 
efforts in that direction; while nearly every member of our Society is doing 
considerable, and hundreds of farmers are doing something to aid in the 
16 



122 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



work. Already many seedlings are coming into bearing, and some give 
promise of decided merit. The marked success of several individuals, in 
single plantings, is an enchantment almost, and it is not to be expected that 
promiscuous planting will be often rewarded with success; yet, by system- 
atic crossing, or more correctly speaking, pollenizing, we may hope for 
decided results; not as marked, of course, as in the breeding of animals, yet 
with such careful study as is now being devoted to plant-breeding, we are 
almost certain of making rapid and steady progress. 

CHERRIES. 

All the old varieties are proving unsatisfactory and short-lived. The crop 
was a failure. Many of the new varieties on the Agricultural College Farm 
bore well and promise hardy and productive varieties suited to our needs, 
and will extend the cherry season some weeks; as some are early, some 
medium to late, and some very late. I have no doubt that as soon as we can 
get trees of these new varieties, that we will have something almost certain 
to produce fruit every year. 

PLUMS. 

We now have in Iowa native varieties of plums that are giving satisfac- 
tion, and new candidates for public favor are coming to the notice of horti- 
culturists nearly every year. An important work is now to select and 
classify as to season, etc. 

GRAPES. 

Grapes are being grown in great excellence and abundance. With winter 
protection, which costs but a trifle for each vine, a crop is insured. Iowa 
could supply the United States in a few years, if we turned our attention to 
grape production; and yet we import grapes from New York and other 
States, besides California. I wish to emphasize that winter protection is 
essential to a crop many seasons, and the improvement of quality and quan- 
tity makes it profitable even in ordinary winters. 

SMALL FRUITS. 

There is no possible doubt but that small fruits can be successfully grown, 
and many localities ship large quantities. Winter covering is essential in 
the north, and will pay even in the most favored portions of our State. 
Even the Snyder blackberry, which stands our winters as a rule with little 
or no apparent injury to canes, will pay in extra yield and quality the cost 
of laying down and covering. 

TRANSPORTATION. 

The fruit-growers of Iowa have always labored at disadvantage on account 
of lack of facilities and high rates for transporting fruit. The rough hand- 
ling by train hands precludes the shipment by freight, even a short distance, 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



123 



of berries and other soft fruit. The high rates charged by express com- 
panies prevents the grower from getting a fair profit in many cases. Nur- 
serymen, by combination and persistent endeavor, succeeded in getting a 
classification and a rate that is of great benefit to them and their customers, 
and I see no reason why fruit growers cannot succeed in doing something 
to advance their interests; by a rapid, cheap transit, the grower would get 
better returns and dispose of his products, the fruit get to market in better 
shape and the consumption of fruit considerably increased. 

CORRESPONDENCE . 

The correspondence of the office is constantly increasing, and in the main 
is of a very satisfactory character. 

REPORTS. 

The report of the last annual meeting was ready for delivery, as may be 
seen by my letter of transmittal to the Governor, February 6th; yet the re- 
port did not appear until the latter part of the summer. I did everything 
in my power to hurry the work. Proof-reading was always promptly done 
—most of it in Des Moines, and with exception of once or twice, by miscar- 
riage of proof in mails, no delay of any kind occurred on my part. The 
numerous inquiries from impatient members shows the necessity of getting 
out reports at an earlier date. There were reasons last year why the State 
Printer and Binder could not get the work out at an early date, but such a 
late date as reports were out has not been fully explained. 

We have reasons to believe that the reports will be out very early this 
year, and never, we hope, will they again be as late as for past two years. 

EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

I was directed to compile the rules governing Experiment Stations, but 
an effort to do so convinced me that rules to any considerable extent do not 
exist, and must be made rather than compiled. I respectfully refer the 
matter back for action or recommendation of the Society. My own opinion 
is that rules should be formulated, and that reports should be required from 
the several stations during growing seasons, or at least in the fall, as in 
winter, when reports are called for, owing to cold and snow, no satisfactory 
examination can be made; and in consequence, unless notes are kept, the 
keeper cannot give a satisfactory report. The new stations having been 
made just at the beginning of the dry years, probably have but little of 
value left. I again renew my recommendations that ledger accounts should 
be kept, to be compiled at a later date, when the information may be of 
value. 

FAILURE TO GET REPORTS. 

Many members failed to get reports sent by mail, and in a few instances 
second report failed to reach the member. Some reports were returned, as 
I stamped them to be returned if not called for. This necessitated paying 



124 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



double postage, yet I consider the value of our reports justify cost of stamp 
and postage. 

THE PRESS OF THE STATE. 

The thanks of this Society are due the press of the State, for liberal ad- 
vertising and announcements made. I sent programme of present meeting 
to every newspaper in the State, and, so far as I know, all noticed our meet- 
ing or copied programme. Several of the leading papers have always been 
open for our use, and now a still larger number offer use of columns. I 
hope we can take advantage of this liberal offer more than heretofore in 
commnnicating with the horticulturists of Iowa. My mail correspondence 
has grown to enormous proportions, and by using the press can save much 
personal correspondence. 

LOCAL SOCIETIES. 

The aid given the local societies has been of great benefit to them, and 
they are doing good work. I understand that the $100 voted to each of the 
district societies continues until revoked. I consider this a wise expendi- 
ture of money, and enables these societies to partially compensate their 
secretaries and pay premiums. I am sure an addition to the amount would 
be judiciously used. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



1888.. 

Jan. 21. Telegram paid $ .TO 

23. Stamps and paper 4.00 

Feb. 6. Express on Forestry Manuals 1.45 

March 15. Postage stamps 2.00 

April 6. Postage stamps 2.25 

Aug. 25. Postal cards 1.60 

25. Printing postal cards l.©0 

30. Freight on reports 2.58 

Sept. 11. Freight on reports 1.72 

24. Postage on returned reports .60 

Oct. 17. Express on reports 2.50 

27. Express on Missouri reports .60 

Dec. 14. Postage stamps , 5.00 

15. Postage stamps 5.00 

N. A. Cole, printing 3.85 

J. D. Nelson & Co., letter heads and envelopes 6.75 

Stamps for reports 52.96 

Expenses summer meeting 1888 6.10 

Twine, paper and rubber stamps. 5.40 

Four trips to Des Moines, proof reading 32.28 



$ 138.24 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



125 



RECEIPTS. 



Membership fees and sale of reports $ 11.50 

Of Treasurer Strohm . . 75.00 

$ 86.10 

Due Secretary $ 51.74 



Geo. Tan Houten, Secretary. 



TREASURER'S HEPORT. 



Treasurer H. Strohm reported as follows: 
Iowa State Horticultural Society in account with H. Strohm, Ireasurer: 



1888. 

January 20. By cash on hand $ 5,778.77 

By annual membership at winter meeting at Des 

Moines 40.00 

By life membership (4 members) 20.00 

By annual membership received during the year (6 

members) 6.00 

May 9. By State appropriation for the year ending June 30, 

1888 2,500.00 

1889. 

January 12. By interest 180.77 

Total $ 8,525.54 

Amount paid out... 2,297.30 

Balance due Society $ 6,228 24 



Three hundred and fifty dollars of this amount belong to the life member- 
ship fund, and cannot be used for current expenses. 



126 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



AMOUNTS PAID OUT. 



1888. 

January 20. To premiums paid on apples % 63.00 

To premiums on seedling apples 15.00 

To El . K. Fluke, expenses attending winter meeting 

as director 12.62 

To J. M. Eldder, expenses as director 16.00 

To C. L. Watrous, expenses as director 6.25 

To C. F. Gardner, expenses as director summer and 

winter meeting 28.90 

To A. F. Collman, expenses as director 13.40 

To R. P. Speer, expenses winter meeting 10.50 

To H. W. Lathrop, expenses winter meeting 10.35 

To J. Thatcher, expenses summer and winter meet- 
ings 17.67 

To Eugene Secor, expenses summer and winter meet- 
ings 18 25 

To C. G. Patten, expenses summer and winter meet- 
ings 29.90 

To H. Strohm, expenses winter meeting , 10.35 

To N. K. Fluke, expenses summer meeting 4.35 

To G. B. Brackett, expenses as delegate to American 

Pomological meeting 73.62 

To F. W. Taylor, expenses delegate to Missouri Hor- 
ticultural Society 33.80 

To Iowa Agricultural College for stock furnished ex- 
periment stations, 1887 270.58 

To C. L. Watrous, stock furnished experiment sta- 
tions, 1887 94.99 

To George Van Houten, balance office expenses .... 24.75 

To George Van Houten, incidental expenses 75.00 

To George Van Houten, on salary 200.00 

To George Van Houten. expenses winter meeting . . 10.80 
To H. W. Lathrop, expenses attending Agricultural 

and Industrial Institute at Des Moines * 11.65 

To Perkins & Gatch, use of plates at winter meeting 

Des Moines 1.60 

To hotel expenses for delegates from Wisconsin and 

Missouri 7.90 

To H. Strohm, salary as Treasurer 50.00 

To Silas Wilson, expenses attending arboretum 

meeting 8.40 

March 5. To J. C. Ferris, as per appropriation to Northern 

Horticultural Society 100.00 

To Fitch B. Stacy, for use of Agricultural and In- 
dustrial Instruction Association 40.00 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



127 



April 4. To George Van Houten, balance salary as Secretary .$ 150.00 
18. To George Van Houten - as per appropriation to 

Western Horticultural Society 100.00 

July 19. To G. B. Brackett, expenses committee work and 

work on rooms at capital 61.30 

August 28. To C. L. Watrous, stock sent to experiment sta- 
tions in spring of 1888 30.82 

Sept. 19. To freight on reports to Des Moines 8.10 

Oct. 15. To L. Harbach, two cases horticultural rooms 250.00 

To H. Strohm, as per appropriation to Eastern Iowa 

Horticultural Society , 100.00 

16. To L. Harbach, carpets, etc., for horticultural rooms. 289.70 

January 2. To G. B. Brackett, for work for Horticultural Society 
and expenses as delegate to Illinois Horticul- 
tural Society 47.75 



$ 2,297.30 



SUPPLEMENT TO TREASURER'S REPORT. 



Iowa State Horticultural Society in account with H. Strohm, Treasurer. 
1889. 

January 18. By cash, balance on hand % 6,228.24 

By annual membership at winter meeting held at 

Des Moines 52.00 

By life membership 5. Q0 

Total $ 6,285.24 

Amount paid out 930.06 

Balance on hand $ 5,355.18 



128 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



AMOUNTS PAID OUT AT JANUARY MEETING. 

1889. 

January 18. To premiums paid on apples $ 117.00 

To premiums paid on seedling apples « 15.00 

To M. E. Hinkley, expenses attending winter meet- 
ing as Director 14.45 

To F. H. Bruning, expenses as Director, summer 

and winter meetings 15.30 

To J. Thatcher, expenses as Director 11.38 

To ST. K. Fluke, expenses as Director . 11.66 

To J. M. Elder, expenses as Director 16.00 

To A. F. Collman, expenses as Director, summer 

and winter meetings 16 83 

To R. P. Speer, expenses as Director, summer and 

winter meetings 10. 60 

To H. W. Lathrop, expenses as Director summer 
and winter meetings, collecting fruit and attend- 
ing Industrial Institute 34.85 

To Eugene Secor, expenses summer and winter 

meetings 20.75 

To H. Strohm, expenses summer and winter meet- 
ings 15.35 

To C. G. Patten, expenses summer and winter meet- 
ings 36.35 

To C. L. Watrous, expenses winter meeting 4.50 

To Geo. Van Houten, expenses winter meeting 10.82 

To Geo. Van Houten, balance incidental expenses. . 51.74 

To C. L. Watrous, balance librarian expenses 13.88 

To H. Strohm, salary as Treasurer 50.00 

To C. G. Patten, express on reports 1.35 

To John Casey, premium on potatoes 5.00 

To C. L. Watrous, janitor for fruit room and plates 7.25 

To Geo. Van Houten, for contingent fund 100.00 

To Geo. Van Houten, salary as Secretary 350.00 

Total ;$ 930.06 



LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 



129 



C. L. Watrous moved that the Treasurer's report be referred to a 
committee appointed by the President. 
Carried. 

The President appointed the following as said committee, viz.: W. 
C. Haviland, J. M. Prouty and J. M. Elder. 

C. L. Watrous reported as Librarian, and asked that the report be 
referred to the Committee on Treasurer's Report. 

So ordered. 

The following is the report: 

C. L. Watrous, in account with Iowa State Horticultural Society. 



1887. Dr. Cr. 

March 15. Cash on hand as per last report , $34.00 $ 

29. To drayage on goods returned from New Or- 
leans 3,40 

May 2. To Norton, Redhead & Co., cash for books 6.50 

13. To Blue Line Transfer Co., cash 2.65 

July 1. Redhead, Norton & Co., (books) cash 1.00 

1. Express charges on reports 80 

1. Express charges on wax casts 50 

Aug. Freight charges on wood specimens 90 

Dec. 1. Freight charges on books from Ames, Iowa. . . 11.10 
1888. 

April Cash to Redhead, Norton & Co 13.60 

March 23. Cash for books to Wm. Wesley & Co., London, 

Ed gland 4.53 

July 23. Express charges on Minnesota reports 75 

Oct. 6. U. S. Express charges, books 80 

22. White Line Transfer 75 

Nov. 22. Express , , , 60 

$34.00 $47.88 

Balance 13.88 



Election of officers declared to be in order. 

The President appointed H. W. Lathrop and John Wragg as 
tellers. 

George Van Houten moved that the first ballot be informal, in lieu 
of nominations. 
Carried. 



17 



130 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The result of the election was as follows: 

President— Silas Wilson, Atlantic. 
Vice President — Eugene Secor, Forest City. 
Secretary — George Van Houten, Lenox. 
Treasurer — H. Strohm, Iowa City. 

Directors were elected as follows: 

First District — Jonathan Thatcher, Bonaparte. 
Third District—A. F. Collman, Corning. 
Fifth District — H. W. Lathrop, Iowa City. 
Seventh District — Christian Steinman, Mapleton. 
Ninth District— W. C. Haviland, Fort Dodge. 
Tenth District — M. E. Hinckley, Marcus. 
Eleventh District — C. G. Patten, Charles City. 

On motion, the Society adjourned until 9 a.m. to-morrow morning. 



THIRD D A Y — MORNING SESSION. 



Called to order by President Patten. 

Report of R. P. Speer, Director of Eighth District, called for. 

R. P. Speer: I will say that I made no written report for our dis- 
trict. Will say that so far as I can learn the fruit crop over the dis- 
trict was about the same as in my own orchard. Tetofsky, Duchess, 
Whitney and a few others, bore a small crop. Plums not good. Small 
fruits not a satisfactory crop. Grapes a pretty full crop, but did not 
ripen well. The Snyder Blackberry is not satisfactory; it will pay 
to lay down and cover, but the common farmer will not do it. The 
fruit grower can afford to give plants winter protection. Mr. Frost 
and others had dewberries that paid. They can be covered up like 
strawberries. Of raspberries, Shaffer, Gregg and Turner are good. 
A good many recommend Philadelphia, but they must have got Tur- 
ner or some other plants for Philadelphia, as it has been very unsat- 
isfactory. The Turner does well. Strawberry plants were injured 
by drought, except where extreme good care had been given, and the 
crop was injured by unfavorable weather. I do not consider it nec- 
essary to go into any further detail as to fruit crops and prospects in 



REPORT OF TENTH DISTRICT. 



131 



the eighth district, as we have a great many reports from the dis- 
tricts which take up a great deal of room. 

Report of tenth district read by M. E. Hinckley. 



REPORT OF THE TENTH DISTRICT. 



BY M. E. HINCKLEY, MARCUS. 



This district is the newest part of the State, with the possible exception 
of the Twelfth. 

The industry of fruit growing is hardly past its Genesis here. The first 
attempt in planting fruit and timber trees, only date back eighteen years. 
At that time there was not a town in the whole five counties, comprising 
the district. Now there are twenty- five towns, ranging in population from 
500 to 5.000. My personal observation covers about half of the territory of 
the district, and also includes Lyon and Osceola counties. 

As to the prospect for growing apples, the people are generally hopeless. 
Much has been attempted, but little accomplished. A large part of the 
present discouragement may be traced to the deception that has been prac- 
ticed in the business. All that has been done here, in horticulture, should 
be regarded as purely experimental. Our people should remember that first 
failures are an educational process; and that continued effort is the condi- 
tion of success in every line of action. 

Many farmers take no interest in horticulture. And very often attempts 
in horticulture are made in such a half hearted way, as to invite failure. 

Even the small fruits which all admit do succeed, do not receive the at- 
tention necessary to supply one quarter of the local demand. 

Some points are fairly settled by past experience. We can grow Duchess, 
Wealthy, Minnesota, Hyslop, Soulard, etc , in any desired quantity. The 
trees are hardy, but short lived. They should be set on high ground, and if 
possible on an east, northeast, or northern slope. They should be set lean- 
ing to the southwest; heavily mulched and carefully protected from rabbits, 
cattle, etc. The more nearly these conditions are complied with, the greater 
will be the success. The relations of soils to horticultural problem, is an 
interesting theme for study. 

In a large part of this district we have a foot or more of black soil, grad- 
ually changing to clay. On the more rolling lands, the sub- soil is a loose 
yellow clay; while on the flat lands, it is usually mixed with gravel, and in 
river valleys often sand and gravel. This gravel sub- soil explains the loss 
by drouth of evergreens, etc., in our river valley towns. The flat prairie 
lanis, with retentive sub soil, also show very poor success with fruit trees. 



132 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The healthiest trees I have seen the past summer, were all on the highest 
land, and the very best were on ridges, where the ground broke abruptly to 
the creek valley below. The Hollanders in Sioux county, have made a com- 
parative success in fruit growing. They have a high rolling prairie, com- 
plete drainage, aad taste, care and skill in the work. Their industry and 
enterprise, compare well with the reckless management shown in many 
American communities. The fruit crop of the past season was hardly an 
average one. Crabs were not as plenty as in 1887, Duchess and Wealthy 
gave a fair crop in many locations. I hear of many cases scattered over 
the district, where single orchards have yielded from ten to fifty bushels of 
fruit. The Minnesota, is making a good reputation for itself. Whitney 
disappoints because a late and shy bearer. Soulard is perfect in tree, and 
well liked by all who have it. 

Brier Sweet is not as promising as two years since. I have found in sev- 
eral places an early red apple, a regular bearer, and tree hardier than 
Duchess. It seems to be valuable for this section. It is possibly the Early 
Margaret of the old list. Some of the new Russians promise well, but 
have borne no fruit as yet. 

There were no plums last year. 

The Wragg cherry shows evidence of being well adapted to our climate, 
but the fruit ripens late 

In nursery rows on my ground, I find the following three year apple trees, 
bright and sound to the heart. Duchess, Wealthy, Whitney, Tetofsky 
Plumbs' Cider, Yellow Transparent, Alexander and Wolf River. 

The following sorts are black hearted and must be discarded here: 
Pameuse, Tallman Sweet, Walbridge, English Russet, Pewaukee, McMahon 
and Red Astrachan. 

Our berry crop was only fair. There was too much rain in spring. The 
Jessie bore large fruit, but not enough of it. The Fay currant appears to 
need much coaxing. Dew berries are being largely planted. There was a 
fair crop of grapes, and many varieties do well with proper care. The Coe 
seems well worth attention here, for its prolific bearing and early ripening. 

Evergreens are doing better yearly, and being more largely planted. The 
Black Hills spruce, is a perfect success, even in the most exposed situations. 
The Scotch pine is moat in demand. 

A conspicuous success in this line has been achieved by Major Moore, of 
Le Mars. He has in his private park, eighty rods of arbor vitse hedging. 
It is five years planted; three feet high, compact, vigorous and healthy. It 
is the wonder and admiration of hundreds, who had supposed that the arbor 
vitse failed here. This success is the result of intelligent care, and is the 
best thing of that kind in northwest Iowa. Mr. Moore has many other 
evergreens, ornamentals and fruits, doing well under the thorough atten- 
tion they receive. 

It is to be devoutly hoped that as time goes on, and wealth increases, 
many others will be prompted to similar efforts. Such an enterprise in 
every town, would be, not only a delight to the owner, but a public bene- 
faction, and educator. Nursery business in the district is represented by 



REPORT OF TWELFTH DISTRICT. 



133 



about jten different enterprises. Some are making a specialty of ever- 
greens. 

Mr. Bechtle, of Le Mars, who is a careful and enterprising experimenter, 
kindly furnishes me with the following small fruit notes: 

" The new strawberries are not very satisfactory. Crimson Cluster i3 an 
entire failure. It makes neither plants or fruit. Jessie did fairly; the fruit 
is firm, of good shape and exquisite flavor. Sunapee is too small. Great 
Ontario, is no better than Sharpless. Monmouth did poorly. Belmont is 
not worth longer trial. Bubach is a good strong grower, and 1 think will be 
an acquisition. Warfleld is similar to Crescent in growth, only stronger. 
It promises great things here. 

In raspberries I find the Nemaha similar to Gregg, but hardie. Ohio is 
earlier, hardier, an abundant bearer, and one of the very best. For a red 
raspberry, Shaffer is the best of all. I had a big crop without any protection. 
Golden Queen is a splendid berry, but has to be laid down. Lucretia dew- 
berry does well, and is easily covered. The Windom is a fine grower, but 
has not yet fruited. 

11 1 think the out-look for apples, is better than ever before. Twig blight 
was not bad this year. Wherever apple trees were old enough to bear, there 
was some fruit." 

Report of Twelfth District, by J. M. Elder, as follows: 

\ 



REPORT FROM THE TWELFTH DISTRICT. 



BY J. M. ELDER, CONCORD. 



The winter of 1887 and 1888 with the summer of 1888 constitute a period 
favorable in the highest degree to horticultural efforts in the northern por- 
tions of the State. 

The dry fall of 1887, followed by heavy and early snow fall, insured the 
slightest earth freezing I have known for many years, and as I believe one of 
the very best explanations of total absence of loss to tree and vine. 

I removed from my outdoor garden in January as fine celery as I ever saw, 
and that grown entirely above ground. Following such escape from at least 
some expected loss, the fruit crop was large and the quality excellent. 

I am not sufficiently well informed on the nature of cause and effect in 
meteorological phenomena in its application to tree growth to make practical 
deductions, but can, I think safely say that excessive cold for short periods 
is much less harmful to fruit trees than protracted cold weather, at even less 
severe temperature whereby the ground is deeply frozen. Light earth freez- 



134 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ing has in every instance under my observation been followed by absence of 
destruction to tree, and generally by abundance of fruit. 

The frost on the mornings of May 12, 13 and 14 was alarming, and while 
not generally fatal, I apprehend that it was fatal to some early blooming va- 
rieties. Apples were more abundant and of better quality than for several 
years. The young trees fruited heavily, while many of the cripples of former 
disastrous seasons, took on new life and bore good crops. 

Blight, so prevalent throughout the State was less general in this locality 
than in some former years, yet the same features were noticeable. The 
Transcendent crab has with us at all times been most subject to its influence 
and in every noticeable case the first affected. For some time I had sus- 
pected this disease contagious by contact; I am now fully satisfied that such 
is the case . 

Immediately north of a Transcendent thicket I have a row of Wealthies 
north and south, the south tree in this row being no more than twenty feet 
from the crabs, and others in order twenty feet apart. After the crabs be- 
came generally affected, the first adjacent Wealthy also blighted badly, the 
second less, the third still less, after which the effects were scarcely notice- 
able. Wealthies on other portions of my grounds entirely escaped. I no- 
ticed that the period of greatest blight to tree exactly correspond with great 
injury to the oat crop, and to my mind, quite apparent that both were caused 
by one and the same agent. 

While local surroundings may aggravate, I do not believe they create this 
disease. On the other hand, to charge its origin to purely atmospheric in- 
fluences, while vague, is likely the most natural disposal at present. 

The escape from destructive agents during the past two years is having 
its effect by creating a greater interest in horticultural efforts, a truly noble 
and profitable work. For while a recurrence of these periodically disastrous 
seasons may occur at any time, none will likely be so disastrous as to de- 
stroy everything, besides the mariner will not likely a second time suffer 
shipwreck on the same shoals. 

I have recommended the planting of Duchess, Whitney, Wealthy, Tetof- 
sky, as well as several kinds of crabs, with preference for the Alaska and 
Brier Sweet. With even this named list we have a reasonable certainty of 
an abundance of good fruit from the earliest to the middle of January. 
This is certainly a great step forward, especially when we consider that the 
expectations of a dozen years since extended no further than the crab. 

I feel certain that the future will be as generous as the past; that in good 
time through discovery or propagation or both, new additions will be made 
well worthy of adoption in the reliable family now affording fruit blessings 
in thousands of households throughout the State. For my own part the ad- 
dition of a worthy member to our small list will be hailed with joy, whether 
of native American or foreign parentage. 

I have little to say about small fruits, since we have passed the experi- 
mental stage with many of these delicious gifts of Providence. There is 
absolutely no drawback or limit to the production of berries. We have now 
the choice of varieties— modes of cultivation, etc , only to deal with. 



RE POET OF TWELFTH DISTRICT. 



135 



The Minor and native wild plum represent this family, although experi- 
ments are being made with other varieties. The crop was a failure the past 
season. I know of no cherry of the old sorts worth cultivating. 

That no better strawberry bed for the common grower can be had than 
by planting the Crescent seedling and the Captain Jack as a fertilizer, I am 
as certain as I was last year. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Budd: I wish to say a word about the Black Hills Spruce. 
This is a very indefinite designation. It is a form of White 
spruce. It is slightly different from the native White spruoe of 
Wisconsin. All the forms of the White spruce are valuable in the 
northwest, and they are going to come to the front inside of fifteen 
years. 

M. E. Hinckley: I have seen them in Lyon county, and they are 
better by twenty-five per cent than trees brought from the east. 

M. J. Wragg: I am surprised to hear Mr. Hinckley report favora- 
bly on Coe grape. It is worthless; worse than Champion. 

A. G. Williams: The Coe is hardy with me; may be valuable 
farther north, but I actually threw away my crop. The fruit is very 
poor. 

J. A. Speer: I will not agree with some. Some have theories, 
but do not raise fruit; some do not have theories and do raise fruit. 
I do not read horticulture. Here is an apple (showing it) that is 
nearly as good as Grimes' Golden. The tree on which it grew I 
moved when it was large, and it nearly died. It fruited last year. I 
put out Duchess, Whitney and Wealthy, and one Russian. The 
Russian died, and if the Lord will forgive me, I will never put out 
another one. I put out Duchess and top worked them, setting the 
grafts in limbs four inches from the stock. I set grafts the last of 
February and they heal over by fall. I have other apples of varie- 
ties not common. One tree bears apples on some limbs creased like 
muskmelons; apples on other limbs are smoother. It was top-grafted 
on Duchess. It is not yet named. Another matter that might come 
a little later: You have, perhaps, all heard of the Speer plum — 
Rounds plum, I call it. I am going to ask Prof. Budd and R. P. 
Speer for a true description of it. About twelve or fifteen years ago 
Mr. Rounds had a tree — this variety. I was gathering up different 
varieties of plums, and Mr. Rounds recommended this one. I planted 
a few trees, and gave scions to R. P. Speer, who propagated it and 
called it the Speer plum. I gave name to Mr. Rounds, who origin- 



136 



STATE HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



ated the variety, and nobody has any business to open his mouth 
about it. I take no interest in horticulture as taught in the Agri- 
cultural College, but go ahead in my own way, and have fruit to 
show for it. 

N. T. Case: The Coe grape was boomed ten or fifteen years ago, 
and I got some vines, but got no fruit to amount to anything. 

H. W. Lathrop reported for the Committee on the President's Ad- 
dress and the Secretary's Report as follows: 

Jo the Officers and Members of the Iowa State Horticultural Society: 

Your Committee to whom was referred the President's address and Sec- 
retary's report, have had the same under consideration, and make the fol- 
lowing recommendations: 

First. That the Secretary of the State Society be made Superintendent 
of Experiment Stations, and be also Secretary of the Committee on Exper- 
iment Stations. That as such Superintendent, it shall be his duty to visit 
near the end of the growing season, each Experiment Station in the State, 
and examine all the stock sent to such stations, and learn its condition and 
its prospective usefulness in, and adaptedness to the locality in which the 
station is located, and all the facts in relation thereto that are of value, and 
make a report in regard to them, and of his doings in the premises to the 
Society at its annual meeting; and for his labors so performed he shall be 
paid $2 00 per day, not exceeding thirty days, and his actual expenses in so 
doing. 

Second. That each experimentor at these stations shall be allowed the 
sum of ten dollars annually, as a remuneration for conducting and report- 
ing his experiments, and he shall, on the first of November of each year, 
make a report of his work to the Superintendent, and shall present to the 
Society a paper on some horticultural subject to be read or laid before the 
Society at its annual meeting, and for attendance at such meeting he shal 1 
be allowed his actual expenses, unless he be a director or officer of the 
Society. 

Ihird. We would further recommend that an annual additional appro- 
priation of $25 00 each be made to the Eastern, Northern and Western Hor- 
ticultural Societies. 

Fourth. We also recommend that a bulletin embracing the work of the 
Experiment Stations, of 5,000 copies for general circulation be edited and 
distributed by the Superintendent, under the direction of the Committee 
on Experiment Stations. 

Fifth. We have examined the financial part of Secretary's report, com- 
pared it with the vouchers submitted, and find it correct, except a charge of 
$6 10 for expenses in attending the summer meeting of this Society, which 
we refer to the Society for its action thereon. 

H. W. Lathrop, 
R. P. Sp.ekr, 

A. F. COLLMAN, 

Committee. 



ECONOMIC SIDE OF THE FORESTRY PROBLEM. 



137 



Motion by J. M. Elder that report be received and taken up in 
order for consideration. 
Carried. 

Motion by H. Strohm that the first recommendation be adopted. 

President Patten called Vice President Secor to the chair. 

Mr. Patten offered the following amendment: That tha Superin- 
tendent of Experiment Station be selected by the Experiment Com- 
mittee. 

Amendment prevailed. 

Motion as amended carried. 

C. L. Watrous moved that the second recommendation be adopted. 
Carried. 

The third recommendation, granting an additional appropriation 
of $25 to each of the District Societies was, on motion, adopted. 

John Wragg moved to fill the blank in the fourth recommendation 
making number of bulletins to be issued 5,000. 

The recommendation as amended adopted. 

The fifth recommendation, relating to the claim of the Secretary 
for expenses attending the summer meeting, was disposed of by a 
motion by C. L. Watrous, which prevailed, that the expense of the 
officers attending summer meeting be paid. 

Motion by C. L. Watrous that this Society place at the disposal of 
the Industrial Institute Board, $200. 

Carried. 

Prof. Stanton read a paper on forestry as follows: 



THE ECONOMIC SIDE OF THE FORESTRY PROBLEM. 



BY PROF. B. W. STANTON. 



Mr. President, and Members of the Society : 

A short time since, your Secretary called my attention to the fact that I 
was expected to prepare a paper for your annual meeting. I told him frankly 
that 1 could not write upon the subject assigned me, for the reason that it 
lay outside of my line of investigation. Not wishing, however, to shrink 
from any duty, or to even appear to be wanting in respect fcr this Associa- 
18 



138 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



tion, I shall, with your permission, occupy at least a portion of the time 
allotted me upon your programme, in a brief and by no means exhaustive 
discussion of the economic side of the forestry problem. 

It is much easier to make a forest destroyer than a 'forest builder. The 
conditions of early settlement in this country rendered it inevitable that 
the pioneer should in general be prodigal of nature's gifts. The limits of 
profitable labor in a new country are necessarily narrow. Even in the Iowa 
of to day, the farmer questions whether it will pay him to return to the soil 
the productive elements of which he robs it. Our forefathers were of ne- 
cessity soil butchers and forest destroyers. It is true that if they could have 
foreseen the future they would in all probability have practiced a wiser 
economy. The pioneer who complained of the difficulty of clearing the land 
of black walnut would no doubt have left a few of those noble trees as a 
fortune to his children. The corduroy road, constructed of the same mate- 
rial, would probably never have been built. The father upon the Pennsyl- 
vania farm, who gave the best years of his life to cutting away the forest 
from the homestead, would have left a portion in timber, that it might to- 
day supply the family needs and give added value to the whole. 

The policy really pursued in those early days was, as I have stated, the 
natural and inevitable outgrowth of the then existing conditions. Our fore- 
fathers knew practically nothing of the future value of the woodland, or 
the effect of its destruction upon climate. To them the forest was an im- 
pediment to be removed, an unproductive agent to be,~through their energy, 
replaced by the productive field. The mistake made was one of degree. 
They failed to realize that that which is good, carried to an extreme, often 
becomes an evil; that the work of their hands in felling the trees, which, 
within proper limits, was the creation of value, carried beyond those limits 
became the mere wanton destruction of God-given wealth. As a result of 
human short-sightedness the forests were given over in wholesale to the ax, 
and a method of forestry management inaugurated which was destined to 
be long continued. The value which the ever increasing demands of ad- 
vancing civilization have given to the products of the forest, has served not 
onlv to perpetuate this policy, but to augment rather than lessen ics evils. 
It is the barren waste, rather than the cultivated field, which often appears 
to-day in the track of our fast disappearing forests. 

We do not, as a people, question the fact, that this destructive policy has 
enormously diminished one of the most important of our natural resources. 
The decrease in less than thirty years of the forest area of one of our States, 
that of Ohio, from fourteen million acres to less than five million, together 
with the story of the floods which in the later years have laid waste her val- 
leys, proves at once the rapidity with which forest destruction has gone for- 
ward in the past, and the terrible penalties that have followed in its wake. 
But we do not need official figures to convince us of the truth. The undi- 
vided testimony of those best acquainted with our timber regions is con- 
clusive. It has forced the American public to a recognition that our past 
policy has been enormously destructive and needlessly wasteful of our for- 
estry supplies. It has, however, in the main failed to awaken in that great 



ECONOMIC SIDE OF THE FORESTRY PROBLEM. 



139 



public any anxiety as to the future Concerning the fear sometimes ex- 
pressed, that a continuation of our present policy, will at no distant day 
bring about an actual scarcity of that material out of which labor and cap- 
ital fashion such countless articles of daily use, the public at laige is ex- 
ceedingly incredulous. 

In the face of this incredulity, the forestry enthusiast urges that economic 
considerations growing out of the probable relation of future demand and 
supply, as well as the public good, requires that the policy of destruction 
shall be changed to one of conservation and production. Recognizing that 
private interest is responsible for the policy of the past, he seeks through 
the motive of financial gain to enlist that private interest in favor of a 
change. In the West, he claims, that if we have not already reached, we 
are trespassing close upon the time, when it is worthy our consideration 
whether more tree planting cannot profitably be developed into, and take 
upon itself the dignity of forest growing, at least to the extent of furnish- 
ing us with our proper forest area. 

Has this forestry enthusiast a reasonable basis for his views? This ques- 
tion cannot be fully answered by calculations based upon present prices. 
The condition of our American forests, aud the probable demands which 
will be made upon them in the future, mast be taken into account. 

It is no easy matter, despite the official investigations which have been 
made, to determine, with any degree of satisfaction, the present condition 
of our American forests The United States forestry division reportfs the 
forestry area in 1883 as four hundred and eighty-nine million acres, which 
may be assumed as approximately correct. Much of this, however, was 
mere useless brush-land. An estimate of the portion of the whole worthy 
of the name of forest would be mere guess-work. It is certain, however, 
that a liberal deduction from the total figures would need to be made to 
even approach the truth. 

Official estimates have been made at various times of the supply of par- 
ticular kinds of timber, but these estimates have been severely criticized, 
and, in some cases, time has proven them to be incorrect. The chief of the 
Bureau of Forestry stated lately that there is no precise knowledge to be 
had as to the quantity of pine lumber still standing, nor is there any knowl- 
edge to be had in regard to timber supplies of any kind upon a mercantile 
basis. Want of funds, despite the surplus, has prevented the gathering of 
this important information. Unsatisfactory as is our knowledge of the 
quantity of standing timber, we have sufficient data to put it beyond all 
question, that the annual growth of our forests is utterly insufficient to 
meet the ever-increasing demands of our growing population. It is diffi- 
cult, even by the aid of analysis, to comprehend the magnitude of this de- 
mand. 

The railroads of this country require annually, for maintenance and new 
construction, more than half a billion cubic feet of round timber. Iowa is 
put down in the census of 1880 as having a forest area of 2,300,000 acres. 
If her forests were as productive as those of Germany, it would take the 
annual timber product of forty two such States as Iowa to meet this one 



140 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



item of the yearly demand. The charcoal industry , scarce known to many 
a dweller upon the prairie, consumes of our forestry products an amount 
more than two-thirds as great as that required by our railroads. Taking up 
the demand for construction and manufactures, we read in the Northwest- 
ern Lumberman, that the quantity of pine lumber taken annually from the 
forests of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota has doubled during the last 
decade, reaching, at present, a total of 9,000,000,000 feet, board measure, or 
three-fourths of a billion of cubic feet. The amount for the last fourteen 
years aggregates nearly 78,000,000,000 feet, board measure. Concerning 
these figures, the President of the Lumbermen's Association of the North- 
west remarks that " this waste of timber has been without a parallel in the 
history of commerce," and yet it has gone forward in the face of the ac- 
knowledged fact that the supplies of the Northwest will be exhausted in a 
very few years. The Northwest furnishes, of course, but a portion— though 
it is no inconsiderable portion— of the total timber product used in build- 
ing and in the countless lines of manufacture which draw upon the forest 
for their raw material. 

Mr. Fernow estimates the total demand for construction and manufacture 
exclusive of the demand for railroad construction, already counted, at 30,- 
000,000 feet B. M. or two and one-half billion cubic feet annually. Then 
there are the vast quantities used for fencing and fuel, amounting in the 
aggregate to several times the united demand for all other purposes, neither 
can th*e destruction by fire be omitted. The census of 1880 tells us that the 
forest fires of that year laid waste 10,000,000 acres of woodland, not only 
killing the trees, but in many instances through the burning of the leaf 
mold, destroying in great measure, the future tree-producing capacity of the 
soil. 

The forestry division estimates the total annual consumption of our wood- 
land products, including the destruction by fire at 25,000,000,000 cubic feet. 
The character of the sources of information at the command of the depart- 
ment, and the evident care with which this estimate is prepared would seem 
to insure its comparative accuracy. Another method by which we can form 
some faint idea of the immensity of the demand upon our forests is to rep- 
resent that demand in money. 

Prof. Sargeant places its value in 1830 at $700,000,000. Competent author- 
ities estimate that for the past year it approached a billion dollars. This 
sum exceeds the total product of our gold and silver mines during the last 
decade^ and is nearly double the combined capital of our national banks. 
One-tenth of this sum would have purchased all the corn, wheat, oats, hay 
and potatoes raised in Iowa in 1887. 

We are justly proud of this noble State; proud of its industries; proud of 
its agriculture, its manufacturing and its mining; proud of the increasing 
wealth of its industrious population, yet the sum I have named, which stands 
as the measure of the annual demand upon the forests of this country, 
would, at its assessed valuation, purchase the real and personal property of 
all the citizens of two such commonwealths as Iowa. Comparing this de- 
mand with the annual growth of our forests, we find that if they were as 



ECONOMIC SIDE OF THE FORESTRY PROBLEM. 



141 



productive as the well kept forests of Europe, the supply could not keep pace 
with the increasing demand. As it is, the chief of the forestry division es- 
timates that the annual growth does not much exceed one-half of the de- 
mand, and that to the extent of the other half we are yearly lessening the 
forest capital itself. 

We are strengthened in these conclusions when we see the keen eyed cap- 
italist laying his hands upon all the available sources of our timber supply. 
The lumberman's papers tell us that southern pine lands and cypress 
swamps are being rapidly taken up by northern capitalists. That govern- 
ment pine has nearly passed into second hand, and that " no such phenom- 
enal change in the market for southern timber land, was ever witnessed as 
that which has occurred in the last two years." 

We read also that California Redwood lands which could have been pur- 
chased a few years ago for $2.50 to $5.00 per acre, are now held as high as 
$150.00. 

It is a reasonable question to ask, under the circumstances, why the price 
of lumber has not rapidly advanced? This is answered in part by calling 
attention to the improvements in the process of lumber manufacture. It is 
further explained by the claim that lumbering business, or the business of 
destroying our forests is abnormally developed. The competition in the 
work of destruction is so sharp, that it can only be made profitable when 
conducted on a large scale, and pushed to its utmost limit. The future is 
thus sacrificed to the present, and prices kept below what it would cost to 
reproduce the product sold. 

These reckless business methods only serve, however, to hasten the day 
when our timber supply will be exhausted. The mills in the northwest will 
soon be silent and the lumberman has already commenced in earnest, his at- 
tack upon the forests of the south. It is estimated that it will take him less 
than twenty- five years to rob these southern forests of their valuable tim- 
ber. 

The evidence adduced proves: that the future demand upon our forests 
will greatly exceed their productive capacity; that the stock of standing 
timber, especially in particular lines, is rapidly disappearing, and that if we 
would avoid a dearth of that raw material, the want of which would crip- 
ple industry and imperil our national growth and prosperity, we must in 
the near future, in this country as in Europe, produce an annual timber 
supply sufficient to meet the yearly demand. Do present indications war- 
rant the belief that such producer will receive at least an average return 
upon the labor and capital invested? 

There are a few additional considerations bearing upon this point. 

1. There is the relation of the government to the forestry supply. All 
the leading governments of Europe own large forest areas and engage ex- 
tensively in forestry as a business. There is no probability that the United 
States will follow their example. It would be a grand thing if it would; 
but the public and the private interest in forestry are too nearly in harmony 
to expect any such result. It needs a little friction between these interests 
to rouse the people to action. When the shock comes and public opinion 



142 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



awakens to a sense of danger, the opportunity for establishing government 
forests will have gone by. No lands have been reserved for such a purpose 
by the general or State governments, while the public domain is rapidly 
passing into the hands of private parties. It is doubtful whether the senti- 
ment of our people would tolerate the government ownership for any com- 
mercial purpose of large tracts of land. There are certain things which 
the government can and probably will do. Profiting by the experience of 
France, which has spent $30,000,000 in the attempt to undo the damage to 
agricultural conditions inflicted by the reckless destruction of its mountain 
forests, it will probably protect the woodlands on the head waters of our 
streams. 

Our State governments can, as they have in a few praiseworthy instances, 
encourage tree planting by exemptions from taxation, by payment of pre- 
miums and by giving liberal aid to such associations as this Horticultural 
Society, which by awakening enthusiasm in the subject and by furnishing 
-information as to what to plant and the best methods of culture, has done 
as much as any other agency in furthering our local forestry interests. It 
would seem, however, that we must look to the individual producer to sup- 
ply us with the commercial forest. The government may give him substan- 
tial aid, but the individual must do the work and assume the risks. His 
profits or losses will be unaffected by government competition. 

2. His private competitors will be comparatively few. The Americans 
are an impatient people. They are always in a hurry, especially in a hurry 
to get rich. They are willing to accept great risks, but they demand the 
quick return. They prefer to have their sugar refined by electricity. 

To the great mass forestry, therefore, presents few attractions as a finan- 
cial investment. Even if the figures showed an ultimate profit above the 
average, they would not consent to wait. Especially are the young men of 
America thoroughly imbued with this spirit of impatience. The most en- 
thusiastic friends of forestry are old men with grey hairs The great strug- 
gling, competing world has in this matter neither their enthusiasm, nor, it 
maybe, their business foresight. The forest-growers of this country who, 
commercially speaking, get in on the ground floor, will be few. They will 
rightly possess a natural monopoly. The supply will be limited and the 
demand large, for though society will no doubt find substitutes for wood in 
many of its present uses, the ever- increasing wants of a growing population 
and a higher civilization, will open up to the products of the forest an en- 
larged market at enhanced prices. 

3. As the country grows older the opportunities for profitable investment 
will gradually grow less. Interest and profits in the past have been high 
because American labor has been enormously productive. American labor 
has been productive because of the intelligence and skill of the laborer and 
the wonderful opportunities which this new and undeveloped country has 
offered lor their exercise. But we have been a wasteful people. The same 
destructive process which we have applied to our forests has characterized 
the management of our other national resources. We are sure eventually 
to pay the penalty in lessened opportunity and decreased profit. The last 



ECONOMIC SIDE OF THE FORESTRY PROBLEM. 



143 



decade has witnessed a heavy fall in interest, but interest will go much 
lower before it reaches the minimnm. Capital aggregated in great masses, 
armed and equipped with the most improved labor-saving machinery, and 
practicing the most rigid economies, strives in vain to uphold the old stan- 
dard of profits. Modern industry seeks through the trust to stay the down- 
ward tendency, but while the trust testifies to the fierceness of modern com- 
petition, as a means of accomplishing the desired end, its effect is but tem- 
porary. Eventually it must yield the struggle and accept lower profits. 

What chance has private capital in such a contest ? To invest in mining, 
manufacturing or transportation, the man of ordinary means must trust his 
funds in a blind sort of way in the hands of others to manage. With lower 
interest and profits, with the increasing difficulty of conducting production 
on a small scale; with the lottery like uncertainties of investment in corpo- 
rate stocks; with the tendency in all lines of modern industry for supply to 
exceed demand, there comes the question whether it is not the part of wis- 
dom to investigate carefully, from the commercial standpoint, the possibili- 
ties of a business which the lamented Hough declared " is productive in 
revenue, reasonably safe as an investment, beyond the reach of speculative 
changes in value, and certain in its results." 

The farmer of Iowa has been urged to plant trees because they protect 
him, his fields, and his stock from the blizzards of winter and the hot winds 
of summer; because they will furnish him fuel and fencing; because they 
will equalize the rainfall, act as reservoirs of moisture, improve the sanitary 
conditions and serve to ornament his home. If by judicious planting and 
judicious management, he can secure all these, and in addition rear a forest 
which shall in the future, when the demand for forest products shall have 
far outran the supply, prove in itself a profitable investment, he shall have 
acted the part of wisdom. 

Allow me to turn away a moment from the economic view of this ques- 
tion. It is sometimes said that sentiment should not come into the forestry 
problem. I think it should. Less than twenty years ago, when I left the 
Pennsylvania home, the mountains which look down upon it were clothed 
with a luxuriant forest, and the mountain streams which ran through the 
home farm furnished an abundant supply of water through all the summer 
months to the grateful cattle that grazed upon their banks. The grounds of 
the Agricultural College to which I came as a student, were bleak and 
dreary, a most desolate place as I distinctly remember. Last summer when 
I visited the Pennsylvania home the forests were gone, the streams were 
dry. I missed them as I missed the friends of my childhood. Keturning to 
the college I found it no longer the open, bleak prairie of twenty years be- 
fore. Judicious planting of trees had transformed it into, what all who visit 
it in summer admit, one of the most beautiful spots in the State of Iowa. 

Who can measure the influence of these surroundings, upon the lives of 
those who have been educated within the college walls, and enjoyed the cool 
shade of the groves which dot its grounds. 

Plant trees for shelter, for fuel, for climatic and sanitary effects, for orna- 



144 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ment, for the economic possibilities of the future, and for the ennobling 
sentiments and the love of nature which they awaken. 

Motion by George Van Houten, that application from E. H. Smith 
for premium on timber planting, be referred to committee. After- 
ward this was referred to board of directors. 

Motion of C. L. Watrous, that a vote of thanks be tendered to 
Prof. Stanton, for the able paper read. 

Carried. 

Motion by C. L. Watrous, that a vote of thanks be tendered Dr. 
Hinrichs, for the paper read last night. 
Motion prevailed. 
Adjourned to 2:00 p. m. 



AFTERNOON SESSION— THIRD DAY. 



Met pursuant to adjournment, President Patten in the chair. 

Hon. C. L. Watrous, on behalf of Mr. J. C. Smith, tendered the 
Society two volumes of the first geological survey of Iowa. 

On motion the reports were received and a vote of thanks tendered 
to Mr. Smith. 

The committee on the award of premiums, reported as follows: 

Your committee, appointed to award the premiums on exhibits of fruits, 
beg leave to report that we have made the following awards: 

BEST COLLECTION OF FRUIT GROWN IN ANY ONE COUNTY. 

First premium, J. W. Murphy, Mills county $20.00 

Second premium, Farmers' Club of Mahaska county 10 00 

BEST COLLECTION OF FRUIT GROWN IN NORTHERN IOWA. 

First premium, J. A. Speer $20.00 



BEST COLLECTION OF FRUIT GROWN BY EXHIBITOR. 



First premium, Jesse Hamilton 
Second premium, A. Branson . . 



$10.00 
5.00 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS 



145 



BEST COLLECTION OF SEEDLINGS GROWN BY EXHIBITOR. 



First premium, N. T. Case $10.00 

Second premium, A. Branson 6,00 

BEST PLATE OF ANY ONE OF THE APPROVED VARIETIES. 

First premium, Talman Sweet, Jesse Hamilton $ 3.00 

Second premium, Talman Sweet, A. Branson 2.00 

First premium, Grimes' Golden, J. Thatcher 3.00 

Second premium. Grimes' Golden, H. D. Hardentice 2.00 

First premium, Janeten, J. W. Murphy ' 3.00 

Second premium, Janeten, Jesse Hamilton 2.00 

First premium, Willow Twig, J. Thatcher 3.00 

Second premium, Willow Twig, Jesse Hamilton 2.00 

First premium, Ben Davis, J. Thatcher 3.00 

Second premium, Ben Davis, J. W. Murphy 2.00 

First premium, Roman Stem, J. Thatcher 3.00 

Second premium, Roman Stem, Jesse Hamilton 2.00 

First premium on Fameuse, J. Thatcher 3.00 

Second premium on Fameuse, A. Branson 2 00 

First premium on Jonathan, J. Thatcher 3.00 

Second premium on Jonathan, J. W. Murphy 2.00 

First premium on Black Annette, S. J. Heald 3.00 

First premium on Wealthy, A. Branson 3 00 

First premium on Walbridge, A. Branson 3.00 

First premium on Sheriff, G. S. Barnes 3.00 



Our task was very much lightened by your instruction, to confine the 
awards to varieties formerly approved for different districts, but if this 
ruling had been previously understood by exhibitors, it would doubtless 
have reduced the aggregate display to a very undesirable extent. We 
would, therefore, respectfully suggest for your future careful consideration, 
that if the largest and most attractive display is desired, this restriction 
should be repealed; while if the exhibits must be confined to the few varie- 
ties recommended for general planting, your displays must necessarily be 
very meagre, as would those of any other State under the same ruling. 

Mr. C. G. Patten exhibits several seedling apples, not entered for pre- 
mium, which greatly strengthen the hopes of success in this line. 

Mr. Samuel Parke showed large and very fine specimens of Chisman's 
Beauty apple, a seedling from Wapello county. 

Mr. F. H. Bruning has several varieties of fruit brought from Hanover, 
Germany, which are quite interesting, but do not justify any very high esti- 
mates of competition from that quarter. 

We think the exhibitors who have brought so many creditable specimens 
of old, and unfortunately, tender varieties, and thereby contributed largely 
to the fine display, are at least entitled to the thanks of the Society. 



19 



146 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Your committee would also recommend a suitable premium to John 
Casey for his very fine exhibit of over forty varieties of potatoes of his own 
growing. The labor and expense of procuring, propagating and exhibiting 
such a collection seems entitled to some recognition, although further 
knowledge of qualities and habits may be necessary to general benefits. 
Bespectf ully submitted, 

Chas. Patterson, 
N. K. Fluke, 
H. W. Ash, 

Committee. 

On motion of R. P. Speer the report was adopted and premiums 
awarded as recommended. 

Motion by S. C. Osborne, that a premium of five dollars, be awarded 
to John Casey, of Corning, for his display of over forty varieties of 
potatoes. 

Carried. 

•Motion by Hardin Tice, that on award of premiums in future, that 
premiums be not restricted to varieties of recommended list. 

On motion of Geo. Van Houten, the arrangement of premium list 
was referred to the directors* meeting. 

R. P. Speer moved to reconsider the motion adopting that part of 
the committee's report that refers to the appropiation of the addi- 
tional $25.00 to each of the district societies. 

Motion prevailed. 

R. P. Speer moved that we appropriate an additional $50.00 to each 
of the district societies, making their annual appropriation $150.00 
per year. 

Carried. 

A. Branson: I wish to make a correction as to the published re- 
port of the Eastern Society. Our recent meeting was the 19th, in- 
stead of the 18th, as published in some papers. This increase of our 
allowance, for the Eastern Iowa Horticultural Society, will enable us 
to pay our secretary and pay premiums. 

Professor Budd: I referred to the fact, that a committee should be 
appointed to memoralize our legislature, asking for a law offering 
premiums on forestry planting, and exempting from taxation, lands 
denuded of timber. 

Motion by Professor Budd, that we ask for an exemption of such 
land, and that the committee make an effort to get it done. 

C. L. Watrous: I arise to say that I think the preservation of our 
forests along our water courses is a great benefit. Those intereste 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 



147 



should confer during the summer, and agree upon some line of action. 
If we come up with divided councils, we will accomplish nothing. 
During the year some plan should be adopted that we can all stand 
by. 

Hardin Tice: Where can we draw the line? A law of this kind, 
proposing to exempt denuded lands from taxes, might induce people 
to strip their lands, thus, having an effect just opposite from what we 
desire. 

Professor Budd: There are thousands of acres of land in Iowa and 
Illinois along the streams, of little value, and if stock was kept out, 
would soon be of great value as timber land. 

Motion prevailed. 

Professor Osberne was called upon for a short talk on entomology. 

Professor H. Osberne: I will take but little of your time, and will 
only speak of one or two lines of investigation. Last year we exper- 
imented in regard to destroying curculio with assenical poison. Mr. 
Weed has experimented with London purple. We saved a large 
amount of the fruit. Prof. Forbes observes that they feed on the 
foliage. Arsenites, therefore, will destroy them. At the Agricultural 
College we sprayed over twenty trees, and collected plums from them, 
and the result shows a small per cent, in favor of sprayed trees. Ex- 
periments of other parties show better results. The curculio, in cut- 
ting out the place where the egg is layed, if the trees were sprayed, 
would probably eat enough to kill them. But the question of profit 
comes in, and unless there are many curculios, cultivators may not 
find it profitable to spray to destroy them. Curculio in some in- 
stances continued to lay eggs until in June. 

H. W. Lathrop: I would like to ask if cold weather interferes 
with the moth, and if comparative exemption from damage might be 
contributed to that cause. 

Professor Osborne: Cold weather might have interfered with the 
moth. 

N. K. Fluke: Curculio does not stop work as soon as some think. 
I have caught them as late as the middle of June. 

A paper on plums, by H. A. Terry, was read by the Secretary, as 
follows: 



148 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



IMPROVEMENT OF NATIVE PLUMS. 



BY H. A. TERRY, CRESCENT CITY. 



What are native plums? I suppose any plum that grows from seed in the 
United States is a native. We have three original families of native plums 
in the United States, the Americana, the Chicasa and the Maratima or 
Beach plum. 

The first of these families embrace all our wild plums of the West and 
Northwest, and are also found in Canada and the northern portion of New 
York and the New England States. It is emphatically a hardy family, as it 
is found plentifully in northern Minnesota and Manitoba. Some of our fine 
varieties were found in a wild state on the head waters of the Mississippi 
River. The next family, and also next in importance, is the Chickasaw 
family, with is found in most of the southern States and northwest to the 
Rocky Mountain country. It occurs plentifully in most parts of Texas, and 
in the Indian Territory, New Mexico, Arizona, etc It is also found in the 
mountainous regions of Colorado. The fruit of the Chickasaw family is not 
usually as large in its wild state as that of the Americana family. 

The Beach plum (P. maritima) grows mostly near the sea shore, and is 
found on the coast from Maine to Florida. The fruit of this species is small 
and rather bitterish or astringent, and the family is probably not susceptible 
of much improvement, as there is only one variety in cultivation that orig- 
inated in that family, and that one is probably crossed with some other and 
better variety; and still it is of no great value. 

I will give the names of some of the varieties that are types of the differ- 
ent families, viz.: In Americana family is the De Soto, Weaver, Forest 
Garden and Quaker; in Chickasaw family is Miner, Wild Goose, Newman 
and Forest Rose; in Maritima family is Bassett's American. 

The improvement in all these families has come largely from accidental 
seedlings; in fact most of the varieties now in cultivation have originated 
in this manner that is they were found wild in woods and thickets. 

I have often been asked the question if our wild plums cannot be improved 
by transplanting from the woods to the garden or orchard and properly cul- 
tivating; and my answer invariably is that the fruit will not be improved 
to any great degree by that process. It is my opinion that the only proper 
way to improve our native plums is by cross- fertilization, and that process 



IMPROVEMENT OF NATIVE PLUMS. 



149 



may be performed by hand at the proper time; or if the trees of the different 
varieties are planted in close proximity, they will fertilize or pollenize each 
other. As a general thing, the varieties in the Chickasaw family are very 
deficient in pollen, while those in the Americana family are rich in fertiliz- 
ing material. I have the impression that all the varieties that are crosses 
or hybrids of the two families are more deficient in pollen than are the true 
types of the family. I sometimes think that perhaps the Miner, Wild 
Goose, Forest Rose, Moreman and others that we call Chickasaws, are 
really crosses or hybrids of the two families. I think I have also noticed 
that in other fruits, as raspberries and grapes, the hybrid varieties are 
somewhat deficient in pollen. 

I have had some experience in crossing the plum, though I have never 
practiced artificial fertilization. I have a number of adjoining rows of 
plum trees, consisting of Forest Garden, Wild Goose, Miner, Quaker and 
Weaver. These were all bearing trees and in bloom about the same time, 
and all bore fine crops of fruit. I saved the pits of the best specimens of 
Miner, Wild Goose and Forest Garden, and planted, and when the trees 
were one year old I selected about one hundred trees of the finest growth, 
and also those that showed marks of hybridization, and planted them out 
for fruiting. These trees have been bearing four to six years, and with one 
or two exception, all show the marks of cross-fertilization in wood, foliage 
and fruit. The most valuable of these seedlings partake largely of the 
Chickasaw, several of them showing their Wild Goose origin in foliage and 
color, but very much superior in tree and fruit. Only two of these trees 
seem to run away back to the wild plum, and the fruit of those two was 
almost worthless. For some cause this was the best lot of seedling plants 
that I ever grew, and I have probably fruited over five thousand seedlings. 
No doubt the cause of my nearly perfect success with this lot of seedlings 
was, that they were thoroughly fertilized, owing, possibly, to a favorable 
season at the time they were in bloom; and also from the fact that they 
were planted in rows, near together, so that they had all the possibilities of 
chance hybridization, accelerated, no doubt, by bees and other insects. 
Now, it is my opinion that this cross-fertilization is the only proper mode of 
improving our native plums. I do not think my plan of chance cross-fer- 
tilization is as effective and specific as if the work were done by hand, but 
it can be done on a large scale with less work, which is quite an item with 
some people. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Budd: I would like to offer a few suggestions on the use of 
pollen. Some folks seem to think it must be used at once; I have 
used it from Oregon with the best of success. It can be sent by 
mail, and gets through dry, and does better because of being dry. I 
have found it possible to make any kind of a cross with European or 
California plums. Nearly every attempt has been a success. 



150 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



N. T. Case: The report last year in some way made me say that I 
could not recommend plum on peach; I do recommend plum on 
peach. 

Mr. J. M. Alder reported for the committee on Treasurer's report, 
that they had examined the accounts and disbursements, compared 
them with the vouchers, and found them correct. 

On motion of R. P. Speer the report was adopted. 

The committee to whom was referred Mr. Watrous's report as Li- 
brarian, reported, recommending the payment of the claim to Mr* 
Watrous, $13.88. 

Report adopted. 

A paper, Pears for Southern Iowa, was read by Geo. W. Shaw. 



THE PEAR. 



BY GEO. W. SHAW, GARDEN GROVE. 

| . 



When I received a note from your Secretary a few weeks ago stating my 
subject, the thought was, can anything new be said about successful pear 
culture? It is the same that it was fifty years ago. The writer remembers 
well, in 1844, when at Point Pleasant, in Calhoun county, Illinois, he planted 
his first pear tree. An old Scotch gardener stood, cane in hand, and said: 
11 Mm, plant it dape (twelve inches lower than it stood); get on your knees, 
man; work the dirt among the roots; and then pour a bucket of water around 
the tree; now cover with straw." Forty years after, when I visited the- 
tree I found it full of ripe fruit. The German that owned the place said 
that it bore large crops of pears, and every fall he placed two or three wheel- 
barrow loads of manure around the tree and forked it in in the spring; also 
some iron waste from the blacksmith shop. 

In 1854 the cry was, you can't grow apples in Iowa. Men would get angry 
when old Jimmy Smith hinted that they were mistaken, and would admit 
that there might be patches where fruit might be grown in Southern Iowa. 
But the hard winter of 1855 and '56 killed thousands of fruit trees. It was 
then that the fearful and unbelieving fatted an inch on the ribs with their 
sympathetic "I told you so," and yet the writer, from trees of his own 
growing sold the past season to one firm in Des Moines over fifteen hundred 
bushels of apples. 



THE PEAR. 



151 



THE MOB MAN PEAR TREES. 

In looking up their history one informant says that in 1846 pears were 
brought from Saint Charles, Missouri, by the mormans, and seed planted 
near Soap creek, in Appanoose county, Iowa. Parties for several years go- 
ing back and forth, brought pears and planted their seeds. The writer re- 
members well the large old pear trees in St. Charles county, planted by the 
early French settlers. 

Mr. Asbury Runnels tells me that in hauling goods from Keokuk he used 
to stop with the man that planted the pear seed near Soap creek, and that 
he got some trees that were then eight years old from the seed. That he 
thinks was in 1856 or earlier. These he planted where he now lives, three 
or four miles south west from Garden Grove. Mr. R. is now past seventy - 
five years old. One would have hardly thought that he had reached middle 
life to have seen him step nimbly up a ladder and clip these twigs that I 
hold in my hand. He is all that a good man should be, and his State may 
well be proud of him and his grand pear trees. 

Those trees very much resemble the old trees at St. Charles as they looked 
many years ago. One the fruit is about the size of the Buffum, and much 
of the same quality. The other the size of Flemish Beauty, with its honied 
sweetness. 

The trees very much resemble well grown walnuts; thrifty, hardy and will 
probably grow for a century yet. 

As to grafted varieties, Mr. G. P. Arnold has a Bartlett planted in 1856 or 
'57 that bears annual crops of fruit. The writer has probably 100 pear trees 
nearly or quite 30 years old from the graft; they are reasonably healthy, and 
bear more regular than the apple trees adjoining. 

Our varieties for profit, Dwarfs— Louise Bon de Jersey and Duches de An- 
gouleme. Standards— Sheldon, Flemish Beauty and Buffum. For early 
winter, Laurence. 

I believe those varieties can be grown with profit all over Southern Iowa 
in proper localities with clay sub soil. We would prefer a southeast, east 
or northeast exposure; never west or southwest. The pear is social in its 
habits, and will stand very close planting. 

It would seem almost a necessity to keep bees to fructify the bloom and 
birds to destroy noxious insects. 

THE ARMASPINOSA. 

This fellow, built like a moitor, with his long spear, that when at rest he 
folds back underneath him. When the pear is half grown he passes over 
the fruit to the blossom end and inserts his beak after the egg of the cod- 
ling moth, egg, or worm; it is all fish that comes to his net. His movements 
are the very poetry of motion; no wonder that he is called " the Spined Sol- 
dier Bug." 

But it is asked if pears can be grown so readily why do so many fail? 
First— The length of time it takes, nearly ten years, to bring a pear tree 
into full bearing. 



152 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Second— But few trees are grown in the State; all have to be acclimated. 

Ihird— The tree peddler. This man is generally well educated, and has 
failed at everything else, and is determined to make a liviDg off the working 
classes. He talks like an angel and lies like a devil, and sells worthless trees 
not true to name, and departs from that place to be known there no more 
forever. 

THE BLIGHT. 

We have had none of this for nearly ten years. It is to the tree what ery- 
sipelas and scroffula is to humanity, a blood poisoning. 

The tree, with a late immature growth, is caught by an early freeze, the 
sap vessels burst, fermentation takes place, and after the leaves come out the 
tree suddenly dies. There are those that claim the tree was killed by some 
mysterious bacteria floating in the air, not realizing that the buzards never 
come until the body is dead. 

The secret of profitable pear culture is early and well matured growth of 
right variety. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Budd: I would like to ask Mr. Shaw how high his location 

is? 

Geo. W. Shaw: I cannot give you the elevation. 

Geo. Van Houten: Mr. Shaw's location is about 1,200 feet above 
sea level, and between 700 and 800 feet above low water mark in 
the Mississippi river at Keokuk. 

Prof. Budd : This explains why Mr. Shaw can raise pears, and 
confirms the necessity of air drainage. Henry Avery used to raise 
the De la Motte, and they were very fine; but when we got them be- 
yond the river bluff they were of few days and full of trouble. 

H. W. Lathrop: In the early history of the State we tried to raise 
pears everywhere, and thought we could succeed in many places. 
Finally we came to the conclusion that we could only raise pears 
along our river bluffs; and later we could not raise pears farther back 
from the Mississippi than ten miles. Our pear territory has been 
narrowing and narrowing down, until now I guess it is about the 
middle of the Mississippi river. Dr. Kulp, of Davenport, used to 
think that he could raise pears, but I guess they have all gone out 
with him. Mr. Fluke, does he raise pears now? 

N. K. Fluke: No, sir. 

President Patten: Here are cions of Mormon pear trees forty 
years old, and appear to be able to endure a century longer. I got 
word from Mr. Shaw that pears were his most profitable crop. 



THE PEAR. 



153 



J. Thatcher: I have tried pears on my ground, but never got a 
bushel. 

Geo. Van Houten: Mr. Bruning is with us. he has succeeded in 
raising pears, having had several hundred bushels in a season. I 
would like to hear from him. 

F. H. Bruning: I have had pears every year, until last year, for 
last twenty years. Got trees when I raised first apples in Union 
county. A nursery agent got apples from me to carry around for 
samples, and I ordered pear trees. I got Duchess de Angouleme, L. 
B. D. Jersey, Flemish Beauty, Tyson and Buffum. Flemish Beauty 
and Tyson ahead of the others. At first I could hardly sell them. 
The year I had the heaviest crop, I took them to the fair and retailed 
them at ten cents per pound. I sold a t wholesale readily at two dol- 
lars per bushel. The pear needs clean c ill a re, and in recent years I 
have been away from home a good deal and had other business, so 
my trees have been neglected and have not done well. My land is 
high ridge, timber land. Where I kept land plowed and in straw- 
berries, trees did well. 

President Patten called Vice-President Secor to the chair. 

Silas Wilson: Three or four years ago I was at Mr. Mathews', at 
Knoxville, and was astonished at his success with pears. He had va- 
rieties that he had imported from France, living and doing well. 
Now if high elevation is necessary to success, how do we account 
for Mr. Mathews' trees doing so well? There must be something 
in soil as well as in elevation. 

Geo. W. Shaw: Early in the history of Iowa I fell in with the 
Assistant State Geologist of New York. He said we had a great 
pear soil. A man must learn how to raise pears; it is like making 
an iron rod or rolling a cigar — to do it right a man must learn 
how. In twenty years we will raise lots of pears. I sold thirty 
bushels of apples for three dollars, and for one bushel of pears I 
get three dollars. We can get ahead of the railroads in this way. 

A. G. Williams read a paper entitled "Deceptions in Horticul- 
ture." 



20 



154 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



DECEPTIONS IN HORTICULTURE. 



BY A. G. WILLIAMS. 



It is an Qld saying, that " there are tricks in all trades except ours." To 
quote this adage is usually construed as admitting that there is dishonesty 
and trickery in the business we represent. It is nevertheless a fact that if 
we except the so-called tree agent, there is no industry or enterprise more 
honorable, and none engaged in by a class of persons who are truer to prin- 
ciple and integrity, than those engaged in horticultural pursuits. 

Yet we are constantly deceived. Our hopes and expectations are not re- 
alized. We find ourselves continually misled. Why is it, and what is the 
remedy? One trouble is, we must have something new; we tire of that 
which is old and that which is near at hand. There may be scores of valu- 
able varieties of fruit in our own State, that have for twenty-five years 
proved themselves worthy, but no one hunts for them. Our inclination is 
to look in some other direction. Nothing seems to prevail unless it booms. 
Two or three thousand dollars invested in advertising a worthless variety 
like Walbridge, puts it in nearly every orchard and nursery in the West.. 

At our horticultural gatherings the saying is often quoted that " the 
American people like to be humbugged and deceived." We are given to in- 
vestigating, to research and discovery, and it should in no wise be discour- 
aged. We live in a country comparatively new, and new discoveries and 
inventions are coming to us every day. The prevailing disposition is to 
look for and believe in something that is not commonly known or accepted. 
Besides, in our undertakings our pecuniary interest, prejudice, personal 
reputation and pride of opinion are nearly always invested in it. Hence 
the disposition to berate everything that appears as a rival. Nearly every- 
one assumes, asserts and believes that their own goods, discoveries or pro- 
ductions are superior to all others. As a noted European lecturer said of 
the Americans, " everything they had they believed to be the best; that 
even their St. Jacob's oil was better than anybody else's St. Jacob's oil. If 
a manufacturer or merchant labeled their goods, descriptive of their actual 
quality, their competitors would get all the trade." Exaggeration seems to 
be the rule. If the truth is not embellished it has but little force. People 
do not pretend to believe the advertisements they see and they are disposed 
to discount all statements when made in the interest of mercenary motives; 



DECEPTION IN HORTICULTURE. 



155 



hence the habit of stating everything strong enough, if possible, to have 
some of the truth believed. This may not be honest, but it is conspicu- 
ously prevalent. 

I once heard a critical observer of character say that while the English- 
man's characteristic was his zeal for country, the Frenchman's his hothead - 
edness, the Scotchman's his strong prejudice, the Iriehman's his ready wit, 
the American's characteristic was dishonesty. Not but what there is as 
much honest purpose or as sincere devotion to that which is true, but that 
there is a prevailing custom of exageration and overrating, and taking no 
secondary ground, making no retractions, if they have said the horse was 
eighteen feet high, stick to it and try and prove it, which, with the inquis- 
itiveness to find out and store up or control everything that is known to be 
true, and tell everything that is not known leaves us with a wonderful de- 
gree of uncertainty, and badly confused as to what the facts sctually are. 

These features of character are conspicuous with the man of fruits and 
flowers, as well as those engaged in other occupations. The difference is 
mainly that his occupation is so largely that of testing and proving the value 
of new methods and varieties that it especially exposes him to misleading 
influences. Virtually, experimentation is a synonym for horticulture. 

The horticulturist is always in a state of expectancy, anticipating and 
seeking for that which will meet our hopes and the requirements of our cli- 
mate. If there is a demand for any particular thing there is almost sure to 
be a supply. Somebody is ready to furnish us with just what we are seek- 
ing for. If we were to go over the whole State and ask every man who ever 
planted a tree, or expected to plant one, what he thought of the itinerant 
tree peddler, we would get but one answer. No one believes in them, yet 
by some device they will entice people to invest in their goods to an extent 
that enables them to do a thriving business. If people will allow them- 
selves to listen to and be influenced by those they believe to be swindlers, 
if they are victimized the fault is their own. It is a well understood prin- 
ciple of law that if the victim did not believe the false pretenses under 
which property was obtained of him there is no cause for criminal action 
against the offender. If we sum up our own experience and note all that 
we have been able to observe, we will have to admit that nearly if not every 
person will some time or other, until by repeated experience he has learned 
better, allow himself to be deceived and swindled by the very one he dis- 
trusts. 

The fascinating and ingeniously devised advertisements have the effect 
for which they are designed, to cause so many people to accept with the ut- 
most faith the overdrawn and exaggerated statements contained in them, 
and run with greed after everything that is new and novel. As an apt illus- 
tration of this disposition, so commonly met with, I quote from Mark 
Twain's letter to the proprietor of the mineral well at Colfax, Iowa. I quote 
from memory. He says: 

" Dear Sir: I am in receipt of your advertisement and circulars de- 
scriptive of the mineral well at your placa. I observe that this well is loca- 



156 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ted in Jasper county, with certain picturesque and peculiar features of sur- 
rounding country; that it is so many hundred feet deep, and is capable of 
furnishing thirty thousand gallons of water per day. I also take note that 
this water is an effectual remedy for indigestion, debility, dyspepsia, scrof- 
ula, biliousness, erysipelas, rheumatism, neuralgia, consumption, liver com- 
plaint, gout, etc. Believing this to be just what ails me, I herewith send 
you my order for one barrel. If that proves satisfactory I will take the rest 
of it." 

As to how these deceptive influences can be averted is a problem I cannot 
solve, nor furnish a remedy, only so far as I have done in indicating the 
traits of character and disposition of which they are a natural product. 

With the changes that are going on all around us, and the progress made 
in every line of discovery and invention, it is not strange that the horticul- 
turist should partake of the spirit of the times, and believing, as all horti- 
culturists do, that there are wonderful developments yet to be made in his 
line, he is ready to believe almost everything; and it may be expected that 
in the future disappointments will be experienced, and deceptions prac- 
ticed, the same as in the past, and that the song of the tree peddler will be 
heard all over the land, long after the grape-vine raspberry and budded tree 
deception has been forgotten. 

DISCUSSION. 

During the reading of Mr. Williams' paper Mr. Patten took the 
chair as president. 

W. F. Steigerwalt: If elevation has any thing to do with it, I 
have a good location. I straddle the divide. On one side of my 
house the water runs to the Missouri river and from the other side 
to the Mississippi river. I gave an order for pear trees, but when 
they came they were Hyslop crabs. Mr. Williams speaks about 
humbuggery, and it reminds me that I ordered our painter to paint 
me a sign, "No Peddler Allowed On My Place." Last fall I gave 
another order to a tree agent, but if the Lord will forgive me I will 
never give a foreign agent an order again; not one in a hundred will 
tell the truth. 

S. C. Osborne: I do not want to put in, but I always want to help 
the under dog in the fight. The tree peddler has done a wonderful 
work, and has accomplished things in horticulture in Iowa that could 
have been done by no one else. We have among our farming com- 
munity many fruits that have been sold that are worthless, but it has 
induced them to get something better. I take issue with the paper 
just read; I do not approve of the ridicule placed upon the mother- 
in-law, bless her old soul, for she is the best body that ever lived. 



BLACKBERRIES. 



157 



People are not ready to be humbugged; that theory has played out. 
I don't think we, as a society, ought to encourage such a notion. 

M. C. Staves: I do not believe a word this brother has said; lots 
of men will not buy trees of such men as Mr. Wilson or Mr. Wat- 
rous at fifteen cents apiece, but will buy of some foreign agent for 
$1.00 apiece for trees, and $1.50 to $2.00 per dozen for strawberries. 
I have sold trees for Capt. Watrous and put the price clear down, and 
still people would not buy them. 

H. W. Lathrop: This question about people liking to be hum- 
bugged, I do not accept. I admire the universal Yankee nation. 
People want something new; take for illustration our stock breeding 
interests. The Short-Horns are a good cattle, but they are old. 
There has been a run on the Hereford, the Holsteins and the Jersey. 
But now the recent craze is for the little Red- Polled Norfolk; they 
are very nice and scarce. I have got one in my yard at home now. 
(Boisterous applause.) Oh, he isn't mine, but I am like everybody 
else, I like something new. 1 ou can't get up a corner on Short- 
Horns because they are too plenty; you might as well go in mid 
ocean and attempt to get up a corner on salt water. It is not so 
with the Red Doddies. We sell our stock Short-Horns at $Y5.00 to 
$100.00, but you can't touch a Red- Poll for less than $200.00 to 
$500.00. The idea of something new is not a bad idea, either; it has 
. made us inventors. It has given us the telegraph and telephone, and 
many other desirable improvements. The desire to get something 
new is general. We want new Russians. We want the Thompson's 
seedlings, and any other new thing that is thought to be valuable. 
It is our greatest hope for improvement and advancement. 

Paper on blackberries by Elmer Reeves was read by the Secretary. 



BLACKBERRIES. 



BY E. REEVES. 

The growing of blackberries is so simple and the crop so sure when proper 
care is given, that every farmer's table should be well supplied with this 
fruit. 



158 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Any good corn ground will grow blackberries, and I may as well say here, 
that it is a good rule in choosing ground for almost any tree or plant, if the 
ground is in good condition and the location such that it will grow a good 
crop of corn, it is safe to plant almost any of our trees and expect them to 
do well. 

Plow the ground the fall before planting, and in the spring cultivate and 
harrow thoroughly. Set the plants three feet apart in the row, and the rows 
six feet apart. Cultivate thoroughly up to the middle of July. On a farm 
this can usually be done to the best advantage with the same cultivator 
used in the corn field, going over the rows at least twice each week, and fol- 
lowing up with a hoe to take out any weeds that aie left, and level the 
ground. 

In the fall, before the ground freezes, the canes should be covered. 
Shorten all the canes back to where the growth has ripened well. Then 
with a fork with four or six tines, loosen the earth about the crown of the 
plant to a depth of at least four inches, being careful not to break the roots. 
The plant will then bend over readily to the ground without breaking. 
Push the plant over with the fork and hold it down with the foot, and cover 
it with earth. If some weeds or grass is placed on first, it will take less 
earth. Barely enough to cover the plant is sufficient, but more will do no 
harm. In the south part of the State it is, perhaps, necessary only to bend 
the plants over and fasten with a sod or otherwise, but in the north the 
whole must be covered to insure a crop the next season. I often hear of 
some one who raises blackberries without winter protection, but upon ex- 
amination have always found that the plants were so much weakened by 
exposure that the berries were small and of comparatively poor quality; 
while a crop was not obtained of tener than once in three or four years, even 
though the patch was located so it was covered with snow drifts in winter. 
I very much doubt whether varieties will ever be obtained that will stand 
exposure in the north, but with winter covering the hardiness of the plant 
is of less importance than productiveness and quality sf fruit. However, I 
should not entirely ignore the hardiness of a variety. The Snyder is my 
first choice and Ancient Briton next, when it is desired to extend the sea- 
son of fruiting. 

Pruning should be done early in the season, and at time of laying down. 
Ripened wood should not be cut off, as the blackberry has a habit of pro- 
ducing most of its fruit near the end of the cane, and if they are shortened 
too much there is danger that the bearing wood will be cut off. 

DISCUSSION. 

President Patten: I wish to say a word about blackberries. I do 
not agree with Captain Speer, that common farmers cannot success- 
fully grow small fruits. Every farmer should have enough small 
fruits to supply his own table; not merely during the growing season 
alone, but enough should be grown to preserve for winter. A black- 



GRAPES FOR NORTHERN IOWA. 



159 



berry patch, as much as a row twenty rods long, if laid down and 
properly covered, as directed in our reports, will furnish an ordinary 
family all the fruit they will need for six weeks. 

President Chamberlain: I wish to emphasize this idea of fruit 
growing on the farm. I once knew a man who raised stock and 
bought his fruit supply, thinking it the cheaper way. But after his 
children grew up, he changed his base, and began to grow fruit; say- 
ing that he could not afford to have his children miss the advantages 
that fruit growing gave them. While pear culture and apple culture 
is an experiment to a great extent, and the crop uncertain, it is no 
experiment, when we lay down our small fruits and cover them up. 
Every farmer should raise enough fruits and vegetables to supply his 
own family. Properly considered it is not a question of raising 
fruit, as compared with the cost of buying it, but practically it is a 
question of raising fruit, or not having any. I have an idea that if 
the farmer knows how easy it is, to bend tops over and cover them, 
there would be more of such work done. I see no reason why the 
blackberry will not winter as well as the grape, if laid down and 
tops covered. The work can be very much more rapidly done than 
a person would think that never had tried it; and a little experience 
will enable anyone to do the work rapidly and well. 

A paper on Grapes for Northern Iowa, by O. A. Kenyon, was read 
by the Secretary. 



GRAPES FOR NORTHERN IOWA. 



BY O. A. KENYON, M'GKREGOR. 

The country referred to as northern Iowa, might properly be regarded as 
extending one hundred miles north and south, by three hundred east and 
west. Its elevation above the sea, varies from about six hundred feet at its 
eastern extremity to over one thousand six hundred feet near its western 
limits. Its surface in the vicinity of the streams in the eastern part, is 
varied by precipitous, rocky bluffs from one hundred to four hundred feet 
high, separated by densely wooded ravines, which sometimes spread out into 
level plateaus. The soil of the hills and hill sides is a disintegrated lime- 
stone, while that of the valleys and ravines contains more silicious sub- 



160 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



stance and vegetable mould. Leaving this section and going west, we pass 
over comparatively small rolling prairies, with frequent natural groves 
and crystal streams, whose margins are lined with thrifty growing timber. 
These are succeeded by larger prairies, having surfaces more nearly flat and 
level, less timber, and fewer and more sluggish streams. With the change 
of landscape there is also a change of soil. I think it may be safely said, 
that in none of its features is northern Iowa more conspicuous than in the 
variety of its soil. The forty- third parallel of latitude passes through its 
central part, and its isotherms correspond with those of more southern 
regions. The study of isothermal lines, however, will not always indicate 
the conditions favorable to grape growing. These conditions are largely de- 
pendent upon local circumstances, such as soil, elevation, rain-fall and tem- 
perature. Long and careful observations are said to have led to the con- 
clusions, that for the perfect development of the grape, the rain-fall, during 
the growing months of April, May and June, must not exceed fonr inches, 
and during the maturing months of July, August and September, it must 
not exceed three inches; while the temperature during the first three months 
should not average lower than fifty- five to sixty- five degrees, and for the 
last three months not less than sixty-five to seventy-five degrees. Observe, 
these are the conditions of rain-fall and temperature necessary for the best 
results. In the presence of more humidity and lower temperature, grapes 
may be raised, but not thoroughly ripened. This point was well illustrated 
in the seasons of 1887 and 1888. In the dry hot season of 1887 the vintage 
was unusually fine, while the rather wet, cool spring and rather dry and cool 
summer and fall of 1888 the vintage was unusually poor, in quality. What- 
ever variety of climate there may be in northern Iowa, is probably due 
more to local causes than to difference of latitude. 

Now with the above thoughts in view, it may be asked, can we raise 
grapes in northern Iowa? I answer yes. Just as well as we can raise any 
other garden, orchard or farm crop. There are seasons when any, or all of 
them will fail. Success with any of our crops, or farm products, depends 
upon the selection of such kinds as are adapted to the locality, and giving 
them such care as the circumstances of soil, seasons, etc., require. Any 
one variety will not do equally well in every locality. This is not a tropical 
or semi-tropical region, and the practices that would permit of success 
there, would insure failure here. The next question is, what kinds shall 
we plant? There is probably no one variety of grapes that is adapted to all 
soils and climates, and it would be useless to try to give a list that would 
prove equally valuable in all parts of northern Iowa. 

The Concord is a failure in some places, yet it has long been a standard in 
the northern states with which varieties were compared. It is not a grape 
of the best quality, yet its hardiness and fruitfulness, and its adaptability 
to so great a variety of conditions renders it a safe one to plant. In select, 
ing others, none that ripen rnuch later than Concord could be recommended 
except for trial. 



GRAPES FOR NORTHERN IOWA. 



161 



No one variety of fruit is equally agreeable to every palate; hence, he who 
plants for his own use, should select such kinds, other things being equal, 
as best suits his taste. 

In planting for market, fashion or fancy, as well as the taste of the buyer, 
are to be consulted. A big, dark-colored grape (like a big, red apple), of 
second quality, will sell better than a small, light-colored grape or apple of 
first quality. Again, varieties that are known to do well in a given locality, 
are the safest for those living in that locality to plant, and if one can get 
plants raised from bearing vines in his own neighborhood, so much the bet- 
ter, because he is then pretty certain to get what he bargained for. The 
next best plan is to buy from nurserymen who propagate the vines they sell. 
Sometimes, however, I have found that the most honest and painstaking 
will, by mistake, send out vines incorrectly named. The poorest place in 
the world to buy plants of any kind is of the itinerant tree peddler. I do not 
refer to the honest, regularly authorized agents of responsible nurseries, 
but to the professional peddler, who sells where he can get the biggest 
prices, and buys where he can get the cheapest, and usually the poorest 
stock. Such warnings, however, seem to be of little U3e, except to adorn 
the pages of our horticultural literature. 

The preparation of the ground and the planting of the vine is better under- 
stood than the after treatment. Everyone knows that a grapevine wants 
something to climb on. Dependent for its life (like all other living things), 
upon the soil, yet like many of the sons of men, it aspires to a lofty posi- 
tion, and like them, will lay hold of any means within its reach to obtain it. 
A single pole stuck in the ground, a tree or fence within its reach, or an 
elaborate trellis, are eagerly utilized in its efforts to find a place for the pro- 
tection and perfecting of its fruit, thus fulfilling a law of nature in pro- 
viding for the perpetuity of its kind. The single pole system will do for 
those who understand it, and have plenty of time to devote to its manage- 
ment. The main point to observe in any system of training, is to prevent 
so dense an accumulation of foliage at any point, as to prevent a free cir- 
culation of air and light amongst the fruit, and to this end only, in my 
opinion, is summer pruning profitable or desirable. After twenty-five 
year's of observation and experience, I have concluded that a trellis made 
of ten foot posts set firmly in the ground, with poles or wires fastened to 
the sides at intervals of sixteen to twenty-four inches from bottom to top, 
is about as good a trellis as can be devised for those who do not make the 
culture of the vine a specialty. In pruning the vine in the fall, the main 
thing is to leave enough well ripened wood of the present season's growth, 
to bear a reasonable amount of fruit next year, but not enough to encum- 
ber the trellis with such an amount of foliage, as to prevent a free circula- 
tion of air and light among the fruit. 

Care should be taken, too, to save young, vigorous canes, starting at or 
near the surface of the ground, and not to leave old rigid stumps or trunks, 
that cannot be bent down and covered with earth, for upon proper winter 
protection very largely depends our success in grape growing. The vines 



21 



162 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



should be laid flat upon the ground, and nothing but the bare earth should 
come in contact with them. Other covering may be placed over this if de- 
sirable. The pruning may be done any time after the leaves are killed by 
frost, and the covering may be delayed until just before the ground freezes 
up. After danger of hard freezing is over in spring they should be uncov- 
ered, selecting a cloudy day for this work. The uncovering and tying up to 
the trellis should be done before the buds begin to start; otherwise, many 
of them will be broken oil and destroyed. 

Does grape raising in northern Iowa pay? Financially, it pays just about 
as well as any other farm crop, not much if any better. At the present 
prices of grapes, the same money, time and labor spent in their production, 
if expended upon any other crop, would return about as much net profit. 
It pays, however, just as it pays a boy to haul a sled up hill for the sake of 
riding down. 

Every one who derives a pleasure in the cultivation of fruit, and no one 
else, should plant and cultivate one or more vines, and the pleasure derived 
from their care, and watching the development of bud, leaf, wood and fruit, 
with the added enjoyment of partaking of the latter, will be their recom- 
pense. 

Prof. Budd: We have been talking about fruits of western pro- 
duction, and think that if Mr. Huber, of Rock Island, will let us have 
a few of his desirable seedling grapes for our trial stations, it will be 
a good thing. He has some wonderful varieties, and some of them 
have been bearing for many years, but he has never made any effort 
to propagate the vines. I understand that Mr. Huber will now let us 
have some of these vines for trial. 

N. K. Fluke: I am glad Mr. Huber wants to do something with 
his vines; he never would sell them or even propagate vines. As to 
winter protection of blackberries, it is easily done. Two men can 
lay down and cover an acre per day. 

H, W. Lathrop: Does Mr. Huber propagate any of his vines for 
himself or any one else, and what use does he make of the wood? 

N. K. Fluke: He neither propagates the vines nor makes any use 
of the wood. 

Prof. Budd: Some of these varieties have been bearing for twenty- 
three years. 

R. P. Speer: Mr. Fluke says he covered two acres of blackberries, 
and found it a rather light job. This may be true when the planta- 
tion is young, but as they get older it will be a more difficult j ob. 
After the roots get big and strong, and tfie canes become rank and 
stiff, they are not easily managed. In what I said about covering 
blackberries I had reference to the common farmer, who does not, as 



GRAPES ?0.H NORTHERN IOWA. 



163 



a rule, give them very good care. When canes are stiff, and the patch 
has grown up to grass and weeds, as they soon will become, if neg- 
lected, it is a very serious undertaking to attempt to get them into 
shape and properly covered. I think if the tops of the canes were 
covered, after bending down, it would be all that would be necessary. 
I do not believe in cutting off limbs or twigs of plants that are to be 
left exposed to the weather in winter. In 1885 I cut scions from Iowa 
Blush, leaving stubs of limbs and some of them killed back two or 
three inches. We have found that it will not do to cut anything and 
leave it exposed during our severe winters. I will refer to Prof. 
Budd's grape vines, on the College Farm, that are pruned in the fall, 
laid down, the tops covered, and with a little earth around the crown 
of the plant. The tops being covered, prevents evaporation, and as 
it takes only a few shovels of earth to do this, the expense of cover- 
ing is greatly lessened. 

Geo. Van Houten: As to the growing of blackberries and dewber- 
ries, there can surely be no comparison, as to profit. A large share 
of the dewberries planted out last year have failed to grow, and those 
that have grown have not generally proven desirable. The main rec- 
ommendation of the dewberry seems to be the ease with which it 
may be covered. There are other considerations that should have 
weight. Dewberry plants are very scarce and high, and if there was 
a general demand for the plants there would be no possibility of sup- 
plying it. Again, so many spurious plants have been put upon the 
market that there is no certainty of getting kinds ordered. The cost 
and trouble of laying down blackberries should not deter even com- 
mon farmers from doing it. It would be better to have a small patch, 
laid down and protected, than to have a large patch cared for in the 
ordinary way. If plants are laid down and covered they sure to pro- 
duce a good crop; the berries are better, and there would be more 
profit than in the large patch, without protection. I think we should 
advocate better methods, the more intensive and less extensive 
work in fruit growing. 

On motion of Geo. Van Houten, the claim for premium for forestry 
planting was referred to the board of directors. 

The report of Col. Brackett, delegate to the Illinois Horticultural 
Society, was read by the Secretary. 



164 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



EEPORT OF DELEGATE TO ILLINOIS HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY/. 



Ot. B. BRACKETT. 



Mr. President, and Members of the State Horticultural Society: 

As delegate from your Society I attended the thirty- third annual meeting 
of the Illinois State Horticultural Society, held in the city of Alton, Decem- 
ber 11, 12 and 13, 1888, and was cordially received and made an honorary 
member, and invited to participate in its deliberations. 

The meeting opened on Tuesday morning, in the opera house, with a large 
attendance of enthusiastic horticulturists from all parts of the State, among 
whom I recognized a few of the old pioneers whom I met here just thirty- 
one years ago, at the last session of the Northwestern Fruit-Growers' As- 
sociation. 

After the address of welcome by Mayor H. G. McPike, and the response 
by President Dunlap, the Committee on Orchards, Allen ©ope, of Tonti, 
and F. I. Mann, of Gilman, reported. Mr. Cope 'places Ben Davis at the 
front for market; would plant Minkler, Wine Sap, Rome Beauty, and others 
to give variety. He believes that the indiscriminate planting of apple seed 
from the cider press is the cause of deterioration of fruits and the loss of 
our trees. This opened the old question of influence of stock on scions, 
which was discussed quite freely. Mr. Mann's paper, which was mostly 
upon cross-breeding, was handled in a scientific manner. He referred to 
the advancement in breeding to fix types in live stock, and also in the veg- 
etable kingdom; said that most of our orchard fruits accidentally bred, and 
not having a long line of breeding, we could not tell just what would be the 
offspring from a cross of any two. He thought the time was coming when 
we would be compelled to have these fixed characteristics to work with, to 
secure the desired features in a new individual for the orchard. 

The afternoon session opened with music. Then followed the President's 
annual address, Secretary and Treasurer's report. 

Mr. Arthur Bryant, in his ad interim report, stated that he had found in 
his travels that the Russian varieties had blighted worse than any others; 
thought it due to the change from a cold to a warmer climate. 

A new and interesting feature was introduced Tuesday evening, by giving 
the exercises entirely into the hands of the young people. This is a very 



REPORT OF DELEGATE TO ILLINOIS SOCIETY. 



165 



commendable scheme, adopted by this Society for the purpose of infusing 
new life into the old organization. It was a grand success. Some excellent 
papers were read, which were fully up with the times in vigorous thought, 
and would compare favorably with those of the old veterans of the Society. 

After the election of officers on Wednesday morning, the report of the 
Committee on Grapes was read, which brought out the following: The 
black rot had in some places ruined the entire crop. Mr. Worthen, of War- 
saw, said that a vineyard in his county, of thirty acres of Concords, yielded 
only a half barrel of wine, and from ten acres of his own he did not pick a 
grape. Nearly all varieties were affected alike— Perkins least affected. It 
pays to ship only the early grapes. 

The report and discussion on the strawberry only confirmed the experi- 
ence of all growers, that no variety can be relied on until tried in the local- 
ity. The Crescent still leads, Bubach next, Mt. Vernon third. Jessie had 
not come up to the reputation given it. The newspaper mulching had been 
put on too thick for the modesty of a western variety. Mt. Vernon best for 
fertilizing, as it carries its bloom high up, where the winds can carry the 
pollen over a large area. 

The ad interim report and discussion for central Illinois, placed the Ben 
Davis at the head of the list for market. Mr. Caldwell, who has an orchard 
of over two hundred acres, would plant only Ben Davis and Willow. 

The discussion following Secretary Hammond's paper on " Spraying Fruit 
Trees," was very lengthy, but brought out nothing new, unless it was the 
suggestion offered by Dr. Hall, to use corrosive sublimate as being much 
safer than arsenic or any of its preparations, there would be no danger of 
injuring the leaves. 

Mr. Pearson read a very interesting paper on Ornamental Planting for 
Farmers, in which he said we should plant shrubs and vines that would be 
handsome in leaf and bloom. The profit was only aesthetic, but was, never- 
theless, sure. He would plant native trees, and quoted Prof. Seargent as 
saying: " There is not a foreign evergreen that is worth planting here. 
We have thrown away our Scotch pines, and are ready to do without the 
Austrain." 

The subject of New Fruits, by Mr. A. L. Hay of Jacksonville, was 
handled in such a humorous manner as to keep the house in an uproar of 
laughter. No report of this paper can do it justice. Coming down to the 
practical side of this question, he thought that in the feverish anxiety to 
swell our bank account we plant too many varieties, simply because they 
were prolific and strong, without regard to quality. The Ben Davis always 
seDt a cold chill down his back whenever he tried to eat it, while on the 
other hand, the Jonathan was always welcome. When the children were 
sick his wife gave them a few Jonathans, and they got well. " In fact, when 
trouble or difficulty stares me in the face," said Mr. Hay, " I eat a few Jon- 
athan apples and my troubles vanish like a dream." 

The liberal premiums offered brought out a display of apples shown in 
these rooms, on the second floor. Not only Illinois, but Kentucky, Mis- 
souri and Arkansas made fine exhibits, among which were some good seed. 



166 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



lings, which were awarded premiums. The Arkansas fruits attracted 
especial attention for their large size and fine appearance. The State Uni- 
versity exhibited one hundred and twenty varieties of apples, many of 
which are rather rare and uncommon; the trees have been gathered from all 
over the country, and consequently there are many incorrectly named. Mr. 
McClure, the assistant horticulturist of the Experiment Station, is doing 
all he can to correct the nomenclature. 

The display of vegetables was very good, and the premiums offered by the 
Society for such exhibits, shows that it is not unmindful of the importance 
of this branch of horticulture. What is more conducive of health than 
good, fresh vegetables, and yet while this Society is offering large premiums 
for flowers (very good in their place), not a cent is offered for the ever neces- 
sary vegetable. Let us follow the example of our sister State. 

Following this report, Mr. S. L. Morrison read a report from Luca& 
county. 



REPORT OF LUCAS COUNTY. 



BY S. L. MORRISON. 



With the past four severe winters and the two extremely dry years of 1886 
and 1887, we can but feel thankful to be able to make so favorable a report 
from this part of the State in the interest of horticulture. Many of our 
older orchards are dying out from a variety of causes, among which are 
severe winters, dry seasons, want of suitable location, and not least, a gen- 
eral neglect. To the last named, I think, we can attribute most of our 
losses where varieties best suited to our soil are planted. Our apple 
crop the past season was good. The Ben Davis, Willow, Geniten, Wmesap, 
Grimes' Golden, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Walbridge, Pewaukee, Fameuse* 
Lowell, Wealthy, Cole's Quince, Porter, Maiden's Blush, Duchess and As- 
trachan are among our standard kinds. Over eighty varieties of apples 
were on exhibition at our county fair last fall. 

Old cherry trees are on the decline. 

Heavy rains in blooming season cut the plum crop short. Miner, Goose, 
Forest Garden, De Soto and King do best. 

Grapes, a full crop of perfect fruit, principally Concords. Moore's Early 
did well. Worden, Pocklington, Agawam and Martha are, I believe, relia- 
ble grapes. 

Of blackberries, the Snyder gave a fair crop last season without winter 
protection. The Wilson Junior produced a heavy crop; they need laying 
down in winter to fruit here. 



REPORT OF LUCAS COUNTY. 



167 



Raspberries, Tyler for early; Ohio and Gregg for medium and late. I 
prefer the Ohio for a general purpose. For reds, Turner and Cuthbert; 
Caroline too soft. The Shaffer is coming to the front as a choice berry, but 
rather soft for shipping. 

Where gooseberries were kept well cultivated, a good crop of fruit was 
had. 

Strawberries, were given proper care the previous season, grown in the 
matted row system and well mulched, returned fair crop of fine berries. 
Varieties: Crescent, Sharpless, Downing, Glendale, Cumberland, Bidwell 
and Wilson. 

In growing strawberries, raspberries and grapes, with good soil, thorough 
culture, close pruning, with varieties known to succeed best in this locality 
and grown upon high lands, a fair to a full crop is sure to follow. 

When planters learn to buy from persons known to be identified with the 
nursery business, instead of tree venders who promise so much, much will 
be added to the progress of horticulture in Southern Iowa. 

DISCUSSION. 

Pres. W. I. Chamberlain: I would like to speak on the idea of 
farmers raising their own fruits. At Farmers' Institutes in Wiscon- 
sin they teach how to raise blackberries. A gentleman at Ripon gave 
his method, which had proved quite satisfactory. He stated that by 
keeping his berries hoed and pruned, and when ready to lay down, 
by plowing a furrow on each side, two men and a boy can lay an acre 
a day. In the latitude of Ames, it will probably only be necessary to 
lay down and cover tips. Two men in a day can cover half an acre 
of grapes in this manner, so the cost is not great and the fruit crop 
is assured. We should teach how to raise small fruits. We have 
already made an advance, and by giving definite instructions great 
benefit will result from our work. 

S. L. Morrison: In Iowa we cannot raise blackberries or any other 
fruit in blue grass sod. 

N. K. Fluke: To successfully lay down blackberries the suckers 
should be kept down from between the rows. 

Prof. Budd: A very successful method in laying down blackber- 
ries is to have rows run east and west, and lay the plants across the 
row toward the north. If a wire is put under the vines when the 
earth is removed in the spring, they will be easily raised. The plants 
should be left in a leaning position, and the wire should be supported 
on short sticks about two feet high, and this will keep the canes in 
proper position. The new growth coming up will shade the fruit on 
the leaning canes, which will mature better for this shade. When 



168 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ready to lay down plants again, the staples can be drawn, the old 
canes removed and the new canes laid down as before. The increased 
yield and the better quality of fruit will pay for winter protection. 
Snyder blackberries grown in this way are so large and nice that a 
person would hardly think that they were Snyder. 

L. A. Williams: I had my attention called to winter protection 
at the last meeting of the Western Iowa Horticultural Society, and I 
tried to study how it might be done. It appears to me that most of 
you do not have blackberry canes like mine. I have canes that if 
not trimmed will grow ten to thirteen feet high; and those trimmed 
back are six or seven feet high; the canes are like broom handles in 
size. How am I to lay down such canes and cover them? 

W. F. Steigerwalt: Mine grow the same as Mr. Williams'. 

S. L. Morrison: You should raise Wilson Junior; canes are not so 
stiff and do not grow so large. 

A. G. Williams: If we are going to raise with a view to covering 
we should raise varieties better suited to it. The Kittiney is better 
than the Snyder, and the Wilson Junior is better still. 

M. E. Kinkley: I have a grudge against the Kittiney; canes do 
not bear. 

Pres. Patten: I thought I would not say anything about blackber- 
ries except to recommend them. Capt. Speer says that the roots can 
not be bent over and covered. I have strongly manured soil and cut 
the canes back to thirty inches, the w grew up and branched, but I found 
no trouble in covering them. In cultivating with a view to covering 
only two or three canes should be left in a hill and the hills two or 
three feet apart. Two canes to the hill are better than four. I 
would pay no special stress on laying the canes toward the north; if 
not convenient to lay the canes toward the north or east, would lay 
some other direction, even to the south if necessary. The Snyder 
has such an abundant and perfect foliage that it will shade sufficiently 
leaning in any direction. To facilitate the work, take strong plow 
and horse and run two furrows on each side of the row. If the canes 
are from four to six feet high they can be managed all right. Place 
a spading fork on the side on which you want them to lay, remove a 
forkful of earth, then put in the fork on the other side and push 
them over. Two men working together can work to better advant- 
age. The Snyder is tremendously productive, and will do well on 
almost any kind of soil. As to the dewberry, they are uncertain, 



EVENING SESSION. 



169 



and there is difficulty in getting the plants. The thorns are thick 
and strong, and a person needs cast-iron gloves to gather them. 

J. Thatcher: In large ravines running east and west, where a per- 
son can get ground lying to the north, blackberries will do better. 
When we had wild blackberries they were always best on the north 
hillside. 

S. L. Morrison: In laying down blackberries a spading fork is best 
to loosen the ground, when the canes can be pushed over with a hay 
fork which can be stuck in the ground and holds the canes down un- 
til they are covered. 

Pres. Chamberlain: Mr. Hamilton, of Ripon, Wisconsin, raises 
Snyder and Ancient Britton. He cuts back the canes and raises fruit 
instead of a surplus of wood. His success is so remarkable that it 
does not seem possible to fail when the same methods are pursued. 

Prof. Budd: I wish to call attention to a queer mistake. You can 
find by looking up rhe old Wisconsin Horticultural Reports, that this 
blackberry was named after A. S. Britton, but in some way the name 
has been preverted, and is now called Ancient Britton. I would 
like to suggest to the trial stations that they get the Windom dew- 
berry. The Lucretia is easy to get down but it is hard to get up. 
Windom trails on the ground like the Lucretia the first year, but after 
that stands up and bearing wood is off of the ground. The Windom 
is raised by the acre in Minnesota; it is a half standard, and not 
really a creeper. 

On motion the Society adjourned to meet at 1 p. m. 



EVENING SESSION— THIRD DAY. 



President Patten called the Society to order pursuant to adjourn- 
ment. 

C. L. Watrous read a paper on development of fruits and plants 
from native forms. 



22 



170 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



DEVELOPMENT OF FRUITS AND PLANTS FROM NATIVE 

FORMS. 



BY C. It. WATROUS, DES MOINES. 



To develop or evolve, to lead out or up, primitive forms of fruits and 
plants to a condition fit for the cultivated tastes of a highly civilized peo- 
ple, is a labor worthy of any man's ambition. The higher the rank of the 
fruit or flower, the longer and more difficult the road to be trodden, the 
loftier the ascent to be reached. Is this Mississippi region in such condi- 
tion that its people may reasonably feel compelled to resort to the evolution 
or leading up of its native forms of fruits to meet their wants? If so, and 
I believe careful examination will prove it true, the length and steepness of 
the road should not discourage the workers, but rather add haste to their 
step and fire to their zeal. 

As tending to show the usefulness, if not the* necessity, of this evolution 
of native forms in order to reach the fullest measure of successful fruit 
culture in this region, a few general principles, established and admitted 
by the best modern biologists, are of interest. We who face these labors 
find ourselves in the midst of a vast valley or trough in the surface of the 
earth, shut in on the west by thousands of miles of lofty mountain ranges, 
so lofty as to present a practical barrier to all softening and evening influ- 
ences of the Pacific ocean. On the east is another range, lower, but suffi- 
cient to strongly modify climate. This valley is open and wind-swept north 
and south. Here is the play-ground of the dry and icy blasts from the 
north and the vapor- laden airs from the steaming gulf. The most of this 
valley, excepting the high lands flanking the lofty Rockies, is well watered 
and fertile. Situated in the midst of a continent very long and very nar- 
row, its electro-magnetic conditions are peculiar to itself, so that in a vari- 
ety of most important climatic conditions, such as the course and velocity 
of its winds, the amount and sources of its rainfall, its electrical condi- 
tions, the daily and yearly range of thermometer and barometer, it is quite 
different in most important particulars from any other known region of the 
globe. 

We have been told that certain portions of Europe are substantially sim- 
ilar in climatic conditions to ours. But our meteorologists have shown 



DEVELOPMENT OF FRUITS AND PLANTS. 



171 



that even such clumsy measures as the thermometer and the rain-gauge 
quickly disprove any such assertion; moreover, those delicate climatic indi- 
cators, the trees, taken from their homes across thousands of miles of land 
and sea, have added their testimony to the uncongeniality of their new 
homes. 

It is singular that the claim of close similarity of conditions between, the 
two countries should ever have been ventured. The only explanation is, 
that the claim was made hastily and without adequate knowledge. In the 
Mississippi region the climatic forces must act mainly in a northerly and 
southerly direction, while in Europe these forces have unobstructed action 
east and west. 

" Europe is geographically a peninsula thrust out westwardly from the 
great continent of Asia It is constructed on the western third of a vast 
mountain axis, which reaches in a broken and irregular course from the Sea 
of Japan to the Bay of Biscay. On the flanks of this range peninsular 
slopes are directed toward the south and extensive plateaus to the north. 
The boundless plains of Asia are prolonged across Russia, Germany and 
Holland to the Atlantic. An army may pass from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic ocean without encountering any elevation more than a few hundred 
feet. The descent from x^.sia into Europe is indicated by the difference in 
the mean elevation of the two continents above the level of the sea." 

Could anything, while seeming to have some points of resemblance, be 
more really unlike than the climatic conditions of Central Europe and Cen- 
tral North America? In the one, a vast plateau entirely open to the ocean 
on the north and west, with high lands to the south and an unobstructed 
sweep of westerly moisture laden aiis from the Atlantic Gulf Stream. Ev- 
erything is reversed here. If one had the lamp of Aladdin, and could sum- 
mon a million genii to sweep back the Coast Range, the Cascades and the 
lofty Rockies to the Mississippi, and raise a ridge from St. Louis westward 
to Los Angeles, then might Dakota present climatic features nearer to 
those of Russia. But Aladdin is dead and his lamp is broken! We shall 
never have a European climate in this region! Would that we were as cer- 
tain of never again being misled by such a claim. Plants of West Europe 
and of California are freely interchanged and flourish, while the plants of 
neither of these regions flourish well anywhere east of the Rocky range. 
In this region their condition is dismal indeed, extremely few giving even 
moderate promise of success. 

Botanists teach us that the plants of America and those of Europe once 
grew and flourished in Greenland and other lands about the pole; that 
thence they were forced southward by a period of cold, which, in turn, gave 
way to warmth; and this again to cold, these oscillations being repeated, no 
man may ever know how many times. Vegetable forms preserved them- 
selves through countless ages of changing conditions by means of migration 
to and fro, and by structural modification to suit the varying conditions of 
their environment. The different influences of each continent have so 
varied the forms once common to both continents about the north pole, that 
very few European trees or plants now present enough points of resemblance 



172 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



to be classed as identical in species with any Americans. It may be said in 
passing, that the same law holds good in the animal kingdom. Our trees 
have been American trees, substantially as they are now, through vast 
geologic periods. A late author tells us that in the cretaceous rocks of 
Dakota are found remains of trees familiar to us. There flourished the oak, 
the beech, the birch, the poplar, and many others; even the apple and the 
plum were there. So long ago as that time, at least, were there flourishing 
orchards of American apples and plums on these prairies; perchance there 
were there also, in those hoary days, millions of ages ago, men who loved 
fruit and held grave councils about varieties and methods, just as we do. 
Talk about Russian thoroughbreds! The oldest of them are of yesterday, 
compared with these venerable sires. This is an apple country, made so by 
nature. All botanists agree that trees and plants have great capacity, by 
means of seedling reproduction and by the survival of the fittest, for modi- 
fication to suit varying conditions. De Candolle states that our finest fruits 
have been brought to their present high estate within comparatively short 
periods of intelligent culture and selection, the primative European apple 
having been less than one- fourth the size of our largest wild crab. Darwin 
gives a multitude of. examples to show how slight changes in environment 
produce difference in seedling offspring. Linnaeus classed winter and 
spring wheat as distinct species. Winter wheat was sown in spring, and 
only four plants out of one hundred ripened their seed. These were sown 
and re- sown, and in three years all ripened, and the change was complete. 
Spring wheat was changed to winter in the same manner and in the same 
short time. The changes in corn and other plants, by slight changes in 
climate and soil, are familiar to us all. The great fact in all this is, that the 

. plants themselves must die and reproduce themselves in modified forms by 
seeds. Can any one doubt, in view of all we know, that if these prairies 

, had been slowly settled from the east by men familiar with the fruits of the 
older States, but unacquainted with budding and grafting, they might be- 
fore this have been abundantly supplied with successful seedling varieties. 
That is precisely the manner in which the steppes of Russia have become 
regions of successful orcharding. It is our reproach that instead of making 
our own road we should be trying to steal a ride on their backs, but Provi- 
dence will see to it that we do our own walking, all in good time. There 
are now under course of experiment in Iowa three descendants of wild 
crabs. The possessor of one, specimens of which have been measured, more 
than two inches in diameter, writes that its fruit has been better property in 
market the past season than Jonathan, Roman Stem or Grimes' Golden. 
The Soulard has already been proven entirely worthy of general cultivation 
for jelly, for which it excels. It is very easy to get up a show of Iowa seed- 
lings excelling any show of foreign apples, grOwn here, especially if the trial 
be in winter. 

A valuable paper on the development of native forms of fruit was read by 
A. S. Fuller, at the last meeting of the American Pomological Society. 
Among other things, he said that for two hundred years Americans tried to 
grow European grapes, never doubting of final success, and so neglecting 



DEVELOPMENT OP FRUITS AND PLANTS. 



173 



the hardy native varieties. It is now barely fifty years since our vinyard- 
ists became aware that we possessed American grapes worth cultivating. 
The struggle was long and severe. At the same meeting one firm was 
awarded a premium for a display of one hundred and sixty- five varieties of 
native grapes, and not one foreigner disputed their supremacy. In the cat- 
alogue of that society in 1852 only four varieties 6f raspberries were men- 
tioned—all foreign. In 1887, thirty-eight sorts are admitted, thirty bein^ 
native, and eight only either foreign or of foreign parentage. 

"The history of the strawberry," says Mr. Fuller, 41 is almost identical 
with that of raspberry. No real advance was made till wild varieties were 
used upon which to build a substantial structure by seedling reproduction." 
The blackberry is yet substantially in a wild state, though cultivated profit- 
ably. Our gooseberries are almost in the same condition, and both promise 
rich returns to the careful experimenter. To these may be added the cur- 
rant, in all prairie regions, because seedling forms better able to endure hot 
suns are greatly needed. The Juneberry and the huckleberry deserve culti- 
vation and seedling reproduction. The plum needs scarcely to be men- 
tioned, the native forms having already cleared the prairies of the last of 
the foreign sorts, and this within a score of years. Of cherries, the wild 
red cherry [Prunus Pennsylvanica), the dwarf cherry (P. pumila) and the 
choke cherry (P. Virginiana) seem promising and worthy of trial. By cross- 
ing the first two with foreign sorts new races might soon be obtained, while 
the choke cherry sometimes produces in a wild state, varieties that boys find 
very palatable. The first object is, by sowing the seeds in rich soil, to break 
up the wild type, produced and held as it is by the hard and bitter struggle 
for existence with other vegetable forms and with animals and birds. 
Plants quickly respond to abundant food, protection and generous treat- 
ment, as well as animals. The scripture hath it, " Except yd die and be 
born again ye cannot see eternal life." The laws of nature have it, except 
a tree or plant die and reproduce itself from seed it cannot adapt its de- 
scendants to differing conditions. But by this road, the highway of nature, 
may men in every land eat of their own fruits and rest under the shade of 
their trees. The osage orange, the catalpa speciosa, the magnolia acumin- 
ata, the pecan, the large-fruited hickory of Missouri, the thornapple, the 
pawpaw, the persimmon, the high bush cranberry, the chestnut, and many 
other natives of this region, promise rich rewards for attention and seed- 
ling selection to secure races and varieties better adapted to life on the 
prairies. There is a certain strong- growing wild rose, with a sturdy stem 
four or five feet high, with plenty of spiny branches and brilliantly colored 
seed vessels. This would make a magnificent hedge to divide lawns in 
towns. Many others as worthy as these might be enumerated. Any one 
may extend the list, cultivate the fields and reap the harvest. 



174 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



President W. I. Chamberlain, of the Agricultural College, read a 
paper entitled, Horticulture in its Relation to Agriculture. 



THE RELATIONS OF HORTICULTURE TO AGRICULTURE. 



BY PRES. W. I. CHAMBERLAIN, AMES. 



By assignment of those who arranged your programme I am to speak for 
a few moments on the Relations of Horticulture to Agriculture. I wish to 
speak of the comparative influence of the two employments upon those en- 
gaged in them, especially upon the young, in the way of (1) interest, (2) educa- 
tion, (3) culture and refinement, (4) health; and then consider how far horti- 
culture may wrisely be superadded to agriculture on most of our Iowa 
farms. 

1. Interest. There is greater diversity in horticulture than agriculture; 
and diversity begets interest. I assume that the first part of this proposi- 
tion will be admitted by this audience, I therefore argue only the second, 
viz., that diversity begets interest. Monotony is ever tiresome. Change 
even of a painful posture brings relief. Long continuance in the repetition 
of a single act brings weariness, sometimes disgust or even torture. The 
single drop of water falling second by second upon the head of the heretic, 
was one of the most fiendish tortures of the Inquisition. Visit in succes- 
sion a score of the great factories that turn out countless articles of human 
use, and whose machines do the work, while the operatives merely tend their 
nimbler finger and watch their defter work, and you shall say, first, that the 
dumb machine shows more intelligence and greater skill than the rational, 
sentient beings that seem but parts of the machine; and second you shall 
say, " The skill and brain of those that invented those machines,' 1 placed them 
in these great factories and joined them to the great engine, the heart and 
brain that animates them all— this skill and brain of the few that invented 
the machines, have forestalled need of skill and brain in those that tend 
them. And where skill and brain are not needed, and a monotonous round 
of simple acts continuously goes on, interest dies out and intellect di- 
minishes. Beyond all question minute subdivision of labor in oar great 
factories tends to monotony of employment, and to a dwindling of the in- 
tellect of the employed. But when God spread out the broad and fertile 
fields for farming, he spread them out so broad that this massing of count- 
less human brawn and muscle under one human brain and will is forever - 
more impossible. Still further, a careful examination of facts will show 
that it is less possible in horticulture than in agriculture; that is, that there 



V 



RELATION OF HORTICULTURE TO AGRICULTURE. 

is greater diversity and therefore greater interest and education in horti- 
culture, unless the agriculture be joined to intelligent stock breeding. 

Says Charles Darwin, that prince of accurate observers, "not one man in 
a thousand has accuracy of eye and judgmenjt sufficient to become an emi- 
nent breeder. If one is gifted with these qualities, and studies his subject 
for years, and devotes his lifetime to it with indomitable persevesence, he 
will succeed, and may make great improvements; if he wants any of these 
qualities he will assuaredly fail. Few would readily believe in the natural 
capacity and years of practice requisite to become even a skillful pigeon 
fancier." And in the next paragraph he remarks, in substance, that the 
same is true essentially of marked success in horticulture. 

His remark is eminently true. I am personally acquainted with many 
men, both among the breeders and the horticulturists, that have made a 
life long study of the principles of breeding, selection, crossing, hybridizing 
to a type and for specific purpose. Men that read Charles Darwin's famous 
scientific works with eagerness as fast as they were published, and adopted 
his theories while they were denounced as absurd hypothesis by the clergy, 
laughed at by bar and bench, and scarcely adopted by our most advanced 
physicians. In their herds and nurseries they accomplished the "survival 
of thefitest" by destroying the unfit; like the English lord fame! for his 
success by saying " I breed a good many hounds, and I hang a good many." 

But large farming proper, the tillage of a very few great crops for sale, 
does not afford such variety and interest nor develop such activity of 
thought. Take for example the man that simply raises and sells corn and 
oats. He can plough, cultivate, plant, till, harvest, shell or thresh, with 
machines and implements invented and made for him by others, and is often 
forced to sell at prices set for him by others. His farming seems almost re- 
duced to sitting on a seat and driving a span of horses. His work would be 
almost as dwindling as that in the factories, except for the healthy open air 
and the fact that he has several kinds of machines and implements which 
he must understand well enough at least to keep them in reasonable run- 
ning order. 

2. Education. From the very fact that it is interesting and diversified, it 
has an educating power. In fact I have already shown this, in part, under 
the preceding head, for it is impossible to strip that which is interesting and 
varied of its power to educate. Especially is this true when we add to in- 
terest and variety the element of difficulty, for difficulties met and over- 
come always discipline and strengthen body, mind, or moral sense, which 
ever one has grappled with and conquered them. Now, in horticulture the 
problems are 80 many, so varied and so difficult, that the mind of boy or 
girl, man or woman, if once aroused, and not discouraged, is kept in con- 
stant activity, study, growth. 1 his matter of difficulty with diversity is an 
important one, and we should neither lose sight of nor deny it. It is some- 
times said that it is as easy to raise a hill of strawberries or raspberries as 
of corn or potatoes. ' If so, then the former should be as cheap per bushel 
as the latter. No, it is not as easy. It takes more thought and skill to raise 
the berries, grapes, peaches, plums, pears, apples, than the corn, oats and 



176 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



potatoes. Best varieties must be studied for each soil and climate, espec- 
ially for this most trying one. The mysteries of budding, grafting, layer- 
ing, transplanting, pruning, tilling, wintering, picking, assorting, packing, 
marketing, must all be mastered. Scores of insect enemies must be con- 
quered or they will conquer us. The difficulties are of a kind , too, that must 
be surmounted; they put the boy or man upon his mettle. He must learn 
when worms are ruining his cabbages, bugs and beetles his cucumbers, 
melons and potatoes, codling moths his apples, curculios his cherries and 
his plums, and rot and mildew threaten his grapes. It is a " ground-hog 
case," like that of the boy who said he'd " got to shoot the woodchuck, for 
there wa'n't a mite o' fresh meat in the house, and the preacher was comin 7 
for Sunday!" 

The point I am trying to make is, that necessity, that mother of inven- 
tion, compels the horticulturist to be also a botanist, entomologist, student, 
in short, or quit the business in failure. The business educates him or else 
it ruins him. Only those that study, both before and after they begin the 
business, does Nature reveal her most valued secrets. 

3. Culture and Befinement. The third point that I make is that horticul- 
ture gives more of culture and refinement than agriculture. The influence 
of occupation upon character is unquestioned. The tendency, for example, 
of butchering is towards cruelty. It benumbs the sensibility and destroys 
the natural shrinking from cruelty, suffering, blood and death. For centur- 
ies, in England, all butchers, on this very ground, were by law excluded 
from juries sitting on murder trials. They were too likely to condemn. 
The quality of mercy which " droppeth like the gentle dew from heaven" is 
not made to grow, but is destroyed by their daily familiarity with suffering, 
blood and death. A visit to the packing houses of Chicago confirms this 
impression of the influence of occupation upon character. Even the boys, 
fourteen years old, that mercilessly lash the droves of swine up the long 
" bridge of sighs " that leads them to their death, seem almost devilish in 
the relish with which they do their work. The worst imp of the whole lot 
is he that fits the clamp to the hind leg of hundreds of swine each hour, and 
chuckles with apparent delight at their horrid squealing, as the machinery 
jerks them up into mid air, whence they pass in rapid succession before the 
blood bespattered mortal who stands up to his ankles in gore and with his 
long knife with unerring precision instantly takes the life of a score or so 
of the poor brutes every minute. And so through the whole great estab- 
lishment, where several thousand men and boys beneath one great roof in 
cruelty and stench find daily employment— all seems disgusting, brutalizing, 
narrowing, deadening to the finer sensibilities. Once, when visiting the 
great beef packing establishments I watched, with a kind of horrid faacina- 
tion, the old bell ox used as a decoy. For years, as I was told, he has fol- 
lowed the business of leading his fellows up to death. He goes among the 
steers standing idly in the great pen, and then leads off slowly a long row 
of them into the single death pens, from which he himself is permitted to 
escape each time only to lead up a fresh gang. The brutalizing influence of 
the surroundings seems to have reached even this old decoy ox, for he chews 



RELATION OF HORTICULTURE TO AGRICULTURE. 



his cud in stolid indifference as he leads in each fresh lot— a hardened, con- 
science-seared old sinner— a very Judas Iscariot or Benedict Arnold to his 
kind, with not enough of conscience or remorse left to " go away and hang 
himself!" 

God alone can create life, and so there seems to be a kind of sacredness in 
that even of the brutes, that makes the constant destruction of it, or the 
handling, cutting or maiming of the bodies from which it has just fled, to 
have a brutalizing effect. 

But in horticulture the influence is just the reverse. It has a refining in- 
fluence from its materials and surroundings. Fruits and flowers are in 
themselves artistically beautiful, and such artistic forms constantly before 
the eyes has a refining influence, especially in childhood, even as we have 
seen that revolting objects have a debasing influence. What more beautiful 
in form, color, blending aud shading than a bed of strawberries heavily laden 
with ripe fruit, the scarlet, pink or crimson of the berries blending with the 
deep green or occacional yellow gold of the foliage? What is finer than a 
glass fruit-dish decked with the blending forms and varied colors of many 
kinds of fruit? a materialized bouquet! Have you ever watched a show 
window in a fruit store filled with the fruits of all latitudes and climes, ar- 
tistically arranged by one who has artistic genius, and not mere animal ap- 
petite, an eye, and not merely a palate and a stomach. Can anything be 
more beautiful and refining? Or have you ever studied the show window of 
a florist, who was a real artist, and not felt that " even Solomon in all his 
glory was not arrayed like one of these?" Or have you ever worked in a 
green house, propagating room, or upon the landscape gardening of some 
park and not drunk in the refining influence of your surroundings? Such 
influence is unquestioned. 

On the subject of both the educating and refining influence of horticul- 
ture, my friend L. B. Pierce, of Ohio, has this to say in a printed address: 

" No knowledge is more cumulative than that of horticulture. Did you 
ever think how varied is its field, how much it embraces, how it gradually 
leads from one thing to another, until a finished horticulturist is a finished 
scholar? In my early youth I was thrown occasionally into the society of 
English and Scotch gardeners, and I often noticed the difference between 
them and common laborers in the same ranks of life. These were accom- 
plished, refined and in a measure scholarly; the others were ignorant and 
boorish. Long meditation on the subject then, strengthened by observa- 
tion since, convinces me that intimate association with fruits and flowers 
civilizes, educates, ennobles." 

To my own mind it is perfectly clear that horticulture has far greater re- 
fining and educating power than agriculture, especially if the latter is of 
the large kind, with few crops, and divorced from the breeding of fine stock. 
There is little that is aesthetic in our great prairie farms, and the ease and 



178 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



routine with which the crops are grown upon them, leave little of educating 
or stimulating power. We certainly have the advantage of the East in fer- 
tility, but while you cannot grow corn or fatten steers upon mere mountain 
scenery, you certainly can feed the soul of man with aesthetic delight, its 
highest food except the spiritual. Horticulture, therefore, with its elevat- 
ing influence, is all the more important to us in this level, fertile West, lest 
we come to feed our souls exclusively upon the price of corn and hogs, and 
become, like Bunyan's " man with the muck-rake," so intently bending 
over the work of gathering the merely sordid things of earth, that we can- 
not see the golden ciown of knowledge and of culture held by the Shining 
One above our heads. The rarest symphony is nothing to the deaf, nor the 
most enchanting landscape to the blind or sordid. I remember that once a 
farmer friend, who lives opposite the Catskills, on the Hudson river, was 
driving me one summer morning from his house down to the river landing. 
A turn in the road suddenly brought us out into full sight of an enchanting 
view, until then hidden by the shrubbery. Here far below us lay the broad 
Hudson, with its valley of farms, and gardens, and orchards, and vineyards 
and country seats. Thirty miles away were the Catskills, their blue sum- 
mits shading into the bluer sky in the mellow distance of the summer morn- 
ing. My friend had stopped his team, without a word, and laid his hand 
in gentle, sympathetic pressure, upon my arm. At length there burst from 
my lips and heart an exclamation of delight: " Lewis, this view is worth 
more than your whole farm besides!" " Well, Chamberlain," said he, " it's 
some satisfaction to bring such a man to see it! Last week I brought a man, 
a big farmer from the West (my cousin, I am ashamed to say), to this same 
spot, and stopped and laid my hand upon his arm as I did just now on yours, 
andjie went right on talking! Said I to him, with some impatience, 4 can't 
you see this magnificent view?' 1 View? Ah, y-e-s— ah! Nice, ain't it! As 
I was a sayin', I've pretty much made up my mind to hold my barley for 
ninety-five centsP " Encouraged by my amusement, my friend went on : 
" His wife was another like him. We took them both to see the finest coun- 
try seat in all this region, owned by a wealthy New Yorker, who, encour- 
aged by my appreciation, had given me cordial invitation to drive in his fine 
park whenever I chose. As we drove through it then, and came near the 
great mansion, I called the attention of my cousin's wife to the beautiful 
lawu, close shaven, fresh and green. 1 Oh, my!' she exclaimed, 'what a 
beautiful place to— ah— spread the washing cut to dry and bleachP " 

It is of course necessary to sell the barley at good price, and to dry and 
bleach the muslin, but these are not the only, or the highest, things in life, 
nor does their proper care necessarily interfere with the intellectual; and 
just as we say in feeding animals, that the feed of profit is only that above 
the mere feed of sustenance, and in running an engine that the fuel of» act- 
ual energy and work is that part which heats the water above the boiling 
point, so it seems to me that the food of manhood is only that which lies 
above what belongs merely to our animal nature, our physical wants, as dis- 
tinguished from our aesthetic and intellectual. 



RELATION OF HORTICULTURE TO AGRICULTURE. 



And so, if we force ourselves and our children on the farm to be mere 
hewers of wood and drawers of water; if we turn our attention and theirs 
to nothing but physical work and wants, only to food and raiment, dollars 
and cents, we and they shall grow insensate to the things of beauty and of 
knowledge all around us. If we even tolerate the idea that farming, gar- 
dening and fruit growing are mere manual labor, and that they give no play 
and offer no compensation for the use of the intellectual powers, then we 
must not be surprised at the desire to leave the farm. We should seize hold 
of the natural inquisitiveness of childhood, and direct it wisely toward the 
manifold objects of interest. We should teach the child to watch and guide 
the constant miracles of birth and growth. We should teach him the manifold 
processes of skill and deftness connected with agriculture, and especially 
with horticulture, giving him, if possible, the reasons that underlie meth- 
ods, the science on which practice rests. We should give him tools for 
study, if possible, as well as tools for work— a good hand-glass, and, if pos- 
sible, at least a good fifteen dollar microscope, to study the facts of geology, 
zoology, entomology, and structural botany. If there is any latent taste in 
him for scientific research, he is interested and is already on the highway to 
knowledge. Then if he can but have a year or two in some good agricultu- 
ral college, he will get some real theoretical and practical knowledge of the 
half dozen physical sciences on which the art of agriculture rests funda- 
mentally. Thus trained, a fair proportion of them will return from college 
to the farm, and honor their calling by making it a liberal profession and 
not the most illiberal of arts. 

4. Health. Horticulture is health- giving even more than agriculture. It 
gives more interesting and less severe exercise in the open air, with the feet 
and often the hands buried in the loose and cool and fragrant earth. In 
Greek mythology, King Antaeus, fabled son of earth and sea, received new 
strength in wrestling every time his foot touched the bosom of his mother 
earth, and could be overcome even by the mighty Hercules only when the 
latter lifted him from the earth. This old myth has its conscious repetition 
in many a horticulturist's experience. I know of a lady, now in robust 
health, who ten 5 ears ago seemed near death's door with consumption. As 
summer warmth came on, her doctor said, " Go into your garden bareheaded, 
barehanded, barefooted, and let the sun tan and the breezes kiss your cheeks, 
and the fragrant earth cover your feet and hands." In that single summer 
the fable of Antaeus was made real in her case. She received strength and 
health from contact with mother earth. 

In conclusion. I am to ask the question how far horticulture may be wisely 
superadded to agriculture on most of our Iowa farms. So far at least, I 
believe, as to furnish the ordinary fruits and vegetables in abundance for 
the table the year round. I am sure this would be a manifest gain in the 
four respects I have named above; interest, education, culture and refine- 
ment, and health. I might have added, above, a fifth heading, viz., profit. 
Unquestionably the farmer's vegetable and fruit garden will pay in all of 
the above respects, if laid out properly in long rows and worked by horse. 



180 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



To the boys, if given the proper share and not overworked, or forced " to 
work in the garden when it rains so they can't work out doors," it will pay 
well in interest, education and culture, and to the whole family it will pay 
in health and profit. I know that it is often said that it costs more to raise 
vegetables, and especially fruits, in Iowa, than to buy them in the market. 
I do not myself believe it. I have tried both ways, buying in a large Ohio 
city for six years, where a garden was impossible, and raising vegetables and 
fruits in the so-called bad climate of this State. The fruits and vegetables 
this last year raised by myself in Ames, and used or sold, from a little more 
than an acre of ground, would, if bought in the market at local prices, have 
amounted to more than $200.00, while, for freshness, delicacy and health, 
they were almost infinitely superior to those shipped in from miles away, 
partly wilted or decayed, and badly off flavor from long exposure and hand- 
ling. It makes all the difference between a delicious article of 'luxury and 
a common article of food, eaten without particular relish simply to sustain 
life. I believe that our westers farmers and villagers would be far more 
healthy and vigorous if they had daily upon the table two or three kinds of 
crisp or toothsome vegetables like lettuce, radishes, young onions, spinach, 
young beets, green corn, lima beans cucumbers, melons, parsnips, etc., in 
their season, with acid fruits, especially in spring and early summer, when 
the system craves and needs them. But it is entirely clear to me that, tak- 
ing human nature as it is, farmers and often those who live in small villages 
will not use such things with any regularity unless they themselves raise 
them in abundance. It is often said that horticulture in Iowa is a mere 
sentiment, while agriculture makes our living; and that it is cheaper to buy 
fruits shipped in from abroad than to try to raise them. This may be true 
for winter apples at the present in northern Iowa, but it is also true that, 
with human nature as it is, the question lies, not between raising and buy- 
ing, but between raising and going without; and that health would be vastly 
better If more vegetables and fruits were used. If each farmer can 
find and grow even twd or three hardy varieties that will keep through win- 
ter, I think ten bushels of apples will be raised and used to every one bushel 
that is now bwght and used. Some of our most experienced horticulturists 
believe that a few such varieties are already within our reach. 



DISCUSSION. 

Pres. Patten: I for one wish to express my thanks to Pres. Cham- 
berlain for the paper just read. 

On motion of J. J. Councilman, a vote of thanks was tendered to 
Pres. Chamberlain. 

The committee on resolutions reported as follows: 

Mr. President— Your committee on resolutions beg leave to submit the 
following: 



INSTITUTE WOKK. 



181 



We recognize the liberal reduction of fare made by the railroads to the 
members of this Association: also, the liberal reduction and very generous 
treatment the hotels Goldstone and Hawkeye have given our Society, and 
especially are our thanks due to our retiring President, for his wise, able 
and impartial management of the affairs of this Society during his admin- 
istration. 

Silas Wilson, 
A. G. Williams, 

Committee. 

On motion the report of the committee was adopted. 

Pres. Chamberlain: There is one thing that I wish to speak about, 
but perhaps your President and Secretary have attended to it. This 
Society should select some of its best workers to attend the insti- 
tutes to be held during the winter. 

Geo. Van Houten: I have tried to make arrangements, but as yet 
have not succeeded in getting those most often called for to agree to 
do the work. Prof. Budd has declined, because of work already 
planned; the President of this Society has declined, because of poor 
health; and as yet I have not been able to get Mr. Watrous to agree 
to help in the work. On account of getting out our report, I shall be 
able to do but little of the institute work myself, until near the close 
of the institute season. Mr. Speer has agreed to go to a few places, 
and Mr. Lathrop, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Wragg, Mr. Collman and others 
are expected to do more or less institute work. I would be glad to 
have our Society closely identified with this institute work. 

R. P. Speer: There should be a division of the work. I am will- 
ing to attend a few institutes, if I do not have to do too much travel- 
ing. 

C. L. Watrous: I would like to ask what is expected of a man 
who is appointed to attend these institutes? 

Geo. Van Houten: If Mr. Watrous does not know, I would like to 
know who would know. 

Pres. Chamberlain: Short, boiled down articles and discussions 
are needed at the institute. The facts are that people know better 
than they do. I am reminded of the man who found fault with the 
Ohio farmer and was asked if its teachings were not good. He said, 
yes. But that was the very reason he did not like it, as he did not 
want to be constantly told of his short comings; and, to use his own 
expression, he said, " He knew a durned sight better than he did, and 
did not like to. have it rubbed in every week." We want to get the 



182 



STATE HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



people to resolve to have a new birth and stir up a spirit of enthusi- 
asm. We /want to put such a spirit into the farmers as to get them to 
do the best they know. 

Geo. Van Houten: Last year the Society restricted the size of the 
annual volume, and in consequence several of the papers and a great 
deal of the discussion were left out. It would have been much easier 
to have made a report of 800 pages, as it would have saved a revision 
of many of the papers and reports. Mr. A. G. Williams and a few 
other gentlemen whose names I do not now recall, realizing the situ- 
ation, in a spirit of kindness, to help out the difficulty, withheld their 
papers from the report. 

Prof. Budd: I know of no restrictions of law, except as to the 
size of the pages. In writing up the report the chaff should be 
thrown out. A condensed report is of more value, and the report 
should be as short as the subject matter will justify. 

R. P. Speer: The report should be condensed; I want the facts 
and do not want anything more. A small report is better than a 
large one. If members learn that their papers must be boiled down, 
they will be more careful to write what they want to say and leave 
out immaterial things. 

H. W. Lathrop: The directors should have short reports. We 
had three reports on forestry; we should have had but two. In writ- 
ing up the discussions there can be a good deal of condensation. 

C. L. Watrous: I think our report will be a better one and more 
generally read if shortened up considerably. 

O. L. Watrous moved that the report be limited, as near as conven- 
ient, to 500 pages. 

Prof. Budd: I would second the motion, with the understanding 
that the Secretary shall have a little latitude; because in preparing 
the report it is not always easy to estimate the space it will occupy. 

Motion prevailed. 

Motion by Mr. Watrous that Rev. Mr. Anracher be made an hon- 
orary member of this Society and that he be furnished with the re- 
port. 

Carried. 

Pres. Patten: I desire to thank the members of this Society for 
the very cordial support you have given me during the time I have 
been your presiding officer. I came to this office, as you have had 
abundant evidence to know, without experience, and I feel grateful 



ADJOURNMENT. 



183 



to you for the cordial support you have given me; for all the courte- 
sies I have received at your hands I sincerely thank you. 

C. L. Watrous: I move that we do now adjourn. 

Carried. 



APPENDIX. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES AND PAPERS. 



Some of these papere were not read at the meeting, and others 
were not received in time (having been returned to the writers) to 
appear in their appropriate place in the report. 



Wesley, Kossuth County, Iowa, January 12, 1889. 
George Van Houten, Secretary: 

This is written with the hope that in the course of your deliberations in 
the State Horticultural Society on the 15th, 16th and 17th inst. the subject 
of surface geology will be brought up for discussion in its relation to grow- 
ing fruit and forest trees. 

This subject was thought of sufficient importance by the president of the 
horticultural meeting at Nora Springs to be brought up for discussion. 
This discussion ended by the appointment of a committee of three to me- 
morialize the next legislature as to a new geological survey of this State. 
It is hoped that the State Society will deem this action of the northern 
society of importance, and further it, and take such action as is thought 
best. 

Some attempt should be made to place the geology of every township 
before the people who dwell here. At least this knowledge should be 
within reach of all. There have been two geological reports made; the last 
one nearly twenty years ago, and this a very hasty one. Both these reports 
hinged on mineral wealth of the State. We need a re- survey of the State, 
in the interests of agriculture and horticulture. 

A thorough report would be a vast fund of knowledge for all our State 
societies to draw from. A knowledge of soils and sub- soils should go hand 
in hand with a knowledge of the varieties of trees. One kind of vegetation 
takes the upland, another the midland, and another the lowland; and this 
from, the lowest to the highest types. Climate is the same, yet an upland 
wild grass will grow in a slough. Duchess trees in Howard county, on 
sandy sub-soil were killed in 1884-5, while those on porous yellow clay sub- 
soil came through all right. 



188 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Kossuth county, the home of the writer, is within the " stoneless " region 
of Iowa. Great piles of drift cover all the stratified roads. There is a gen- 
eral sameness about the soil and sub-soil, yet there is also a vast difference 
in the sub-soil of nearly every farm. The yellow clay that may be said to 
cover the whole of this region some twelve feet deep, next below the black 
soil, is wanting in many places, so that the black soil in these cases, rests 
close to the blue clay, with sand between them. And again, at the foot of 
a ridge, the blue clay, which is generally fifty to one hundred and fifty feet 
thick below the yellow clay, is also gone, and we find sand and gravel just 
below the black soil. 

Some large tracts of land have but a thin bed of yellow, porous clay, di- 
rectly beneath the black soil. I wish to speak of this yellow clay; it is 
very spongy, and holds great quantities of moisture. It is jointed, as the 
writer has followed these joints down through it to the blue clay. The 
roots of the trees penetrate it easily, so the trees never suffer in drought; 
they may sunscald and blight, but they never dry up and die for the want of 
moisture. 

The blue clay (true glacial clay), next below the yellow clay, is the solid 
floor under all this upper country, about fifteen feet below the surface; this 
impervious floor holds the rains that sink into this fifteen-foot reservoir for 
future vegetation to draw from. 

Severe droughts are almost unknown in this region. 

There are some compensations in nature. While we have no limestone, 
no coal, no gypsum, no lead, no loose soil to cap our bluffs, and but little 
native timber, yet we do have one of the best tree soils and sub- soils in the 
known world. 

We have a .condition of things geologically arranged— a cistern, so to 
speak, under all northwestern Iowa, filled with a rich, pervious clay, 
brought from the cretacous and tertiary regions of the north and northwest. 
We have a vast steppe region that is rapidly growing into a wooded region, 
groves springing up all around. 

This is the grass region of Iowa, and stock raising is the great industry. 
We want fruit trees for our farms and homes. All kinds of hardy small 
fruit are as much at home here as the weeds are, but only the more thrifty 
farmers know it. Every district in Iowa has different geological condi- 
tions, which only can be known by a competent geologist. This work 
should be done by the State, for it will have an economic value as well as a 
scientific. 

William Ward. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



189 



FORESTRY IN LYON COUNTY. 



BY H. S. WILLIAMS, LARCHWOOD. 



Tree planting in this county has been pretty extensively engaged in for 
some time back, but the varieties used have been limited, consisting chiefly 
of willow, cottonwood, ash, box-elder and soft maple. In a few cases other 
species of trees have been put out, but not to any extent. 

In and surrounding Larchwood there are a number of groves, in which, 
besides the trees already mentioned, a few others have been tried. Here 
the European larch has proved very successful; and also the Scotch pine, 
there being trees of both species over twenty feet high. 

Our experience here leads us to believe that of the evergreens best suited 
for the prairies, the following are those which we would recommend, all 
having been thoroughly tested here: Norway spruce {Abies excelsa), White 
spruce [Abies alba) Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), Austrian pine (Pinus Aus- 
treaca), white pine (Pinus strobus), heavy wooded pine (Bull pine) (Pinus pon- 
derosa). Am. arbor- vitse (Iheija ocadentalis.) 

Of the other trees which have been tested and proved quite hardy, the 
following may be especially recommended: White and green ash, box- 
elder, soft maple, white American elm, European mountain ash, European 
larch. 

The following succeed well with a little care, when young: Hardy catalpa 
(Speciosa), witch or Scotch elm. 

The hardy catalpa is a tree well worthy the attention of settlers here. We 
are now growing trees from our own seed, and they prove hardier than im- 
ported trees. For the first two or three years they are liable to be winter- 
killed on top, but by cutting back to the ground they become more hardy 
each year and make better growths. 

All the evergreens above mentioned are perfectly hardy with us. They 
ought to be frequently transplanted while young, in order to give more 
fibrous roots, as experience teaches that this is one of the most important 
points in planting. 

From practical experience we find that the fall is the best time for trans- 
planting, both for evergreens and forest trees. If done in the spring, it 
should be before any growth commences, or just as soon as the ground is in 
a suitaWe condition, We have had most success, however, in the fall, com- 
mencing as soon as the growth ceases, and continuing until the ground 



190 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



begins to freeze up. All due precautions should be taken to keep the roots, 
especially of evergreens, from air and sun. This matter is generally well 
enough known, however, and need not be dwelt upon here. In planting 
evergreens they should be surrounded by shelter belts of willow or some 
other common forest trees. 

Our experience with fruit trees here is limited, but from what we know, 
we would recommend the following: 

Apples— Duchess and Wealthy. 

Crabs— Whitney No. 20. 

Fruit growing in this county is yet in its infancy, and has not reached 
beyond the experimental stage. 



REPORT FROM WEBSTER COUNTY. 



BY SILAS GOSS, LKHIGH. 



Thermometer has not been below zero yet, and no sleighing until Decem- 
ber 26, then it snowed eight inches, without drifting much. Last winter 
was very cold. December 28, -17° ; January 13, -23° ; January 14, -26° ; Jan- 
uary 15, -35° ; January 21, -26° ; February 9, -29°. It was said to be colder 
on the Des Moines river bottom. The past summer was very hot; June 8, 
90°; June 14,91°; July 6,97°; July 11,96°; July 30, 100°; August 2,100°. 

We had a fairly good fruit season for hardy, fruitful varieties, notwith- 
standing the blight was terrible in the prairie orchard; worse than it has 
been for many years. In the timber orchard, on what had been originally 
woodland, with timber on south, southwest and west, and a little on the 
north, the blight was not bad; some trees not affected any, including Tran- 
scendent crab. 

The Russian pears, 508, Bessimiaoka; 418, Early Bergamot; 439, Maslitch 
dvoinaya, (no wonder that 439 did not suggest any American name in the 
revised list of Mr. Gibb), were scarcely any affected by blight since I planted 
them in the spring of 1885, until last summer when the tops were nearly all 
killed in the praire orchard, but not hurt in the timber orchard. The trees 
were set out at the same time in both orchards. Whitney 20 is not usually 
hurt much hurt here by blight; but a tree of this variety, about the same 
age in same row with the pears, blighted about the same as the pears; 439 
is hardier than Flemish Beauty, but not as hardy as 508 and 418. 

In spring of 1887 I got of the Iowa Agricultural College the Russian pears, 
347, 513, 9rn and 3m, which all grew and appear to be hardy. In the spring 
of 1888 I got three more varieties of Russian pears; one including Chinese 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



191 



1,401, and Peffer's 2. They all grew, the latter being one of the most prom- 
ising. 

In spring of 1887 I planted two trees, Northwestern China peach— one in 
richer soil than the other. The one in the richer soil killed down to snow 
line; the other killed back but little. One bloomed last spring; both hold 
buds now; the one on poorest and dryest soil is quite full. 

Eussian apples differ in their liability to blight, as much, or more, than 
American apples. I have a few specimen trees of 8m and Swinsovka, 
set in spring of 1885; they have blighted badly every year, and I believe 
will never make enough live brush to bear much. Titus (Riga) 177, 
and 21 (Veronish), are nearly as much affected. I have tried 8m and 
Titus, top grafted, and they blight too much; 3m, 200, and 56 Gypsey 
Girl, do not blight enough to hurt them any, even when among blight- 
ing crabs. They were set in orchard in spring of 1885. The 56 Veron- 
ish has borne fruit two years — the most beautifully colored fruit I ever 
saw, but not as large as Duchess. It hangs tight to the tree, which 
I think is now six years old; quality of the fruit is sour; certainly no 
better than Duchess, and about the season. One of the cross apples, 413, 
three specimens, set in spring of 1885, are very nearly free from blight, very 
hardy, and trees branch wide out and protect their own trunks and shade 
their own trunks and shade the ground so there will be no need to sow clover 
or buckwheat near them, if you keep the murderous pruning knife away 
from the side limbs. Two specimens of 15m planted in the spring of 1887. 
This is said to be the valuable cross; but if it blights every year like it does 
this season, it will have no value here. Borsdorf ; two or three trees set in 
spring of 1885. One tree bore two apples this season. They were scrawny 
apples to look at, with a deep crease in one side of each, hard and green, and 
not as big as a Soulard crab; they were kept without special care till after 
January 1st; they were pleasant to eat, having no more grain than so much 
butter; they have very small limbs. Three specimens English Pippins 
planted in spring of 1885, are doing well; they have thick, downy leaves and 
young shoots, and do not mind the hot, dry weather. 

Time of leafing of apples, as taken from my notes of 1888, are as follows: 

The following are earlier leafing than Ben Davis: Bogdanof , 599, (Romma), 
Gros Mogul, 18m, 15m, 28m, (Klenveskol), Baiken, Battullen, 24m, Duch- 
ovoe, Bogdanoff White, Golden Reinette. May 1st, apples leafing: Ben 
Davis, Dobrnui Krestianin, German Calville, (324), Possart's Nalivia, Ser- 
inka, 502, Borovinka, 413, 177, Plodovitka. May 6th; the following vaiie ties 
are later leafing than Ben Davis : Antonovka, Mcintosh Red, Red Queen; 
(316), Repka Molenka, (410; 200 is much later than Ben Davis, not yet show- 
ing a leaf; 20m, 3m, 58 Veronish, Thaler, 477, 11 Orel; 4m is earlier than 
20m in leafing. 

Topgrafting has been a success with me. Mcintosh Red on Soulard crab 
does not blight more than Soulard crab, bears nice colored, little apples the 
size of Fameuse, but a better keeper. The union of this stock is fairly 
good; much better than Tetofsky on thorn. Mcintosh Red is hardier than 
Fameuse, but not as hardy as Hibernal and Gipsey Girl. Tetofsky I first 



192 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



had on the lower limbs of Wild thorn, and the fruit on these limbs was 
small, as the lower limbs grew very slow, and I reported their small size. 
Recently I had a young thorn of the slow-growing wild variety, which has 
thorns growing out of the body in the manner of the Honey locust. It is a 
prolific bearer, bearing about ten times as many apples as Tetofsky root- 
grafted, and they are large for Tetofsky, fully up to that on root- grafted 
trees. It now has more than four times as many fruit buds on it as my 
older root-grafted trees, according to the size of the trees. Last season it 
bore a peck. It makes a very poor, knotty union, but does not overgrow 
very badly. The body of the tree is grafted about four feet from the 
ground. The lower limbs bear the little Red haws, size of Black haws, and 
hang on all winter, if not picked sooner. This tree is seven inches in cir- 
cumference at the ground. In their wild state they never are found as 
large as the smooth-bodied thorn that bears the larger haws. Thaler on, I 
think, Whitney 20, bears young and full, but blights worse than the stock. 
The fruit is a little later in ripening than Tetofsky, and not quite so good in 
quality, but larger. From the descriptions I have seen given for Tetofsky, 
I think some have the 4th of July for Tetofsky. I have varieties of Rus- 
sian pears growing in tops of the larger growing thorns and in Transcend- 
ent crab tops. They do not yet show signs of overgrowing badly. I shall 
try Roman Stem on Thorn. The Peter and October takes well on Trans- 
cendent, and I think I may find something valuable to put on this crab. 
Transcendent does not blight enough to hurt it in the timber orchard when 
not cultivated; my sub-soil is heavy. Some Ben Davis in limbs of Trans- 
cendent crab lived and bore fine specimens. Harry Kaump in limbs of a 
hardy Mongrel crab seems the thing altogether lovely, good union and 
grows fast. 

We are now (January 12) eating apples of my seedling No. 53. It is the 
most profitable tree I have; bears more than a bushel when it bears the 
least; bears every year, some seasons eight or ten bushels, light colored, 
fine grained, alubacid; size of Talman Sweet; tree stands on wet prairie 
land more than 30 years old. Cions for trial sent to those paying postage. 

Plums will be profitable here. Desoto bears every year. The "set with 
other trees" theory don't help the Miner to bear here. I think the hard 
winters began when the man cut down his other plum trees and reported 
the Miner nearly quit bearing. See if we don't have fruit on Miner after a 
warm winter. I have set (spring of 1888) a trial orchard of best plums of 
Europe and America, from Iowa Agricultural College. I got 50, 49 and 47 
of D. B. Weir, but he failed to give me the names, after he promised to do 
so. I paid $2.00 for cions of seven varieties; he only sent four varieties. 
His 53 had dead spots on, and failed to grow. He kept every cent of the 
$2.00. 

Russian apricot, from Iowa Agricultural College died to the snow line. 
Industry Gooseberry is large, having fruit coarse flavor, and bore young. 
White Grape currant and Jessie strawberry: Part of each planted in the 
fall and mulched; balance planted from cellar in spring. Both grew well; 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



193 



spring set not quite so quick to start. Jessie all died after starting; I think 
from too much cold water in a dry time. 

White Ann Arbor grape bore this year. The fruit is round, green, juicy, 
sweet and pleasant; as good as my Delawares, and much larger. My seed- 
ling continues to bear, is sweeter than Concord, and much more pulpy and 
tough. It would make more pounds after drying. 



SUMMER STORMS OF IOWA AND THE NUMEROUS TORNADOES 
FALSELY ASCRIBED TO IOWA BY THE UNITED 
STATES SIGNAL SERVICE. 



BY DR. GUSTAVUS HINRICHS, DIRECTOR IOWA WEATHER BUREAU. 



The subject I have chosen for this evening is not immediately related to 
horticulture. It will, however, not be necessary to preface my remarks by 
a show of reasons why the subject nevertheless deserves the closest atten- 
tion of every citizen of this State, and therefore is especially worthy of pre- 
sentation to this body of leading men of Iowa. All such introductory 
roadsigns have become superfluous since January 9th, the date of the tor- 
nado of Reading, Pa. 

The papers have been filled with accounts of the same day's storm woik 
at Pittsburg and Niagara Falls. Of the fine suspension bridge near the 
latter place only the wire cables have been left. At Pittsburg, a seven- 
story building came down with a, crash, burying many victims under its 
ruins. 

Now, these latter effects are evidently due to a gale, and not to a tornado. 
The gale comes along as a tester of man's prudence and skill in building. 
It tries to tear off the roof and enter through the walls and carry them off 
in its own direction. It is like a giant artisan, testing mortar and nail 
whether they were made right and used skillfully. If so, the gale passes on 
in its course, sweeping over extended fields, entire States it may be. But if 
the builder has planned badly and used inferior materials, the gale is sure 
to publish it to the world by finding a way into the structure and wrecking 
the same more or less completely. For example, a moderate summer gale 
carried off the entire tin roof of the new medical building of the State Uni- 
versity, and thus condemn it. Again, during the gale (derecho) of June 20, 
1877, at Iowa City, three nearly equally tall church steeples were critically 
examined by that gale; the Presbyterian steeple was thrown down, the Con- 
gregational steeple was cracked and wrenched a little, and the tallest of all, 
the Catholic steeple, seemed not to have noticed the storm any more than 
the low Methodist steeple near by. 
25 



194 



STATE HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



The most notable damage done at Pittsburg was of this kind exactly. A 
building, forty by eighty feet, seven stories high, was in course of erection; 
" the front had not yet been put in, and the wind entered the high shell 
from the open end; the high walls of brick and undried mortar parted, one 
falling each way, partly wrecking nearly a dozen buildings." The gale is 
not to blame for this sad occurrence; nor was this a visitation of provi- 
dence. It was nothing but brutal recklessness of a wealthy man, who in 
this free land of perennial law-making was permitted to put up a danger- 
ously high structure with special reference to invite a high wind into its 
open front and bury the poorer neighbors under its ruins; or, if perchance 
no wind should rise before the open face of the structure was closed, it 
would have been only a question of time when in a fire the burning build- 
ing would have crushed its lowlier neighbors perhaps in the dead of night 
with no less fatal result. 

Straight blowing gales occur in almost all parts of the world. The in- 
habitants of any country will have to learn to resist the power of these 
storms. Here in the northwest we have such gales; the blizzard of winter 
and the derecho of summer. But they are not worse than the storms that 
beat the coast's regions of northern Germany or England. There is no need 
to insure against such storms, but rather to use the capitalized insurance 
premium to secure substantial structures when building. Above all, our 
architects should learn to avoid furnishing every gale a special leverage and 
advantage in broad cornices and other projecting fancy ornaments. We 
ought to stop putting up band- box buildings on our prairies and adapt our 
architecture to the climate of the State we live in. But above all, we ought 
no longer to fill our newspapers with glaring headlines of tornadoes and 
cyclones whenever a moderately fierce straight gale sweeping across our 
prairies, has turned some one of the flimsy structures that have been put up 
more for looks and size than for strength and comfort. Eorthis sort of mis- 
hap the climate of Iowa is not to blame— it is the work of the people them- 
selves. 

The term Of tornado should never be applied to such storms at all; for it 
belongs, by long usage, to form a storm that is entirely distinct from every 
kind of gale. It is no discredit to the builder to have his structure de- 
stroyed by a tornado. The tornado does not come like a gale to try the 
workmanship and material of a house; it comes to destroy. It cuts out a 
portion of a building, breaking the timber into splinters, and the walls into 
brick-bats, while leaving the balance of the house entirely unharmed. The 
tornado scatters the material and contents of a building over the fields in 
its course, driving the stakes made of its timbers into the ground as it goes 
along. The tornado will take away a barn from over the heads of the horses, 
and break the entire barn into kindling wood, staking its course therewith 
—while some of the horses may have been left unharmed, finishing their 
meal at the crib undisturbed. The tornado may destroy the house and 
carry mother and babe through the air, and may kill and horribly mangle 
the body of the mother without hurting the babe in her arms. The tornado 



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may destroy the stove and everything substantial of a house and leave the 
looking-glass without a crack, after whirling it many rods away. 

This sort of a storm should never be confounded with a straight blow or 
gale of any kind. The tornado is a whirlwind, of, fortunately, very lim- 
ited dimensions. A gale is of comparatively vast extent at a time. 

It is no disgrace to the builder to have his structure destroyed by a tor- 
nado; but if it was done by a gale, he ought to be ashamed to try to sneak 
out of it by calling that gale a tornado. 

To seek insurance against damage by gales will only lead to burden the 
prudent man for the benefit of the make-shift. But to insure against dam- 
age done by genuine tornadoes is as legitimate as to insure your life against 
death; however, as the danger from tornadoes is fortunately extraordinarily 
small, the premium should be correspondingly light, if the insurance ex- 
tended, say to the people of our whole State. 
• The destruction of the silk factory at Readville, Pa., on the 9th of this 
month was evidently due to a genuine tornado. There can attach no re- 
sponsibility to the proprietors of the mill for the lives lost in that catastro- 
phy; but the collapse of the tall and open building at Pittsburg was not 
due to the elements but a consequence of foolhardy recklessness. 

Before proceeding to the special application of all this to Iowa, it may be 
desirable to bring out one more striking quality of the tornado. In not a 
few of newspaper reports of tornadoes it is is stated that the tornado con- 
tinued for half an hour, or even for an hour, at a given place. If it had 
been a genuine tornado, remaining stationary over a given point for such a 
time, it would have drilled a good ways down toward the antipodes, and 
at least saved the community all cost of artesian well and exploration for 
deep lying mineral treasures. A storm that continued for any notable length 
of time at a given place is some form of a gale, and not a tornado. The tor- 
nado is not stationary. While whirling around at a fearful rate, the whole 
thing marches along at a tolerably regular rate of about twenty-five mil6S 
an hour in an approximately northeasterly direction. It thus describes a 
path of destruction along the surface of the ground, unless it temporarily 
lifts entirely up from the ground, when it will describe a sort of dotted, 
non-continuous path of destruction. The entire whirl-wind being very 
narrow across, the width of such a path is also generally small. Thus 
the Reading tornado made a track of only 200 feet in width. We have had 
small tornadoes in Iowa, only a couple of rods in diameter, quite able to 
destroy buildings. 

Accordingly, a gale sweeps and more or less damages buildings over ex- 
tended territory; a tornado grinds out a narrow path of destruction only. 

In the northwest we have, during the summer season, a straight blow or 
gale, of very limited extent or very short duration, taking rise Jrom a given 
point and sweeping onward from that point in slightly spreading fan-like 
form. This storm is almost always reported as a " tornado," but is in no 
sense a whirl- wind, being a straight blow of cold descending air. I have 
named this storm a derecho, and exhibit a chart of those of July, 1883. Of 
these the 4th of July derecho arose in Jasper county at 5 p. m. and reached 



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the Mississippi at 9; the derecho of the 12th appeared first in Buchanan 
county at 6 p. m., crossed the Mississippi at 9 p. m. and swept onward on 
Illinois till about midnight. The derecho of July 13th was especially in- 
tense. It started about noon in Mills county, Iowa, and swept onward over 
northwestern Missouri with great violence during the afternoon, and can be 
traced in high winds over St. Louis and beyond after midnight. This 
fc ' derecho " has been beautifully engraved as a blood-red, bifarcating tor- 
nado track on an illustrated advertising sheet of Springfield Fire & Marine 
Insurance Company, of Springfield, Mass. The main branch of this " tor- 
nado " track is over two hundred miles in length! As stated it was not a 
tornado at all, but a well pronounced derecho, a prairie squall. When, 
years ago, I first called public attention to this kind of straight blows pe- 
culiar to Iowa prairies in summer, I named them provisorily Iowa squalls. 
The term derecho, coined from the Spanish in analogy with the term tornado, 
and expressing the main feature of a straight blow, has been chosen to 
bring out the contrast with the tornado or whirl- wind to avoid further con- 
fusion of these two different storms. 

Thus far I have largely Used the recent tornado of Reading and gale at 
Pittsburg to bring home the striking differences in character between the 
tornado or whirl-wind and the derecho and general straight gales. For 
nearly ten years I have, at many different times, by special circulars to the 
press of the State and in official bulletins and reports insisted on these dif- 
ferences, and the great importance of not maligning our own climate by 
publishing to the world comparatively innocent straight blows as tornadoes. 
Since the territory covered by any of these straight blows is comparatively 
very great, the necessary inference of such erroneous publications would 



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l)e to suppose that the entire State of Iowa is yearly plowed oyer by devas- 
tating tornadoes. 

I have also taken pains to make known the real truth about the yearly 
period of tornadoes in Iowa, and exposed the erroneous opinion that we 
may expect tornadoes in every month of the year. In fact there are only 
three months of the year during which Iowa may be visited by serious tor- 
nadoes—though in fact we pass many a year without having any tornadoes 
at all. 

Quite recently I have published, at the request of the editor of the Amer- 
ican Journal of Meteorology, an elaborate paper on this entire subject, giv- 
ing the facts as to occurrence of tornadoes in Iowa and exposing the current 
fallacies concerning this subject, and a copy of this paper has been sent to 
a large number of the newspapers of Iowa. But nevertheless we find again, 
even in the most pretentious Iowa paper, the Register, of Des Moines, the 
same old errors, detrimental to Iowa, and causing unwarranted fear in the 
minds of our people. For this reason I have thought best to put this paper 
in the less rigidly scientific form in the hope that the truth may at last be 
recognized by the press of our State. 

The gist of the editorial " The Cyclone in the East," in the Kegister of 
January 11, 1889, is that we may look out for tornadoes in Iowa during the 
winter season. This conclusion and warning is based upon the fact that 
the Reading tornado occurred in a northern latitude in midwinter; hence, 
since Iowa is in the same northern latitude, we may have tornadoes here in 
midwinter. The scientific answer to this conclusion is that latitude is not 
the ruling factor in weather and climate that our school and popular science 
seem to make it, will not reach the public mind. In view of the ubiquity 
of weather prophecies in our press, based upon the old astrological notions 
more or less modified by uncurbed imagination, and interlarded with speudo- 
scientific terms, it is but proper to candidly admit that the press and the 
general public are absolutely at sea on this subject, and seem to enjoy being 
humbugged by neo-mediaval astrologers precisely as do too many of our 
farmers and citizens when the tree-peddler comes around with his wonder- 
ful sorts. 

The force of that conclusion is taken away by the fact that Reading lies 
within a hundred miles of the ocean, while Iowa is distant a thousand miles 
therefrom. 

That tornadoes have been reported for winter months in the northern 
States of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan would destroy the force of argument 
from the Reading tornado entirely, if it were not for the fact that these re- 
ports come through the unreliable channel of the Signal Service. (Finley, 
600 tornadoes.) 

In my paper on Tornadoes and Derechos, above referred to, I have care- 
fully examined all the facts in the case. The result is that- we never have 
had a tornado in Iowa during any of the winter months, nor during the 
months of midsummer; that for Iowa the main tornado danger occurs in 
April and June, and secondly in October; that a minor tornado danger ex- 



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ists for May. This leaves almost nine months of the year free from tornado 
danger in Iowa. 

I hold it to be cruel to our people of ilowa to frighten them with tornado 
danger in mid- winter, or mid- summer; to make them see the dread tornado 
in every dark cloud. I also consider it wrong to the interest of our State at 
large to publish such false statements. The tornado danger in Iowa cannot 
be determined by the tornado danger in Eastern Pennsylvania; it can be 
determined only by the record of observations made in Iowa, and that rec- 
ord proves that there is no tornado danger in Iowa from the first of Novem- 
ber till about the eighth of April. Our Iowa winter has never indulged in 
tornadoes; nor have our Iowa summers, from July 4th till about October 1st, 
excepting a few minor tornadoes of September. In these months of summer 
and winter the people of Iowa need not fear the tornado, or whirlwind. 
They will have gales, but they will more and more be ready to resist them 
without serious loss. 

It is a deplorable fact that the publications of the Signal Service on the 
subject of tornadoes have not only been misleading on this question, but are 
positively full of errors. They claim that tornadoes have occurred in Iowa 
during the winter months of November, February and March, and also 
during the summer months of July (after the 4th) and August; but a care- 
ful examination has shown that this claim is without foundation in fact 
(see my paper, pp. 19-20). 

The Signal Service maintains at Washington a tornado division in charge 
of Lieutenant John F. Finley. Nearly two thousand tornado reporters have 
been found in the United States; of these, Iowa had 83 in 1886 (?). It is their 
business to report tornadoes, and they seem to succeed admirably. If any- 
thing more were needed to furnish an abundance of tornadoes, the blank of 
the ordinary monthly report for yoluntary observers, reading, " Dates of 
Tornadoes, will answer. This blank seems to indicate to the ordi- 

nary voluntary observer of the Signal Service that he is expected to report 
several tornadoes a month. The results show that they do this pretty well. 

Lieutenant Finley has made tornado predictions. As tornadoes are an 
exceptional phenomenon, and therefore any dude could by merely predict- 
ing " no tornado" attain for any placs or locality a wondrous per cent of 
hits— just as a person by predicting day after day that no earthquake would 
occur might get a splendid reputation, hittiug the truth 9,999 in 10,010 at 
least— so Lieutenant Finley got for a while quite proud of his splendid tor- 
nado predictions. I have no time to enter upon this richly humorous sub- 
ject. 

Lieutenant Finley has also furnished elaborate directions how to behave 
to escape the dire effect of a tornado; partially always going north in sight 
of the coming demon of the air; but if while doing so, the monster should 
also go north, then run south, by all means. 

If the Lieuteuant had done nothing more harmful than this, I should 
have taken no notice of the work of his Tornado Division of the Signal 
Service of the United States army. But he has published a map of tornado 
tracks of Iowa and a list of tornadoes in Iowa * While fully seven-eighths 

* Th a Tornadoes o£ Iowa. Washington. 1888. 



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199 



of these demons of the air have never done any harm in the State of Iowa, 
since this slight fraction of his 41 Iowa Tornadoes" never had any existence 
outside of the archives and publications of the Signal Service, they are do- 
ing an inestimable amount of harm to our State where the truth as to Iowa 
tornadoes is not known, and where official and semi-official publications of 
the Signal Service of the United States are taken as deserving of credit. 
For this reason— and because there are even papers in Iowa that publish 
this Signal Service tornado output for Iowa— I will have to condescend to 
analyze a sufficient number thereof to satisfy our citizens that my above 
statement of the Signal Service tornado work is very mildly drawn. In do- 
ing so, I shall largely quote from my paper on Tornadoes and Derechos, 
above mentioned, and published in the American Meteorological Journal, 
November and December, 1888, and January, 1889. I shall retain the refer- 
ence numbers of the paragraphs. 

FINLBY'S TORNADOES IN IOWA. 

24. The climate of Iowa has been most outrageously maligned both by 
thoughtless or sensational newspaper correspondents and by official and 
semi-official publications of the Signal Service, in ascribing to Iowa an ex- 
cessive tornado frequency. Both or these ever-grinding tornado mills for 
Iowa have furnished abundant material for frightening people from settling 
in Iowa, and for coaxing residents of Iowa into the thriving tornado insur- 
ance institutions of both the East and the West. The more pretentious ad- 
vertising sheets of these companies are embellished by truly frightful maps, 
" taken from the records of the Signal Service Bureau of the United States 
Army," which show the valleys of the Missouri and Mississippi in the lati- 
tudes from 35 to 45 degrees to be an almost unbroken mass of dark tornado 
patches. See the cut reproducing one page of a tornado advertisement of 
the Phoenix, of Brooklyn, N. Y., of 1882 or 1883. 




MAP SHOWING THE LOCATIONS OF TORNADOES WHICH HAVE OCCURRED IN TfTE A30VE STATES BETWEEN FEBRUARY 23, .875 AND. 
OCTOBER a8. .881'. TAKEN FROM 'TH£ RECORDS OF THE SIGNAL SERVICE BUREAU OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY. 



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



25. These publications have recently been followed up by John P. Fin- 
ley's tornado maps for the several States, which are worse than even the 
sensational advertisements of the tornado insurance concerns. 

As the author's position in the Signal Corps is given under his name on 
the title page, and as in the preface he assures us that "the information 
presented in this manual is the result of many years of labor, collated un- 
der the supervision of the Government, and published with the permission 
of the Chief Signal- Officer of the Army," the tables and maps are intended 
to be taken by the public as deserving confluence, as exposition of facts. 

26. If this were not already bad enough, the author, Lieutenant John P. 
Finley, in the same preface to his Iowa Tornadoes, intimates that the tor- 
nado story has not been half told, for he says: " It cannot be assumed that 
the accompanying tables contain the record of every tornado that has actu- 
ally occurred in the State of Iowa during the past fifty- one years, but it 
may be said that all available sources of information have been exhausted." 

27. The trouble is that these sources of information 44 have teen ex- 
hausted" without using scientific criticism, and the result is the publication 
of Iowa tornadoes that had no existence whatever in fact. There are long 

drawn tornado tracks on Finley 's. map along which a tornado never trav- 
eled. 

While it is perfectly true that for lack of data of observation no one can 
record and map all tornadoes that may actually have occurred, it is certainly 
improper to publish as tornadoes other storms or entirely harmless phe- 
nomena. 

28. I here give a reduced copy (half size of the original) of Finley's tor- 
nado map of Iowa, referred to. I have added the order number from his 



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Table IU, so far as I was able to Identify the tornado line on the map with 
number on the table. It shonld be observed that Finley has not ^num- 
bered the tornadoes in his Table III; but for reference *™ 
number them exactly in the order in which they are printed. The total 

'iVsounds almost like irony when the card of the publisher of : tM. 
map says that "every person will be interested in ascertaining where he 
26 



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



can go to escape them" (the tornadoes). For the map shows only a few 
counties in middle southern Iowa as really free from tornadoes— that is, the 
land of the so-called " Hairy Nation." Next to that, the northeast of Iowa 
is the most free from Finley's tornadoes. 

30. The county of Johnson, in which is located this Central Station, and 
where I have resided for nearly thirty years, seems to be specially threat- 
ened by tornadoes, according to Finley's map. For in addition to tornado 
9 (August 15, 1858), the entire county is shown to have been traversed by 



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20B 



the track of No. 2 (June 17, 1843), which is drawn through six counties and 
is over one hundred miles long, in an unbroken straight line. Neither of 
these Signal Service tornadoes ever occurred in fact. 

31. Again, the apparently terrible track of No. 12, drawn over one hundred 
and twenty miles in an unbroken straight line through six counties, runs 
within ten miles of Johnson county; and by the way, this No. 13 is in Table 
III credited to May 22, 1873, a tornado which is very carefully described by 
Sergeant James Mackintosh, whose valuable report may be found on pages 
1047 to 1097 of the Chief Signal Officer's Report for 1873 From the data 
there given I have plotted the track of this tornado, as will be found on my 
map (§74); it forms a most remarkable, curved track, entirely confined to 
the two counties of Keokuk and Washington. It measures, at most, sixty 
miles in length, from beginning to end. It is strange, indeed, that Lieuten- 
ant Finley, while 11 exhausting all available sources " of the Signal Service, 
should have overlooked the report of his fellow officer, and converted a most 
remarkably curved tornado track of less than sixty miles into a straight 
track of over twice that length, and running clear through three additional 
counties in which no tornado occurred at all at that time! It is, indeed, 
mortifying to be compelled to point out such outrageous blunders, which 
seem to have but one result, namely, that of causing sensational fright to 
our own people, driving them into expensive tornado insurance, and to scare 
eastern people from coming to Iowa. 

32. Further, the tornado track corresponding to Nos. 64 and 65, and ex- 
tending in a straight line unbroken for a distance of one hundred and forty 
miles southeastward, strikes our county of Johnson in its southwestern 
corner. These numbers answer to the date of June 17, 1882, the Grinnell 
tornado, about which further on; but it may be said right here, that there 
was no tornado track like the one represented at all, that no tornado tra- 
versed the whole or part of Iowa county, just west of Johnson, and that of 
course no tornado occurred in Johnson county on that date. The little tor- 
nado track, No. 83, some twenty miles long, also has a threatening course 
toward Johnson county, but as the same has nothing but a thunder-storm 
for its basis, we shall say nothing further about it. 

33. The tornado track, No. 81, one hundred miles in length, comes also 
within ten miles of Johnson county; it has been drawn through six counties, 
traversing two of these completely. The corresponding date is July 4, 1884. 
On that date there was a minute tornado in Hardin county, recorded as No. 
78 in the table of Finley, and entered under this number on this map. But 
there was no tornado whatever to correspond to track No. 81; this hun- 
dred-mile tornado track which indicates that many miles of devastated 
territory, destroyed houses, killed and maimed people, is one of the many 
meteorological calamities that have fortunately never existed outside of the 
Signal Office at Washington, and it is greatly to be regretted that they have 
not been confined to the same, 

34. By thus considering the pretended tornado tracks in and around 
Johnson county, and showing not only how utterly devoid of value the Sig- 
nal Service tornado map is, but also how grossly and absurdly everything 



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



has been magnified, even in absolute conflict with the official published re- 
ports of the special investigators of the Signal Corps in the field, we may be 
excused from further general consideration of this tornado map and tornado 
table of the Signal Service. 

I shall not here refer to a couple of systematic errors, because they un- 
doubtedly permeate and vitiate the entire statistical and geographic work 
on tornadoes now carried on by the Signal Service. 

42. W.e will next examine the official tornado record for Iowa, before us, 
in order to strike from the same all storms that were not tornadoes at all, but 
especially derechos. To complete this work would require more time and 
space than at hand; for it takes more research and pains to prove the fal- 
lacy of an entry of this kind than simply to put that entry down on the tor- 
nado list and print it. I shall therefore restrict myself to some of the more 
notorious cases. 

43. For August 6, 1877, at 2:30 A. m., we find a tornado (No. 25) credited 
to Pottawattamie county, about which it is said that it traveled toward the 
southeast. This was, in fact, a northwest gale, and is described on page 27 
of my Weather Report for 1887. 

44. Buchanan county is credited with a tornado (No. 44), having traveled 
northeastward at 4:30 p. m., on May 25, 1880. The observer at Independence 
records only a heavy thunderstorm at 5 p. m. My Bulletin gives no tornado. 

45. A most notable derecho occured late on June 28, J 881. It was fully 
described in my June Bulletin of that year, (pp. 34, 35), under the heading, 
" Iowa Squalls "; see also report for 1881, pp. 272, 273. The map of this der- 
echo was published in my Annual for New- Year, 1883, and Report for 1882, 
p 12. The same is inserted on opposite page. 




This derecho was very severe in Cherokee county, which may account for 
the fact that this county is credited by Finley with a big tornado (No. 56) 
for this date. The hour given is 4 p. m., which is earlier than the derecho; 
but all that is said is that the cloud was of funnel form — its "path" is left 
blank. 

46. The widest path of destruction oC any tornado in Iowa, namely, the 
extraordinary width of 5,280 feet, is credited to the tornado (No. 67) which is 



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said to have traversed Buchanan county in a northeasterly direction at 5:27 
p. m., on June 22, 1882. The track of this tornado is drawn over 25 miles 
diagonally in Buchanan county, on Finley's map, as will be seen from our 
photo- copy thereof (in I 28.) 

This was a regular derecho, and is mentioned as a squall in my Press Bul- 
letin, No. 110, issued to the press of the State on July 4, 1882, and reprinted 
in the Report for 1882 on page 97. 

Evidently, the tornado track drawn by Finley is simply the derecho-front 
about the instant when the storm struck Independence. This derecho ex- 
tended far beyond Independence southeastward, even reaching beyond Iowa 
City. There was no tornado in Iowa on that day. Even the newspaper re- 
porters state that it was a straight blow. What a sad day it would have 
been for the people of Independence and Buchanan county if this 4 'Signal 
Service Tornado" had been a real tornado and cut that swath of destruc- 
tion five thousand feet wide and twenty-five miles long! 

47. Tornadoes Nos. 68 and 69, credited respectively to Sioux and Dallas 
counties, for June 24, 1882, were only manifestations of the derecho of that 
date, mentioned in the same Bulletin. 

48. Tornado No. 80 figures very largely on Finley's tornado map, extend- 
ing for some 70 miles through three counties in the northwest (Sioux, Plym- 
outh and Cherokee), and is ascribed to July 4, 1884, 5 p. m. There was no 
such tornado, but only a derecho, in these counties. It is claimed by the 
papers that a small tornado was seen in these regions on that day, and in 
my Bulletin for July, 1884, I have admitted this, although upon repeated 
study of all information I am strongly inclined to doubt that a minor tor- 
nado (or perhaps minute tornadoes) did occur. The destructive effects de- 
scribed plainly belong to the derecho only, at least so far as I have seen 
them. There can be no possible doubt that the general direction of the 
" tornado path, No. 80," on Finley's map, oniy marks the blow of the der- 
echo. 

49. Tornado No. 83 figures very prominently on the map in Poweshiek 
and Iowa counties, for July 23, 1884; it is credited with a path 680 to 2,640 
feet wide! So far as I have been able to learn, it was no tornado at all. Its 
main direction southeastward, as well as great width of path, plainly indi- 
cate that a derecho has been mistaken for a tornado. 

50. I do not consider it necessary to continue this thankless labor. 
What with our western " weather prophets" predicting dire storms from 

the relative position of the planets, and our Signal Service inventing and 
publishing immense tornadoes, cutting paths from 2,000 to 5,000 feet wide 
for thirty and more miles through Iowa, the honest student of the weather 
in the West has really a hard time of it, and might well be excused if he 
should become impatient. 

61. It will now be necessary to try to eliminate other phenomena, even 
not storms, from the pretended list of 123 tornadoes in Iowa published by 
Lieutenant Finley under the authority of the Signal Service. 

The mass of data is so bulky, and the information so indefinite, that it is 
difficult to adopt any criterion that will remove all the spurious tornadoes. 



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STATE HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



In sections 52 and 53 it is shown that this will strike out 68 so-called torna- 
does from the Signal Service Jist of Iowa tornadoes. 

64. But it must not by any means be supposed that the .positive state- 
ment of a path of destruction— even one, two, or five thousand feet wide— 
will allow us to consider the entry properly that of a real tornado. Thus, 
Tornado No. 2, said to have traversed Johnson and Cedar counties on June 
7, 1843, at 5 p. m., in a direction east 20° north, as funnel cloud, and to have 
cut a path a thousand feet wide, has not existed. I have carefully examined 
the issues of the weekly Iowa Capital Reporter for June 3, June 10 and June 
17 of 1843, without finding a word about any storm, or cyclone, or tornado, 
or waterspout, in the same. Now it is not possible that a whirlwind could 
cut a swath a thousand feet wide through the county in which is located the 
capital of a Territory, without being mentioned at the time in the weekly 
paper of that live town. 

55. Indeed, I need only refer to § 46 to prove that the record in Finley 's 
table of a path width of over five thousand feet is no evidence that a tor- 
nado has really existed; and I have shown repeatedly that a tornado track 
of from say 30 to 100 miles in length, drawn on his map, does not give the 
least assurance that any tornado ever traversed that part of our State. 

56. Now, the 36 " funnel clouds " without anything indicating the de- 
structive presence of a tornado, and the 32 entries on Fin ley's list in which 
neither funnel- cloud nor path is given to indicate that there was a tornado, 
aggregate 68 entries, which, no doubt, nearly all should be entirely removed 
from the tornado list of Iowa. 

This is more than half the total number, 123, recorded by Finley. 

57. But among the 55 remaining entries we have noticed many entirely 
false, though both funnel and destructive path are recorded— such as the 
tornadoes by which the Signal Service has devastated Johnson county on 
June 7, 1843 (No. 2), and August 18, 1858 (No. 9) Another lot were simply 
derechos, although figuring on the Finley list with the widest paths of de- 
struction, up to five thousand feet. It is safe to say that not over one out 
of four tornadoes that, according to the authority of the Signal Service, 
have cut a swath of destruction through the plains of Iowa up to a mile in 
width for a distance of over one hundred miles in length, have ever existed 
at all. In other words, three-fourths of the tornadoes by which the State of 
Iowa has been afflicted, according to Lieutenant Finley, are nothing but 
" Signal Service tornadoes," and have happily never existed outside of the 
Signal Office at Washington. 

58. As the Signal Service publications ought to be taken as authority, the 
exposition here given of the utter unreliability of the, same on the subject 
of tornadoes is of the utmost importance both to science in general and to 
our people in particular. The tornado lists for the other States of the 
Union are, of course, no more reliable than those for Iowa; and accordingly 
the " Six Hundred Tornadoes " of the Seventh Professional Paper of the 
Signal Service probably should be cut down to say one hundred or at most 
one hundred and fifty. 

64. I therefore see no reason to fear a tornado during mid- winter or mid- 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



207 



summer in Iowa, and maintain that periodicity of Iowa tornadoes given 
above (§ 16, 17). 

96. In concluding, for the present, the consideration of this most im- 
portant and interesting question of meteorology, I would request those who 
almost entirely control and domineer this science in America, and who re- 
ceive unlimited aid from all branches of the Government, to stop the manu- 
facture of dire tornadoes, and thus free their published records from the 
stain of absolute untrustworthiness that now makes them useless. 

97. It was to me a matter of duty to science and to our people to wipe 
out that immense body of fiction and error which forms the bulk of the tor- 
nado lists issued by and under the authority of the Signal Service. What 
remains of storm and disaster is surely bad enough— though our State of 
Iowa in such calamitous disturbances of nature is not more afflicted thaD 
other parts of the world. The very cause of the tornadoes we find in the 
benign elements of heat and moisture that make our State and the great 
Mississippi Valley the grandest garden of the world. It is when these ele- 
ments, by the sudden increase of intensity, have come into an unstable 
equilibrium, that the derecho and tornado take their rise, and suddenly, 
under manifestation of dreadful power, break this unstable condition and 
again make the benign, stable conditions return, and in a short time blot 
out the marks of destruction. 



REPORT OF DELEGATE TO MINNESOTA SPATE HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 



BY ELMER REEVES. 



The twenty- third annual meeting of the Minnesota State Horticultural 
Society was held at Market Hall, Minneapolis, January 15, 16, 17, 18, 1889. 
There was a good attendance, and a very interesting time was had through 
the entire meeting. Delegates were present from Wisconsin, Indiana, Mis- 
souri, Iowa and Manitoba. They were treated very courteously and were 
made members for five years and invited to take part in the discussions. 

Of the large display of vegetables, fruits and flowers, the following are 
specially noted by your reporter. 

A quantity of Wealthy apples were shown that are very fine; however, the 
tree is not claimed to be hardy, as it usually fails after bearing a few crops. 
Specimens of McMahon's White were in good condition. A small collec- 
tion of Russian apples shown were not in good shape, probably caused from 
being kept too warm, as some of them, especially the Hibernal, did not ap- 



208 STATE HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

pear to be in season. There were also a number of seedling apples and 
hybrids, among which Patten's Greening was quite prominent. 

There was a large collection of canned fruit; also samples of honey and of 
Amber cane syrup. 

The show of vegetables was good, and among these the potatoes and Hub- 
bard squash attracted special attention. 

The most attractive part of the hall, however, was that occupied by a large 
collection of plants and cut flowers from the Mendenhall greenhouses, which 
filled a table extending across the hall. 

Much interest was manifested in the cultivation of native fruits. The 
plum was discussed at considerable length. 

Mr. Taylor has fruited about one hundred and fifty varieties of native 
plums, some of them of superior quality. The trees have all failed after 
bearing a few good crops, and he has quit the business, as he considers it a 
failure. 

Mr. Dart suggested that he be sent as delegate to Iowa, as that is the 
usual way of enthusing those who have lost interest or faith in horticulture. 

Mr. Harris said that De Soto has become a standard, and lately wild trees 
have been found that cannot be told from De Soto, either in fruit or tree. 

Col. Stevens has a De Soto tree that has been bearing over twenty years. 

Mr. Pearce recommends planters to obtain plum trees on their own roots 
and then propagate by sprouts, and so get fruit of the same quality as the 
original, and at less expense than grafted trees. It was also recommended 
that they be planted closely, about six by twelve feet apart, to give the best 
results. 

The Snyder was considered the best variety of blackberry, while of dew- 
berries the Lucretia was said to be larger and sweeter, but not so pro- 
ductive as Windom. Some thought the Windom a Russian variety, while 
others claimed there were two distinct types of dewberries growing wild in 
Minnesota, the Windom being one of them. One member grows dewber- 
ries in matted rows, the same as strawberries. 

Mr. Wilcox grows considerable small fruit for market, and does not be- 
lieve in hardy varieties. The raspberry and blackberry are naturally an 
undergrowth, and will give best results if protected. He considers thor- 
ough cultivation the best mulch for small fruits, and the best fertilizer is 
plenty of brains and elbow grease applied in the field every day. 

The cranberry is successf ully grown, even if not overflowed. 

Several seedling apples were spoken of that give promise of value. The 
Peerless originated over twenty years ago, and the old tree has borne over 
sixty bushels of apples, and passed through the winter of 1884 and 1885 in 
good shape, but is now badly injured. Mr. Brand, the introducer, thinks 
the injury is caused by excessive cutting of scions in the past two years. The 
season of the apple is early winter. 

Mr. Pearce has a seedling produced by a cross between Duchess and Te- 
tofsky that is a summer apple of good quality. 

Mr. Harris spoke of a sweet apple that is a seedling from Balies' Sweet. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPEES. 



209 



There are about twenty trees of this variety started from suckers, and from 
fifteen to thirty years old, and all of them are in good condition. 

Russian apples were discussed at some length, and a list of the most prom- 
ising were recommended for trial. It appeared to be the general opinion of 
those present that the Russians would perhaps not be just what was needed 
in the northwest, but they would prove to us what the west Europe sorts 
did to the eastern States. They can be made the parents of varieties suited 
to the climate and need of the people. 

Mr. Franklin, of Manitoba, has about fifty sorts of Russian apples on 
trial, also several plums, cherries, pears and other trees. Many of these are 
doing well, and he is hopeful of raising fruit in Manitoba. He has native, 
sorts of the plum, raspberry and strawberry, but cultivated varieties do 
best. 

The tree agents 1 law was thought to be working well, and it was hoped 
that other States would pass similar laws. 

The question of evergreens for winter protection received its share of at- 
tention. Scotch pine was claimed to make a good protection in the shortest 
time, while the Norway Spruce will last much longer as a windbreak. How- 
ever, our native trees were thought best of all, and for permanent groves 
and real value the White Pine stands first and the White Spruce next, but 
as Norway Spruce will last at least fifty years it is a profitable tree to plant. 
Balsam Fir is best for ornament, and good for shelter also. 

The time of one session was given to the State Amber Cane Association. 
Much interest was shown, and valuable information given in the talke. 
This was followed by talks on bees and honey, and figures given on the com- 
parative cost of honey and syrup. After the ladies had taken part in the 
discussion, it was agreed that it was much easier to " raise cane" than 
honey. An establishment for manufacturing sugar and syrup by the diffu- 
sion process was estimated to cost about $12,000, while by the old method, 
an outfit could be bought for about $85. 

Prof. Lugger gave a lengthy paper on Carnivorous Plants. 

Mrs. Hayes read a paper on Domestic Economy, in which she stated that 
most of the intemperance was caused by improperly cooked food in the 
home. 

A paper was read £y Mrs. Underwood, on Boses; also one by Mrs. Camp- 
bell, of Wisconsin, on Ethics of Horticulture, both of which were good, the 
latter showing considerable literary talent. 

Mr. Allen gave his plan of raising Hubbard squash, and also early pota- 
toes. He prefers old squash seed, as they give the strongest plants. Uses 
air-slaked lime to keep off the squash-bugs. Cuts potatoes to two eyes and 
places them in shallow boxes in a warm place inthecjellar, or behind a stove, 
and covers with an inch of earth. This should be done only enough to have 
the plants three inches high by planting time. Plant these the same as 
usual, covering top and all. If there is danger of freezing after the pota- 
toes are up, cover them with earth, using a corn cultivator for the work. 

Prof. Ragan, of Indiana, gave a description of the cold wave of 1885, and 
showed charts issued by the Weather Service Bureau at intervals of eight 
21 



210 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



hours during the storm. He explained the direction taken by the lowest 
point of barometer, which moved south across the plains into the Gulf of 
Mexico and then turned northeast to near the mouth of the St. Lawrence 
river. The line of zero barometer extended from the Rocky Mountains 
across the plains and the length of the great lakes. As the storm progressed 
this line bent southward on the plains to near the gulf, but did not change 
its position in the lake region. This storm is the one that injured the or- 
ange groves of Florida so badly. Prof. Ragan explained that the effects of 
such storms could be counteracted by planting large belts of timber across 
the plains. 

An excursion was planned to the experiment station at St. Anthony Park. 
But few of the members went, on account of the weather, which had sud- 
denly turned cold. Those who <lid. go, felt well repaid for their trouble. The 
buildings are all new, being put up last summer, and the school was started 
last fall. A full description of what we saw would be too lengthy for this 
paper. The equipments are very complete, excepting that they lack room 
for the accommodation of students, and for classrooms and workshops. 

They are at present conducting experiments at the stables, in feeding 
stock on ensilage, and also dry feed. At the greenhouse we found a large 
number of samples of frosted and rusted wheat that are being tested to 
prove their value for seed. The plants were about four inches high, and 
showed much difference in the stand obtained and vigor of the plants. 

At the close of the meeting it was requested that your Society continue 
their plan of sending a representative to their meetings. 



MARKET GARDENING. 



Honorable Secretary State Horticultural Society: 

I see by the notice received from you, that I am assigned the subject of 
the market garden. I think the subject to be treated upon would have been 
more appropriate to have read, " The Farmer's Garden." But as it is on 
programme, *' Market Gardening," I will endeavor to treat on that subject. 

The subject, or business, market gardening, dates back to a very remote 
period. In fact, we And by the history of creation, that even the Garden of 
Eden had its market garden, for we read that Eve peddled apples; but as to 
whether she made a success of it or not, I leave my readers to judge. At 
all events, the price paid by Adam for apples was a large one and hard on 
the gardeners. The market gardener, to make a success of his business, 
must first find a market for his produce; for without a good market, no mat- 
ter how fine vegetables he may grow, his labor is lost. After a good market, 
the next essential to success is cheap and easily accessible manure; for 
without manure, cheap and plentiful, success is not possible under any cir* 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



211 



<;umstances whatever. For I want to impress it upon the minds of my 
hearers right here that manure is the key and corner stone of success in the 
vegetable growing business. And it would surprise the common farmer to 
see the amount of manure used by the market gardener. For, on an acre of 
land intended for early cabbages or potatoes the farmer would probably 
think fifty loads per acre very heavy fertilizing, while we, as market gar- 
deners, would use at least one hundred and fifty loads per acre, and would 
think success uncertain with any less. The writer l^is land that has had at 
least one hundred loads per acre every year for ten years, and is none too 
rich now for garden purposes. In fact, we would as soon think of growing 
a crop, even now, on this soil without seed, as without manure. And while 
on this subject of manure, we would state that after quarter of a century's 
experience with every and all varieties of fertilizers, 1 find nothing bet- 
ter, nor even equal to, good, well kept horse stable manure. And I would 
say to the young man going into the business of market gardening, if you 
can get good stable manure in plenty, and cheap, don't bother yourself any 
about the so-called commercial fertilizers, nor after any of the special fer- 
tilizers, so largely advertised in our agricultural journals. For what is good 
ior cabbage, is also good for potatoes, melons, or corn, and all this blow 
about a manure for potatoes, and one for onions, and one for cabbage, is all 
nonsense, and gotten up by " special fertilizer " dealers to humbug new be- 
ginners and greenies in buying of them at high prices—a manure that is in 
every way inferior to what the farmer has in plenty in all his yards and sta- 
bles. 

After a good location is procured, and everything else is looked after, the 
next thing essential to 3uccess is to grow only what you can sell. In other 
words, find out what your customers want, and then use your best endeavors 
to supply that demand. And be sure and supply it of the very best you can 
produce, and always have it in the very best possible shape for market. Al- 
ways have your vegetables clean and fresh, tied up in neat bunches, or 
placed in clean boxes or baskets to supply your customers. For no matter 
how fine you may grow your products, if they are sent to market in bad 
shape, dirty and ragged, with wilted tops, and in old tubs or baskets all jum- 
bled in a heap together, you will soon lose trade; and your more tidy compet- 
itor will soon have your customers. And if you even have control of your 
town market, your customers will send to other towns for their vegetables, 
and pay higher prices for clean and appetizing looking vegetables to use 
upon their tables. Work hard for a good line of customers, and when you 
have once established a good trade, try by every honorable means in your 
power to keep it. For we find our customers are very slow to try new men, 
as long as they can get just what they want from us. Treat your customers 
right, and you need fear no competition. The next thing for the market 
gardener to look after is to know what his customers want. In other words, 
you do not want to grow anything you cannot sell. For you may grow fine 
vegetables by the car load, and if it is something your town does not demand, 
your labor is lost, and you have made an unprofitable season's work. 

For a town Jof from three to five thousand inhabitants, I would grow 



212 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



mainly peas, beans, lettuce, beets, onions, sweet corn, cabbages, cauliflow- 
ers and potatoes, and in a small way any other vegetable I thought I could 
sell. Lettuce and radishes are the first thing the market gardeners will 
have a demand for in spring. Sow lettuce in hot bed in February in this 
latitude, in drills three inches apart, and when leaves are two inches long 
transplant to hot bed, or cold frames again to head up, in rows as before, 
three inches apart, and three inches apart in the row. Stir the soil between 
the rows often, and give plenty of water. For varieties, plant Hanson's 
Imported for all seasons of the year, and you will make no mistake. Sow 
raddishes in cold frames, where they are to stand till pulled, in rows four 
inches apart and one inch apart in row; hoe and water often, as the quicker 
you can grow them the crisper and better they will be. Sow Chartier and 
White French for forcing; Long and Short Scarlet, Short Top and All Sea- 
sons for later and open ground crop. 

Peas should be sown just a,s soon in spring as the frost is out enough to 
plow. Have soil fall plowed if possible, and not too rich, as they grow too 
much to vines, and are ten days later on too rich soil. Sow in trenches six 
inches deep, as by planting them deep they do not fire up and die at the bot- 
tom as in shallow planting, and they will be much more productive. Plant 
for first, Early American Wonder, Landreth's First and Best, and Rural 
New Yorker, in order named. I would advise the beginner to try several 
varieties, as some do much better in some soils and localities than others. 
Blue Peter and Premium Gem are also good for second early and late crops. 
Grow what will mature the earliest on your soil, for a few days ahead of 
your competitors means good paying prices; for one bushel, first in market* 
will bring as much as four bushels later on, and cost no more to grow them. 

Beans should be planted as soon as danger of frost is passed. Nothing 
but the wax varieties will pay well, except for first early, and for this, Early 
Mohawk is best, as it will stand more hardship and cold than any other va- 
riety, and is fit only for first early market, when nothing else is on hand. 
For general market, Golden Wax, White Wax, and German Wax are best. 
Lima beans are very profitable, and only the earliest varieties should be 
grown. Henderson's New Bush Lima beans is very fine, and should have a 
place in every market garden. 

Cabbages are one of the market gardener's best paying crops, and should 
have good attention. Remember the cabbage is a grass feeder, and you can 
not have your soil too rich. Cabbage luxuriates in plenty of strong, coarse 
manure. Sow seed for early crop In hot beds in March, for Northern Iowa, 
and in February for Southern Iowa. When plants are three inches high 
transplant to cold frames, and set as early in April as the soil can be worked. 
For if the plants are properly grown in hot beds, and well hardened off by 
giving plenty of air, and leaving sash off at night. No danger from frosts 
need be feared, for the soil will freeze three inches deep and not injure the 
plants if left uncovered. Never cover cabbage plants at night with paper, 
nor vessels of any kind, if frosts are feared. If your plants are all right 
none need be feared. If they are not, always cover with earth any plants in 
danger of freezing, by hoeing soil over it at night, and if weather continues 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



213 



<cold and dry no damage to plants will occur for three or four days if left 
covered. As to varieties, Henderson's Selected Jersey Wakefield, has made 
us the most money of any for the first early, and Early Winningstadt for 
second early, and Burpee's Surehead, Short Stem and Improved Flat Dutch 
are most reliable for late, and best keepers in order named. 

Beets are also one of our best marKet crops, and should have good atten- 
tion. For first early, a limited amount can be sown in hot beds, and trans- 
planted when roots are one inch in diameter, and the crop forwarded ten 
days. Sow for early market in rich warm soil, soon as soil will work in 
spring, in drills fourteen inches apart; hoeing often, and keeping soil loose 
between the rows. When roots are one inch through, pull to thin out the 
crop for greens; tie in nice bunches for market, and the thinning will, in 
many senses pay all expenses of the crop. Soon as large enough pull for 
market, tying in bunches of from four to six beets in bunch, and no vege- 
table sells better in its season than early bunched beets. Varieties, Egyp- 
tian and Edmund's Early for first early, and Market Gardener's for maiD 
crop are best. If beets are grown for winter market, top close at pulling 
time, pack in barrels in cellars, and they will remain plump and crisp all 
winter. 

Onions should be largely grown for early market. Sets put out in fall, for 
first early, and covered lightly with coarse manure in fall, removing same 
in spring. Soon as ground thaws is best for early bunching. For main crop, 
sow soon as soil will work; the earlier the better, in very rich soil, in drills, 
sixteen inches apart. White Queen and White Portugal are best for early 
market; but for main crop, Ked Wethersfield, White Globe, Red Globe and 
Yellow Danvers are best. Pull and sell all you can while green, as there is 
most profit in them. Soon as they begin to ripen gather for market and sell 
all you can early, for the early market is best. Sell all your onions in the 
fall, if possible, even at low figures, for it seldom pays to keep them till 
spring, they are such an uncertain keeper in our long winters. 

Sweet corn is always a spring crop for the market gardener. Plant soon 
as weather gets warm enough to warm the soil, in good rich soil,' three feet 
apart each way for early, and four feet for late varieties. Varieties to 
plant, for first early, Corry is earliest and best of all. Shaker's Early is 
good; Egyptian for second early, and Stomel's Evergreen for late, are good 
enough, and enough for all seasons. 

Squashes and melons, cucumbers, etc., should have a place in market 
gardens, and should be grown in amount, as the demand will warrant. 

Tomatoes are one of our best crops also, and need to be well looked after. 
Sow seed in hot bed, in early March, and when plants are three inches high 
transplant to cold frames four inches apart each way, and stir soil often 
between rows and plants, after plants are in blossom, and have young fruit 
set one-half inch in size. Set plants where they are to grow, in rows five 
feet apart, and four feet apart in the row. Plow and hoe often, trimming 
off all side shoots or branches except two or three of the main ones setting 
iruit. Clip the ends of vines after enough fruit has set on the plant. Pick 
off all imperfect specimens, arid you will be well repaid for your work. Al- 



214 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ways be careful to not put your tomatoes on rich soil, as this is one of the 
very few crops that need poor soil, to make them early and productive. 1 
will state in this connection, that the writer has been one of the most suc- 
cessful tomato growers for the Manchester market for many years, having 
them on the market from ten to fifteen days in advance of all others, and the 
whole secret lies in wide planting, close pruning and poor soil, and the latter 
the main secret of success. The varieties grown, Beauty, Perfection and 
Champion, in order named for season. 

Celery should be grown by every market gardener who has a soil and loca- 
tion adopted to its growth. A moist rich soil is best, and also a moist cli- 
mate. The dry atmosphere of Iowa is not congenial to the growth of the 
celery plant. To all those who wish to try their hand at it, I will say, sow 
the seed early in spring, in a moderately heated hot bed, giving plenty of 
water to the soil every few days. The seed is very slow to germinate. 
When the plants are two inches high, for early crop, transplant in row& 
three inches apart, and when four inches high, shear off the tops to cause 
the plants to stock up. Set in rows four feet apart and one foot in the row* 
Hoe often, and if weather is dry, and water is handy, use plenty of it, for 
it is a plant that delights in moisture. As to varieties, Self Bleachiag, 
Golden Heart and VYhite Plume are good. Self Bleaching is best for winter 
use, as it is a good keeper, and needs no banking up before pitting for winter. 
White Plume is good for early market; very fine quality, but not as good 
keeper as Golden Heart or Self Bleaching. 

In conclusion I would recommend to the market gardener to be careful to 
grow nothing he has not a demand for, and to let such crops as late pota- 
toes be for the general farmer. For early potato, Early Ohio and Early 
Maine are best. 

Be sure and let one crop follow another as much as possible. L?t cab- 
bage follow early peas and turnips, or celery follow early potatoes. Cucum- 
bers or late sweet corn can follow early peas. The soil will be better for 
the second crop of vegetables than to let a crop of weeds grow and seed the 
soil for the gardener to have extra expense to grow a crop another year* 
Yours, etc. 

L. G. Clute. 



SPECIAL MEETING OF STATE SOCIETY. 



215 



SPECIAL MEETING SPATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Pursuant to vote of Board of Directors, and call of officers, the So- 
ciety met at the rooms in the capitol, Tuesday, September 4, 1888, 
at 10 a. m. 

Vice President Eugene Secor in the chair, George Van Houten, Sec- 
retary, and several directors and other members were present. 

On motion it was decided to hold a session on the fair grounds at 
two o'clock to morrow. 

Ad j ourned. 

September 5, 1888, Society* met at fair grounds pursuant to adjourn- 
ment yesterday. 

Considerable discussion was engaged in, but nothing of interest in 
the way of business was transacted. 
On motion, the Society adjourned. 

Geo. Van Houten, Secretary. 



« 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



HELD AT CEDAR RAPIDS, DEC. 5 AND 6, 1888. 



FIRST DAY — MORNING SESSION. 



The session was opened with prayer by Rev. John Hood of Cedar 
Rapids. 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 



BY MAYOR P. MULLA.LY, OF CEDAR RAPIDS. 



Mr. President and Members of the Eastern Iowa Horticultural Association: 

Gentlemen— Mr. C. W. Burton, the Secretary of your Association, who 
is also a kind and respected neighbor of mine, handed me your programme 
a few days ago, and I was much pleased to learn from it that Cedar Rapids 
was remembered by you and selected as a place for your Association to meet 
and impart to all who wish to receive the valuable information your pro- 
gramme announces. The science of horticulture and the intelligent appli- 
cation of the mechanical department, so essential to success in that field of 
labor, are subjects I am not well versed in. When, however, I see flowers 
nicely arranged and cared for, their excellence and beauty bespeak the re- 
finement and culture their possessors eDjoy. Flowers,, whether they grow 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 217 



on the plains unaided by man or emit their fragrance on well cultivated 
lawns, teach innocence and purity of thought, and those who admire them 
are keenly sensitive to rudeness. Associations of this character do much 
good. We all share the benefits your labor and your intelligence produce. 
The best of everything is the product of thrift, when combined with the 
high order of intellect and a generous emulation to teach others. It will 
afford satisfaction to learn from you that you receive the appreciation and 
encouragement such enlightened generosity merits. Permit me, gentlemen, 
to assure you of the cordial and hearty welcome Cedar Rapids extends to 
you, and we fully acknowledge the compliment you pay our city by your 
presence. We desire that you make yourselves feel at home, and consider 
the freedom of the city as yours. We shall be pleased to know that you 
make yourselves familiar with our city, and while doing so you will observe 
comfort and thrift everywhere depicted, and a kindly welcome on all sides 
will greet you. Visit our city again, gentlemen, and consider that you have 
a standing invitation to do so. 



RESPONSE. 



BY H. W. LA.THROP, IOWA CITY. 
[Read by the Secretary.] 



I see by a copy of the programme of the exercises at your forthcoming 
meeting that I have been selected to respond to the address of welcome to 
the members of your Society by the Mayor on behalf of himself and the 
'citizens of Cedar Rapids, and I regret my inability to be present and per- 
form that duty, for 1 know that welcome will be cordial, hearty and sincere, 
and it will come from those who know of our labors in the line of fruit pro- 
duction, and who appreciate our efforts to improve, not only the methods 
of that production, but also our efforts to introduce and disseminate the 
new and better varieties of fruits. 

I have known of and watched the growth and progress of Cedar Rapids 
during the past forty years, from its being a village of a few houses till 
it has grown to its present dimensions of a bustling, thriving, prosper- 
ous city, with its more than 18,000 inhabitants. No one, from the 
humble hod-carrier or knight of the jack-plane or trowel, with no other 
capital than his simple tools, an honest purpose and a brawny arm, to the 
manufacturer with a well filled purse, contemplating the erection of an ex- 
tensive factory; or a railroad company with ample exchequer, seeking to 
oben a new avenue to commerce, and all intent on business, ever come to 
Cedar Rapids without receiving a generous welcome. 
28 



218 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Among all the thriving towns and cities that dot that part of Iowa known 
as the Cedar Valley, Cedar Rapids is the chosen mistress, acknowledged by 
them all to be the metropolis. A city that could number among its citizens 
such men as the Greenes, Weares, Carpenters and others I might mention, 
with such natural advantages as she possesses, could not well escape the 
growth Cedar Rapids has made, and that growth has never lacked the stim- 
ulus given it by its early as well as its present inhabitants. While the 
people of the city, from the nature of their employments, cannot engage in 
fruit culture, they furnish a ready market for the products of those who 
can. On this I can speak from personal experience, for during the past sea- 
son from the time the Duchess rounded out to its full measure her blooming 
cheek, and the Benoni tinged with scarlet its blushing face, down to the 
time the ruddy JFameuse parted from its home on the waving bough, I fur- 
nished over two hundred bushels from my own orchard to the apple eating 
people of " the Rapids." Among other sorts besides the above mentioned 
was the Newport, which, as a seedling, was originated in this country, and 
Mr. Gideon's Wealthy, both hardy, native-born children of the northwest, 
where the old refrain used to be " You can't raise fruit here." 

Ours has beem a work of love, pleasure and profit, but a great deal less 
of profit than love and pleasure, and yet after every failure we resolve, in 
the language of the old hunters, to " pick our flints and try again." The 
past few years have left a kind of cyclonic appearance in many of our orch- 
ards, but with all our disappointments and discouragements there is no 
room for doubt that in the very near future, such men in the Cedar Valley 
as Capt. Speer, of Cedar Falls, and C. G. Patten, of Charles City, and their 
co-laborers, will solve the problem that this valley in which they live will 
be one of the great orchards of the northwest, in which will not only fruit 
enough be raised for home consumption but a surplus for exportation. 

Again, I cannot but express my regrets that I cannot be present with you 
to respond to the spontaneous welcome you will receive. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



BY A. G. WILLIAMS, CHESTER CENTER. 



Fellow Members of the Eastern Horticultural Society: 

We again meet in yearly conference to compare notes and glean if possi- 
ble from our last year's experience, in the study and culture of fruits, some 
light that will give us a greater degree of zeal and enthusiasm in our efforts 
to search out horticultural truth. 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 219 

We meet many trials in our work of adapting fruits and trees to our pe- 
culiar climate, yet some difficult problems have been solved and some ad- 
vancement made. New varieties and a more general knowledge of the best 
methods of culture has brought to our tables finer fruit and at a less outlay 
than could be had a few years ago. 

The primary element of success in fruit growing is a love for the" work, 
and every advancement made toward the good of our ambition gives gen- 
uine pleasure. 

It is claimed that the refinement and culture, the intelligence and the 
character of a people or nation, can be largely measured by the quality and 
variety of the food they use. It is true with the lower animals that the 
finer their food the finer their instincts and the more delicate their organiza- 
tion. If this be true, horticulture, which primarily means garden culture 
in its highest state of perfection, is an essential factor in human progress, 
and a well kept garden of fruits, flowers and vegetables is an essential ad- 
junct to every household. It serves to gratify nearly all our senses, its in- 
fluence is wholly to that which is lovely and pure and speaks of the handi- 
work of the Creator. 

It was necessary to plant a garden before the earth became a fit dwelling 
place for man, and as he fell from and was driven out of his first estate, is 
it not true that if he has been or will be raised to a higher and purer state 
of being it will progress only in proportion to the improvement and per- 
fecting of all earth's products. 

When we look over the field of progress which has been and is being 
made in the improvement of our fruits, flowers and vegetables and note 
from what obscure beginnings have sprung the kinds we now cultivate 
may we not believe that the range of possibilities for the future is almost 
unlimited. 

The question as to how we can cultivate this improvement is the problem 
for the horticulturist to solve. The subject is a broad one and so far as 
progress has been made chance and unskilled as well as professional or ex- 
pert effort have all contributed to the results attained. 

Every method by which any degree of success has been attained should 
be encouraged, but just what method gives greatest promise of success is 
the question which so earnestly engages our attention at most all of our 
horticultural gatherings. 

If individual plants had the habit of transmitting their leading charac 
teristics to their offspring in any such degree as is true with animals the 
limit of perfection might sooner be reached. True it is concerning apples 
as well as most other kinds of fruit, not one seedling in a thousand resem- 
bles its parent . We use the term improve when we wish to change the 
product of a plant so that it will better serve the use we make of it. We 
are working in the right and natural direction when we make selections for 
planting of the best seeds of corn, wheat, beans, or anything where the 
quality, size or yield of the seed is the object sought, but an excessive 
amount and desirable quality of the pulp or covering over the seed, which 
is the thing desired with our fruits, is a sort of abnormal condition; it is 



220 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



out of the line of regular breeding and does not tend to a fixed type or to 
prepotency in itself, it is simply a monstrosity. Something similar occurs 
in the breeding of animals and flowering plants In the latter we call them 
sports. It is nearly always at a great sacrifice if not an entire loss of their 
reproduction powers. » 

With our apples the greater bulk of our varieties are chance productions. 
The fence corners and roadsides have contributed quite as largely to our 
list as any other source, hence it is reasonable to suppose they are from seed 
of inferior fruit. 

Downing is authority for the saying that the first orchard planting in this 
country was from seed of the best European varieties which resulted in a 
class of fruit much inferior to the next and subsequent generations of seed- 
lings. Mr. Livingston, now of Des Moines, succeeded in producing several 
of the most valuable and widely known varieties of tomatoes by taking for 
the parent plant one that had reverted back to its primitive type and fertil- 
izing it with the best known sorts. 

The first cross of our wild strawberry with the native South American 
strawberry resulted in the production of a variety as high in quality as 
anything that has since been produced. Rogers' grapes were all from seed 
of the wild grape fertilized with the raisin grape. 

No progress has been made in the attempt to improve our wild strawberry 
or grape or crab or the Siberian crab. It is their hybrids that have proved 
valuable. 

I mention these familiar instances as indicating that we are quite as likely 
to succeed if not more so, by using for parent plants those as widely differ- 
ent in their characteristics as possible, and the one from which the seed 
should be used scarcely more than a step removed from its original form. 

The report of Director was then made. 



DIRECTOR'S REPORT. 



BY A. COOPER. 



We are truly glad that we are this year enabled to make quite a satisfac- 
tory report. Our apple crop in this locality has been abundant. Many trees 
have been much injured from the enormous weights, and trees that were 
crippled a few years ago from the effects of our severe winters, followed by 
our dry summers, have so revived as to yield an abundant crop. Selling from 
twenty -five to fifty cents per bushel for summer and fall; and in fact we 
might say our market at times was glutted— all m a country where fruit is a 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



failure. Winter fruit finds a more ready market, and they too, a little slow- 
sale, ranging in price at picking time from thirty -five to fifty cents per 
bushel. It was the writer's privilege during the fall to visit many orchards 
in the old Buckeye State (it being their fruit year), and in my opinion, our 
apples are far superior in size and quality, and were sold for about the same 
money. So, horticulturists, take new courage. The ravages of blight in 
orchards in this locality was very light, indeed, nursery trees suffering se- 
verely. Willow Twig with me nearly ruined. 

Would make no change in last year's list. 

Cherries were not so good a crop; in fact, a very light yield. 

Plums; much like the cherry, very short crop. 

Strawberries; an excellent crop, with good prices. Crescent Seedling still 
in the lead; some others did quite well. 

Easpberries; an excellent crop too; Schaffer's Colossal and Turner yield- 
ing immense crops. The former producing the finest berries I have ever 
seen; would say, plant largely of this s®rt. Ohio reported behaving quite 
well in some localities. Gregg best among the cap berries. All were sold at 
fair prices. 

Blackberries; a good crop of finely developed fruit; Snyder and Stone's 
Hardy are the leading varieties; and here allow me to say in behalf of the 
Stone's Hardy, if they always behave as they did with me this year, it would 
be difficult to get too many. I almost wished my entire farm was set to 
them. The crop was simply immense, realizing fifteen cents per quart by 
the crate. In ripening they follow the Snyder, which is very desirable. I 
have been fruiting them for three years; think the fruit preferable to the 
Snyder, is larger and equal in flavor. 

Grapes; with us a good crop; some other localities report short crop; prices 
ranged from three to five cents per pound. Concord, Worden, and a few 
others make up the list. Worden, wherever known and planted, is giving 
good satisfaction; in my opinion, this is destined to lead in this locality, at 
least, for two reasons, it is prolific and its fine quality. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Williams: This report is especially for Eastern Iowa. 

Mr. Holmes: I think the reason the Crescent is ahead is, that it 
is so generally planted. 

Mr. Fluke: Was the plum crop a success in any locality in East- 
ern Iowa? 

Mr. Bruner: The plum crop was abundant in Tama county. 

Mr. Fluke: How about the weather at time of blooming? 

Mr. Bruner: This year we had a white frost at the time of bloom 
that chilled the insects so they did not work on the pollen and kill 
the germs as they did last year. But when the later fruit was in 
bloom the parasites were equally bad, but as the weather was warm 



222 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



they worked on the pollen and destroyed the fruit. This was why 
the crop of Duchess was so light. 

Mr. Fluke: No. 5 does well with me at Davenport. I believe it 
will keep until Christmas. Its quality is not so good as the Willow 
Twig. 

Mr. Kimm: How old is the tree? 

Mr. Fluke: It is five years old. Among fifty varieties of Rus- 
sians, not more than twelve were free from blight with me. All the 
Russian pear varieties blight. 

Mr. Holmes: Could we decide upon the merits of any tree, in one 
or two years, brought from a foreign country? 

Mr. Brackett: Prof. Arthur says the bacteria is the cause of the 
blight. Warm, moist weather affords the most favorable conditions. 

Mr. Budd: I believe the blight is found in hot, dry climates. 

Mr. Watrous: There is no dispute but blight will spread from 
one tree to another; and therefore to find out whether any tree is 
blight proof it should be separated from others. We know that a 
tree coming from a moist climate is liable to take this disease. Ev- 
ery tree may blight if placed in certain conditions. There is very 
little capacity for changing the quality of fruit or habit of a tree by 
changing climate. 

Mr. Budd: The Duchess is not a blighting variety. It is not lia- 
ble to blight. Trees from a moist climate are very likely to blight. 
The first fruit of a tree is usually much smaller than it is in later 
years. 

Mr. Brackett: Seedlings improve with age, but old established 
varieties do not. My experience is that the first fruits are usually 
the best. 

A letter from Peter M. Gideon, Excelsior, Minn., was read. 

Excelsior, Minn., December 2, 1888. 

C. W. Burton: Dear Sir— Your kind request to attend your horticul- 
tural meeting at Cedar Bapids, came duly to hand, and my wish was to at- 
tend; but I am so situated just now that I can't leave home without loss, 
and so must forego the pleasure of attending. Thanks for the compliment, 
and hope you will have a good meeting. 

As to our fruit crops the past season, all varieties were profuse. The 
grapes failed to ripen up as well as usual. The last winter was ten degrees 
colder than we ever had here before, but no damage to apple trees of any 
variety on our grounds, and never a more profuse crop than this year; and 
the same with raspberries. All came through unharmed, proof positive 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 223 



that it is not the extreme cold that kills; it is the condition in which they 
go into winter. What kills is a warm fall, that keeps up the sap-flow till 
winter sets in. A sudden and hard set-in of winter always follows a late, 
warm fall, and then it is that damage comes to tender trees. 

Blight still continues to visit our orchards, a worse calamity than sudden 
hard winters, for we have varieties of apples that no extremes of climate 
can injure; but they are not blight-proof, and the man who claims that he 
has a variety of apple that is blight-proof is either ignorant or dishonest. 
It is true some varieties are not so subject to blight as others, but if the 
conditions of sap-flow are just right when the epidemic comes along, there 
are none that can escape. Blight is an atmospheric disease, and goes in 
currents, varying from a few feet to miles in width, but always wor3t at the 
center of the current. Its freaks with us show plainly that it is a cohesive 
substance, not visible to the naked eye. It shows in minute specks on 
leaves and tender twigs, and on up in size of blotches until eighteen inches 
is slapped on the body or large limb of a tree, or lapped clear around a tree 
or branch six or twelve inches in diameter, forming a complete girdle. But 
as to a remedy, I don't prescribe; but like all other epidemics it must have 
its day and leave. This is its third visit to the United States. As it has 
done before, it will do again— leave until conditions call it back again. 

Wishing you a prosperous meeting, as ever, your friend and co-worker in 
horticulture, 

Peter M. Gideon. 

discussion. 

Mr. Bruner: I believe the blight is caused by congestion of the 
sap. 

Mr. Fluke: I never saw a twig of the Virginia crab blighted. 

Mr. Watrous: Many trees which are blight proof at Davenport 
would be subject to blight in Minneapolis. We must recollect that 
the locality has much to do with this disease. Because a tree is good 
back east, or in a foreign country, is no reason that it will be good 
with us. 

Mr. Brackett: As regards insects, they all have their times and 
their seasons. They come and go at regular intervals. 

Mr. Kimm: All of my thirty varieties of trees badly blight. I 
think the murky heat has much to do with the cause of the blight. 

A paper was then read entitled, " Experiments with the Russians," 
by O. A. Kenyon, McGregor: 



224 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



EXPERIMENTS WITH THE RUSSIANS. 



BY O. A. KENYON, MC GREGrOR. 



My "experiments with the Russians " are so limited in point of time, and 
as compared with those of many other horticulturists of greater opportuni- 
ties and more eminent ability, that I hesitated to speak with any confidence 
as to the probable result of such experiments in the western or prairie 
States, or, indeed, in any other part of our extensive country. 

While many of the trees sent me for trial, will, no doubt, prove a failure 
with me, yet there are others that seem to promise well. As the first experi- 
mental trees were sent to my station in the spring of 1885, it is yet too early 
to form final conclusions as to the ultimate success of any of them. 

Father Clarkson called at my place the latter part of September last, and 
in his reference to it in the Register said: " The soil is a disintegrated lime- 
stone, and the location and exposure, such as to try the vitality of any- 
thing." It may be safe to say, then, that trees that fail with me may do 
much better in a different soil and under other circumstances, even in the 
same latitude and on the same isothermal line. I think it is a well known 
fact that trees of the same variety differ in their hardiness and fruitfulnes** 
in localities not very far apart, but differing in soil, altitude, exposure, etc. 
I took hold of this experimental work with the knowledge that the farmers 
and others who plant trees will give them, as a rule, just good, ordinary 
care', and sometimes hardly that. And I believed the object of these experi- 
mental stations was to ascertain by trial what varieties of trees and plants 
were adapted to the different localities, when treated not with neglect or 
calmness, nor, on the other hand, petted and pampered. The fifty odd- 
varieties of little one-year-old apple trees that I received for experimental 
purposes in the spring of 1885, showed no indications ©f having been made 
pets in the nursery. Indeed, some of them were quite the reverse. They 
were planted, some in geod soil, cultivated soil, and some in grass or meadow 
land. Those in cultivated soil made more growth, and are more subject to 
blight than those in grass, while in both cases some have entirely failed , 
and others are doing well. The ground around those in grass has been dug 
and loosened up once at least every year, and a little fine, old manure spread 
on it. I am inclined to think the Moscow trees are least subject to blight, 



EASTERN IOWA. HORSICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



225 



and the Orel trees most subject to it, but further time will be necessary 
to verify this observation. 

Two varieties of the experimental apple trees bore fruit this year (1888), 
viz , 5 M. (Royal Table) and 30 M. (Ledenets). The former in size, color, 
etc., somewhat resembles the Willow Twig, and is a better keeper than 
McMahan's White. At this time (November 15), the two specimens I have, 
are in good condition, and I see no reason why they will not remain so for a 
month or two yet. Borovinka bore one apple, a real beauty in form, size 
and color. It bears some resemblance to the Duchess, and about a month 
later in ripening. The tree is, to my mind, and ideal one in its form and 
manner of growth. Should life and health be spared a few years longer I 
shall hope to be able to speak with more exactness of the Russians I have on 
trial; until then, would refer those interested to Professors Budd, Speer 
and President Patten, whose knowledge of them surpasses mine. 

The president appointed following committees: 
Membership— -Messrs. Higley and Branson. 
Award— Brackett, Griffith and Bruner. 
Nominations— Fluke, Ure and Willard. 
Resolutions — Watrous and Holmes. 
Place of Meeting —Bloom, Bomgarder and Branson. 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The session opened with a paper on " Blackberries," by J. K. 
Bloom, Lisbon, Iowa. 



BLACKBERRY CULTURE. 



BY J. K. BLOOM, LISBON. 



Blackberry culture is the subject assigned me by the committee on pro- 
gramme. It appears to me that I have been there before, and, hence, pru- 
dence and the State Printer suggest that my words should be few. 

There are several methods by which a crop of blackberries may be made 
reasonably sure. One is to plant varieties like the Early Harvest or the 
29 



226 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Wilson; both of which are of a low habit of growth and have pliable wood, 
and are therefore easily bent over and covered lightly with earth and thus 
protected against the cold, dry, searching winds of winter and early spring. 
The Early Harvest is a very prolific bearer and a good berry when properly 
trimmed or cut back, which can only be done successfully after the fruit 
spurs appear. 

Another good method for varieties like the Snyder, Ancient Briton, 
Stone's Hardy, etc., is to pull up, about the last of June, all young shoots 
that have started from the crown, near the surface. New shoots will start 
from the roots below the crown; and in the two seasons, last year and year 
before, in which we have tried this plan, these second growth bushes were 
loaded with fine berries, while the rows alongside of them, not so treated, 
had but few. 

But the last, best and surest method is to plant a variety that will laugh 
at the winter and smile at the warm sun in February and early March, and 
when the time comes for ripe berries will present you with a fair crop of 
fine, luscious fruit; such as the Wapsie can boast of for five successive sea- 
sons, and which we think will yet spread itself all over Iowa. One more 
severe test and it will be sent out on trial, not to make a fortune for the 
originators, but to bless the people of Iowa and keep them from cursing 
nurserymen and berry growers in general for introducing new varieties 
which have no merit. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Kimm: How far apart do you put the plants? 
Mr. Bloom: From four to eight feet. I cut the tops off about the 
last of June. 

Mr. Root: I always lay them down for winter. I don't believe 
any berry is hardy otherwise. I picked this year from one half acre 
3,456 quarts. I like the Ancient Briton better than the Snyder. 

Mr. Clemons: When do you set the plants? 

Mr. Bloom: As early in the spring as possible. 

Mr. Williams: I think the Wilson Junior as good as any. 

An interesting paper upon strawberries was then read by W. H. 
Holmes, of Davenport, Iowa: 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



227 



STRAWBERRIES— COMMENTS ON NEW VARIETIES. 



BY WM. H. HOLMES, DAVENPORT. 



The subject assigned to me for this occasion, strawberries, being of wide 
range, may raise expectation of a general essay on this truly fruitful theme. 

I cannot hope to instruct in the culture of strawberries, a body of men, 
mainly experts in horticulture, and able to teach any one whose life has been 
actively devoted to other pursuits, while my culture of fruits has been only 
incidental, the practical processes being carried on by frequently changed 
hired hands under direction, and for a few late years only, under personal 
supervision. 

My promise was to give the result of trial with some of the later produc- 
tions, and to these, with the attendant conditions, this paper will be lim- 
ited. 

No experienced grower of strawberries will consider my experiments as 
conclusive for him regardless of conditions which may widely differ, and on 
which each individual must exercise his judgment. 

My soil varies from under-drained meadow land to a gentle southern 
slope, a gradual, moderately steep hillside, with black surface soil, from 
eight to twenty inches above yellow clay, and nearly level summit a hundred 
and fifty feet higher than the near by Mississippi, averaging from four to 
eight inches of loam above clay. Two acres or the bluff top slopes west- 
ward, and a small portion southeast. Tub whole plot contains twenty acres. 

This gives considerable variety of soil and exposure, and few strawberries 
yet tried do equally well in varying localities, nor does the same soil and ex- 
posure produce equal results with varying seasons, so I plant for a main 
crop no variety which will not bear fairly well on any portion of the place, 
except on the nearly clear clay slope westward, on which I expect to set Jes- 
sie next spring. 

For a few years I have fertilized at least up to the average Iowa straw- 
berry grower, but far behind the eastern market gardeners, and mainly rely 
on super-phosphate, raw ground bones and wood ashes, using stable manure 
little except on clay, and not at all on black meadow mold. 

None of the novelties I name and commend have been tried by me beyond 
one locality, and that on moderate southern slopes, excepting only, Jessie, 



228 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Lida, and May King, and my short trial of new varieties, by no means prove 
general adaptation, even on my own grounds. 

Soil, situation and exposure, whether low grounds, hill side, or prairie 
level, and if sloping in what direction, have such an important bearng with 
reference to late frosts, or to excess or deficiency of rainfall, that no single 
season's result will determine the permanent value of any strawberry, as a 
profitable crop, no other fruit being so sensitive to slight change of condi- 
tions, and I regard no variety as reliable for a main crop, until it has stood 
relatively unharmed the variations between warm early springs, followed by 
cold rains, or by strong winds during bloom, and of excessive drought or 
heat, during the first three weeks of June. 

As few of the kinds I name have not been tried longer than from spring 
until second June, caution suggests that before any extensive planting of 
those I consider valuable, each' one should experiment on his own place. 

Justice to the varieties criticised requires the statement that almost invar- 
iably plants bought while prices were quite high, averaging in vigor far be- 
low those usually raised to set for fruit. 

An experience of thirty years, with over two hundred varieties, nearly all 
originating east of the prairies, and principally in New England, New York 
and New Jersey, shows that it requires, at Davenport, two seasons to accli- 
mate the plant and perfect its full crop of fruit, even if well adapted after 
that time. 

With such an ordeal, the same experience proves that not ten per cent, 
will justify their substitution for older varieties. In my opinion, not half 
that proportion are up to the published claims of the introducer, on whose 
grounds, and under whose treatment, the claims may be true. 

Either in vigor of growth and health of leaf, or in yield, size, color, form, 
flavor, firmness, or keeping qualities, the vast majority, in one or more 
points, fall short of reasonable expectations, much more from the asserted 
good qualities, and average below varieties in use whose merits are estab- 
lished by experience. 

Summing up the lessons of the past, with all its failures the result gave 
me, in relatively recent times, five valuable varieties for any portion of my 
ground, viz.: 

Champion, or Windsor, Miner, Captain Jack, Sucker State, and last, but 
by no means least, May King, any of which in net profit exceeds the former 
standard, the Crescent, whose berries after one full picking will not sell by 
their side, and are too small to ship at express rates. Piper is also a hardy, 
reliable, moderate cropper of mulberry colored berries of fair size and su- 
perb quality, which will keep the longest and ship the best of any berry I 
know. 

With a high opinion for several novelties, I would not now discard one of 
the five named to substitute others for a main crop, nor would I, until an- 
other June has brought its test, plant an entire acre of any introduction 
from 1885 to 1888, however highly I now estimate their prospective merits. 

To properly estimate the value of my trials, fairness requires the state- 
ment that my tests are begun on a small scale, but propagating what I can 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 229 



with little more care that with main crop plants, except potting to set out 
from Au'gust until October, and watering the expensive kinds during such 
prolonged drought as the late summer of 1888 and all the season of 1887, 
without which few watering new kinds would survive until October or win- 
ter kill if they did. ' 

I procure novelties from the originator, or introducer; and, while costing 
more than a few dollars a dozen, trv but a single dozen, and while five or 
more dollars per hundred, buy only from fifty to one hundred plants. 

I stop propagation quite often, burying in an early grave those whose value 
is not clearly apparent at the second crop, and have found this more eco- 
nomical and satisfactory than to invest more money and expend more in 
ground room and tillage where experience has taught that the odds are so 
largely against success* with any new variety. 

From the general tenor of my remarks, you may readily infer what I de- 
sign to convey as my firm conviction, that I regard no mere novelty as enti- 
tled to consideration from market gardeners unless decidedly better than 
existing standard varieties, for a few known kinds, some of which will give 
a reliable crop every year whether wet or dry, excessively hot or exposed to 
late frosts, are more easily sold and more profitable than a great variety; 
but in my experience not fewer than four to six kinds will provide for these 
contingencies and for a succession from early to late. 

The first three varieties I name easily lead the list of novelties on my 
grounds. 

The Jessie and Bubaeh, originating in Wisconsin and near by Illinois, are 
very productive kinds, and so nearly equal in health, resistance to drought, 
earliness, size and beauty, that I know not yet which will pay best at home; 
but the Jessie, being a staminate or perfect variety and much firmer, can be 
profitably planted on a larger scale, being also a trifle better flavored. 

I have fruited both for two years on bluff level and on a somewhat "steep 
southern slope, with no perceptible difference in yield or size. 

May King, a staminate from New Jersey, I have fruited three years, and 
«ach year it is improving. It has no superior as a plant, ranking with Jes- 
sie and Bubach, and gives a splendid crop of early, large, bright, but light- 
colored, high- flavored, firm berries of uniform size, and nearly so of regular 
shape, varying in this respect less than the Jessie or Bubach It ripens be- 
fore either, with the first picking of the Crescent, and keeps its size well till 
near the end of the crop unlike the Crescent, and producing much more 
money per acre. 

The following five named with partial trial and a single fruiting— Parry 
twice— give strong assurance of being worthy of continuance, but, origina- 
ting in New Jersey, latitude of Philadelphia, with Lida and Bomba, they 
require longer trial in this climate. Parry, a staminate, as yet is a slow 
grower, with large berries of fine quality and color, but a shy bearer, like 
Belmont. 

Lida, pistillate, makes few runners but large stools and a handsome crop 
of large, excellent, high-colored berries. 



230 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Grady's Prize, staminate, is strong and healthy. First crop moderate, of 
late, large berries, much resembling the Bubach, and except for lateness 
would not demand a place, having no other special quality. 

Garretsen, pistillate, is claimed by Lovett as an improvement in every 
way on the Windsor, which I hope this season will verify, but this year it» 
berries were few and not large, while the plant is excellent. 

Monmouth, staminate, is another New Jersey plant introduced by Lovett 
as something extra in earliness, yield and quality. It bore no fruit in June 
on fall-set plants, and grew very feebly. This year it is making excellent 
growth through a long drought, and like other New Jersey plants, may yet 
bear well. It must do so in 1889 or go under. 

The following six have not yet fruited, or had time for that, but all are 
vigorous growers throughout over two months continuous drought, and 
amply able to carry large crops, viz.: Bomba, Haverland, Warfield No. 2 V 
Ohio, Woodruff's No. 1 and Logan. 

None of the remainder I name are entitled to room, except in home gar- 
dens where the size, quality, or appearance of the Belmont, Jewell, Sum- 
mit, Ontario, Crimson Cluster, Henderson and Gypsey make them well wor- 
thy of cultivation. The Belmont is of fine quality. 

Sunapee, Truett's Surprise, Itasca, Mammoth, Cohanzick and Maggie 
have no value on my grounds for either market or home use. 

Of all the vaunted productions of Durand, not one has been worth pre- 
serving, but I have not tried the Prince. The Jewel would not pay me at 
less than 25 cents per quart, while excellent in New England. 

At seventy- five I am still looking for the berry we have all seen adver- 
tised, and have admired m charming pictures, with glowing descriptions* 
claiming all the desirable qualities, vigorous roots, strong foliage, enor- 
mous, or at least wonderful yield, of large berries of handsome form, brill- 
iant color, delicious flavor, superior keeping qualities, just firm enough for 
distant shipment, but not hard or with a plum-like skin, and as a whole so 
excellent and attractive as to sell at an advance of 25 or 50 per cent over 
other varieties as certified by consignees who were pleased to handle mer- 
chandise which sold itself while they took the commission. 

Will I, will you, my hearers, ever find this matchless combination? Pos- 
sibly in the millennium; probably not before What of that? 

The pursuit and expectation, despite the failures, are a pleasure, with 
many valuable lessons of skill, patience and perseverance, and is not only a 
harmless but a useful and elevating occupation in a world where little that 
we value can be had without effort. 

I enlisted in this labor more for pleasure than for profit. Had I reversed 
the motive for my painstaking efforts, my disappointments would have been 
magnified many fold. As it is, I look backward with satisfaction and for- 
ward with pleasant anticipation. If I have not benefited others I have my- 
self, and while health permits will continue the work. 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 231 
DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Budd: The Pearl on College grounds has done well. 
"Orchard Culture" was treated in a paper by C. P. Osborn, Fair- 
fax. 



ORCHARD CULTURE. 



BY C. P. OSBORN, FAIRFAX. 



The subject of orchard culture is a theme that many can write about the- 
oretically, but very few can write at this time to their own satisfaction, 
and much less to satisfy the public. 

I have made a thorough canvass of the orchards in my own township and 
vicinity, the past autumn. I desired to make a personal visit and examine 
the condition of the trees as they were standing in their various localities; 
also to make inquiries of the oldest orchardists that I could find as to their 
mode of culture, the varieties of trees planted, and the general character as 
to health, longevity and productiveness. Another object I had in view was 
to ascertain, as far as possible, in regard to protection, if any, and of what 
did it consist. 

In trying to answer the above, let me say that I found, among the older 
varieties of apples grown, the following named were showing more vitality 
and productiveness than many others: Duchess, Plumb's Cider, Snow, 
Fall Orange, Haas, Wealthy, Roman Stem, Grimes' Golden, Willow Twig, 
the E. G. Russet and Long Russet. I found the trees large and healthy, 
but not productive. As to protection, those orchards sheltered by hedges 
or trees on the east and south to my surprise I found in better condition as 
to health and productiveness than those sheltered on the north and west. 
In one orchard I found several trees q% theRawle's Janet growing upon the 
west side of a heavy willow hedge, and they were to all appearances healthy 
and were full of fruit. Samples of the apples are upon the table here. I 
found in another orchard some Ben Davis, with southern protection, loaded 
with as fine apples as I ever saw. Samples of them are to be seen upon the 
table before us. 

I found that in orchards where they had ceased to cultivate and had 
seeded down to grass and were used as pastures, where horses were turned 
in to graze occasionally and where calves were allowed to run, were in bet- 
ter condition than those used for pther stock. But if you want to kill an 
orchard quick, then turn hogs into it. One prominent and reliable farmer 
of Benton county told me that his hogs killed his orchard, and he further 



232 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



remarked that by confining them on a small portion of ground occupied 
by willows, he could in a short time kill them branch and root. 

I also find strong objections to close planting. Many believe that the 
trees are choked and starved, and they are forced up in an impaired condi- 
tion into the air, the lower branches dying out, and no fruit only on the ex- 
treme top. In one orchard that I visited the owner told me he got more 
apples from one tree standing far enough away to form a good top, and the 
roots had plenty of room, than from five of those that were close together, 
of the same variety. Some men told me that they candidly believed that if 
they had taken an axe when their trees were ten years old and cut out one 
half of them, they would have had more and better fruit and better or- 
chards to-day. 

I present these few facts, as I saw and heard them, to your consideration, 
without any theorizing on my part. But some of the facts have been a 
profitable lesson to me. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Branson: Some varieties bear better when close together. 
The rows should be from twenty- four to thirty-two feet apart, but I 
recommend that the trees should be from eight to sixteen feet in the 
row, accoading to habit of growing, whether straight or sprawling. 
The Ben Davis does well when grafted on limbs. 

Mr. Osborn: People usually prefer low trees so that they can be 
easily gathered. 

Mr. Griffith: Where does the sun scald injure trees the worst? 
Mr. Branson: On the body. 

Mr. Bruner: I have Ben Davis grafted in the tops twelve years 
ago, and they are beginning to die. This variety only lasts about 
fifteen years. 

" Decay of Orchards " was an interesting paper read, by W. B. 
^ re gg> West Liberty. 



DECAY OF ORCHARDS. 



BY W. B. GREGG, WEST LIBERTY. 

In presenting my views on this important subject, I do not expect all will 
agree with me, nevertheless I am of the opinion that there is a very er- 
roneous impression prevailing throughout the State in the minds of the peo 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



233 



pie in reference to it. Of course there are many causes that lead to the de- 
struction of fruit trees, but the prime cause which has devastated the 
orchards of the northwest occurred in the fall of 1879. It will be remem- 
bered by many that during the spring and summer months of that year it 
was extremely dry until about the middle of August, consequently our fruit 
trees made but very little growth. This was followed by heavy warm fall 
rains, lasting late into October, producing a very rapid and vigorous growth 
of wood, then by a sudden and severe change of temperature during the 
first week in November, the mercury dropping nearly to zero* caught the 
trees as full of sap life as it would have done had it occurred in Mayor 
June, consequently, all tender varieties were killed outright, and the more 
hardy ones being killed at the heart more or less in proportion to their hard- 
iness, which was only a question of time as to their total destruction also, 
as such trees die from the heart out; the proof of which you can find every 
year since in every orchard where trees are broken off with every gale, 
showing but a very thin sap life, the hardiest varieties lasting the longest; 
therefore this continued dying every year since, has led many to believe that 
each succeeding winter has also killed our trees; nursery stock was also 
killed at the heart, and all such stock that was sold and planted for two or 
three years thereafter, has been going the same way, therefore I think there 
is not near as much cause for discouragement as many suppose. Then let us 
follow the old maxim, try, try, again, as the like may not occur again in a 
hundred years. I would therefore advise all young and middle aged farmers 
to keep planting out trees, as I have great faith yet in Iowa as a fruit State. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Budd: 1 am inclined to believe that a tree is either hardy or 
not hardy. If we had several varieties, fall and winter, as hardy as 
the Duchess we would make a success of fruit culture. I believe top 
grafting pays well with a number of kinds, especially if put on a 
hardy stock. But I do not believe in top grafting the Ben Davis in 
most localities. Winter varieties on Duchess will ripen prematurely. 

Mr. Watrous: Formerly every orchard in the State of New York 
was top grafted, and I never heard of failure on account of ripening 
prematurely. It is a fact more and more apparent, that European 
trees which do well for a few years do not last long. They do not 
do well in their old age. There is danger in using stock to graft 
upon that has not been long tested in this country. I prefer using 
Iowa trees (not foreign) for stock on which to graft. 

" Influence of Stock on Scion " was ably handled by N. K. Fluke, 
Davenport. 



30 



234 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



INFLUENCE OF STOCK ON SCION. 



BY N. K. FLUKE. 



That the scion is influenced more or less in its natural characteristics by 
placing it on stocks of the same genus, or on those of the same natural 
order, is admitted, as instances the pear on quince, ash or thorn; the peach 
on plum, etc. The general tendency of these unions is to dwarf or check 
the growth and thus induce early fruitfulness, and in the nature of the case, 
short-lived trees. As there is no known law that we can follow in choosing 
varieties to work on each other, we can only find out by experiment that a 
variety may be useful to use as a stock for any certain purpose, as early 
fruitfulness or quality of fruit, as Duchess and Louise Bonne on the Quince, 
or soil adapted to stock; but not to that which we may wish to grow on it. 
The same may be said to a certain extent of using as scion and stock mem- 
bers of the same family. Even in that, sometimes there is discord. 

I have found by trial that some of these will not unite at all. In several 
trials of grafting the Early Richmond on our native wild cherry, all failed 
after pushing into leaf. In the language of an observing neighbor, " They 
wouldn't take the first swallow of sap, because the first sickened them, and 
they had to die." 

In this connection I would venture the assertion, if you will allow the 
digression, that I think we will never get new varieties by crossing or try- 
ing to cross our cultivated varieties of cherries with the native wild cherry, 
as spoken of by our friend Mr. Burton, in his paper on new cherries. If 
they are so much at variance that the woods will not unite with each other, 
I doubt the possibility of the pollen proving fertile. That the native plum, 
apple and grape will unite and can be crossed we know, but the other can 
only be known by repeated trials. 

The question is often asked, does the stock affect the scion in the time of 
ripening its fruit? It may, in some cases, and no doubt does with some 
stocks; but from the little experience I have had in top grafting and double 
working, I have not found any material difference. In my little experi- 
mental plum orchard, I grafted De Soto and Imperial Gage into the tops of 
Wild Goose, the fruit of which might be influenced by the stock, as it ripens 
very early; but I could see no difference with trees of the same varieties 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



235 



growing at their side. The Big Romanite, top- worked on Duchess and Vir- 
ginia crab, keep equally well, I think, as when grown on its own roots. 
Also, the same may be said of the Golden Russett as grown on the Virginia. 

A stock that is adapted to our peculiarly trying climate does make the 
scion of some of the tender varieties more hardy, I know by an experience 
of nearly twenty years. I believe it to be practicable and profitable to top- 
work many of our old tender varieties on suitable hardy stocks, which I am 
now doing for my own planting. 

We do not so often hear the query, "what is the influence of scion on 
stock? " While not so noticeable maybe as in the other case, still no doubt 
does exercise its influence maybe more than we think or can see. 

All nurserymen that have grown apple trees by what is known as root- 
grafting, which is the common practice, know that most varieties, if not all, 
does exercise an influence on the root on which it is placed, by growing a 
system of roots peculiarly their own. I believe, too, the scion may affect the 
stock to a limited extent where a part of the stock has been allowed to grow, 
or where two or more varieties are fruited on the same stock they may have 
an influence on each other. 

To get the opinion and experience of others, I will give an instance which 
has recently come under my observation. In the plum orchard just spoken 
of there is a De Soto tree, one half of which is grafted to Blue Damson; two 
years ago both parts bloomed equally full; very little fruit set on the Dam- 
son, but the De Soto grew and ripened a heavy crop, so that the limbs had 
to be supported; while a De Soto, in just as good condition and under as 
favorable circumstances, alongside, was equally full all over, but the fruit 
of which was only half as large. Now, on what principle did the first men- 
tioned tree grow and ripen its crop of fruit and what influence, if any, did 
the Damson part, or leaves, exercise on the growth of the fruit and seeds of 
the De Soto plums other than that by the pollen with which they may have 
been fertilized? 

In conclusion would say that with my past and present exerience, I would 
mot be deterred from planting trees grafted on suitable stocks on account of 
any difference in time of ripening or of quality of fruits 

DISCUSSION. 

i 

Mr. Budd: Cross fertilizing the plum is very necessary, more so, 
I think, than with other fruits. 

Mr. Brackett: This question of influence of stock on fruit has 
been discussed lately very much. But I have never been able to see 
any difference in ripening, on account of such influence. If, how- 
ever, some disease has attacked the tree, a difference is often per- 
ceived. 

The session closed with a paper on "Horticulture in Iowa, as it is 
and as it should be," by D. F. Bruner, Toledo. 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



HORTICULTURE IN IOWA, AS IT IS AND AS IT SHOULD BE. 



BY D. F. BRUNER. 



Mr. President and Horticulturists: 

When we travel over Iowa we find it a vast undulated prairie country in- 
terspersed with many natural groves, principally along the streams. We 
also find many artificial groves dotted over the State. We see long strings 
of willow fences along the roads and boundary lines of farms. Orchards 
are quite numerous in some parts of the State, and fruit trees often of too 
manv varieties. We find one- fourth to three-fourths of all the old orchard 
trees dead or in a dying condition. We find thousands of farms and homes 
with scarcely any or no orchards, and if they have any orchards or gardens 
at all, they are often the worst patches of weeds on the farm. The farm 
otherwise ornamented with the cattle sheds, cow yards and hog pens, nearly 
in front of the house, the wood pile and farming implements in the road in 
front of the house. The manure along the road going to waste while the 
hill sides are plowed and farmed year after year until white beans cannot 
grow for the want of manure, or rest to the soil. Poor hill sides should be 
seeded down to grass, or better yet planted with timber of the proper kind. 
Many of the farms of Iowa are cut off from view by an unsightly willow or 
unprofitable osage orange hedge used as a sort of a fence, wasting the crops 
from two to four rods, having the roots in the public roads which is a hin- 
drance of working the roads and keeping the roads shaded and consequently 
muddy much longer thafn otherwise. Our natural timber or groves are cut 
down and destroyed without regard of the looks and preservation of the 
timber for the future. Orchard trees, grape vines and even small fruit 
plants, we find eight times out of ten planted too close for beauty or profit. 
We find it the same with ornamental trees and shrubs. It is the same case 
in towns and villages of Iowa. In large cities trees and shrubs have a slim 
chance to make a thrifty appearance. Many of the orchards and fruit gar- 
dens are too much neglected on account of insufficient fences. Horses and 
cattle brows the orchards and tramp small fruit gardens to destruction. 
Pigs prove their willingness to work all winter in the strawberry patches 
free of charge. The farmer looks at the patch in the spring and comes to 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



23T 



the conclusion they have done their work so well that it is not worth while 
to do anything more with it, though wife and children with sorrow have to 
do without strawberries. However, we are pleased to say that the above is 
not always the case. On the other hand, as we- travel over our beautiful 
Iowa, we find many farms where the house and barn and other out-build- 
ings are beautifully arranged with taste and convenience. Where the 
orchard is thrifty and green, showing that the trees consist of hardy varie- 
ties and are well cared for. Where small fruit is planted at the proper dis- 
tance, and by appearance indicates clean culture. Where the strawberry 
patch is cultivated by the farmer instead of by the pigs, consequently 
brings big berries and many of them. You will find many places where 
beautiful lawns are in front of the houses often well fenced in with an 
evergreen hedge not more than four feet high, with a drive- way from the 
public road along said hedge past the house to the barn and out-houses, 
where the evergreen is planted along the road side, at a reasonable distance 
from the road and far enough apart from each other, so as not to obstruct 
the view of the farm and buildings or the crops and stock in the fields. 
Also, where beautiful groves are planted in nooks and corners of the farm, 
consisting of the most valuable timber of hardy varieties. Last but not 
least for beauty, where the flower beds are neatly arranged near the house, 
with a few well kept hardy shrubs and small trees back of the house. Such 
farms or similar ones we see dotted all over our State, which are the best 
object lessons for those who through carelessness or neglect have not im- 
proved their farms for beauty and utility, according to their means and 
ability. Such we see Iowa at the present time horticultural. And right 
here may we not ask, is not Iowa as far advanced, horticulturally, at pres- 
ent, as any of the older States were at the age of our young State? But on 
the other hand, is there not much to be done in the future by horticulturists 
and farmers to make our already beautiful State horticulturally what it 
should be? 

There should at least twenty acres of grove be planted on every 160 acres 
of naked prairie, consisting of a better variety than is usually planted, such 
as the Black walnut, hickory, Green and White ash, European larch, White 
and Scotch pines, and Norway spruce, all of which should be planted freely. 
There should be several hundred of Soft and Hard maple and Box elder, 
planted on every large farm to make sugar enough to do the family, which 
can bemade very cheaply in the spring of the year at a time when the farmer 
can do little else. 

Every farmer who has not got a good orchard already, should plant one, 
consisting of apple trees of our best proved hardy varieties, and take good 
care of them, which would, in a few years, supply every family with apples 
the year round, which would save to the State an untold sum of money, be- 
sides the pleasure and happiness it would produce. There should be, on 
every farm at least one to two acres devoted to small fruit and garden, which 
should be securely fenced against all stock, and should include all kinds of 
vegetables which can be raised with profit and for use by the family. 



238 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



There should be a nice yard or lawn around or in front of the house of ev- 
ery farm, which should be neatly kept with some nice flower beds, which 
should keep a succession of bloom the whole season. There should be for 
every farm a nice improved drive-way from the public road by the house to 
the barn, from thence to the pastures, meadows and other fields, which may 
be ornamented with rows of trees at suitable distances apart. There should 
be rows of ornamental trees along the public roads leading to town or city 
at proper distances apart, and kept pruned up far enough so as not to ob- 
struct views of buildings and farm, nor cause snow drifts to lodge in the 
roads. Evergreens and nut trees would be good trees for the purpose. 

There should be no more apple trees, small fruit trees or berry plants 
planted that are not proved to be hardy enough for the locality of the most 
severe winters, except only for experimental purposes. The same may be 
said of timber trees or shrubs and vines. 

There should be no orchard trees, timber trees, shrubs or vines planted 
unless the ground is thoroughly pulverized as deep as it can be done. Then 
it is an easy matter to plant and keep the ground in order, and the drought 
will have not much effect on trees thus planted. Every country school- 
house should have a lot of at least one-half to two acres, and ornamented 
with evergreens and other hardy trees, with a few flowering shrubs and a 
few flower beds along each side of the walks. 

Belts of evergreens around stock and feed yards, around cemetery and 
fair grounds for wind breaks and ornament, would help the appearance of 
the country. In fact the White pine, in particular, and many other hardy 
evergreen trees should be planted freely in nooks and corners along small 
streams on picnic grounds, and all other places where they would not largely 
interfere with farming and gardening. 

Thus we would modify our rigorous climate, beautify our landscape, and 
in the future save millions of dollars to the people of Iowa in lumber and 
timbers for building and mechanical purposes. 

We would then urge upon horticulturists and farmers with renewed efforts 
to continue planting hardy fruit trees, berry plants and vines, and at the 
same time beautify our State by planting freely the different evergreens 
and our native forest trees. 

We should teach our boys and girls how to plant trees and manage gar- 
dens, or in other words, theoretical, or yet better, practical horticulture in 
all its branches. We may then, with hope, look forward to future genera 
tions who will have better gardens, with improved vegetables, more and 
better orchards, and fruits with timber enough for all mechanical use, the 
climate modified, and our State horticulturally beautified as it should be. 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 239 



EVENING SESSION. 



The first thing on the programme Wednesday evening was a pa- 
per on " Grape Culture for Profit and Home Use," by W. O. Wil- 
lard, Grinnell. 



GRAPE CULTURE. 



BY W. O. WILLARD, GRINNELL. 



The value of the fruit of the vine and the ease with which it can be pro- 
duced are points in grape culture not generally well understood. No fruit 
is superior to the well ripened luscious grape. It is recommended as the 
healthiest of all our fruits. Its habit of growth enabling it to be trained to 
the trellis or the building, occupying but little space recommends it not 
only to those who have ample room for its culture, but especially to the poor 
man, with his cottage and small lot, and many who have not room for other 
fruits could grow an abundant supply of grapes. 

Grape culture on a large scale cannot be profitable except in the most 
favorable localities, but to supply the family and the home market for a 
part of the season at least, may by a judicious selection of location, varie- 
ties, and proper treatment, be grown with success in all parts of our State. 
There are certain requisites which must be considered or followed if we 
would realize the best results in grape culture. The most important are 
location, soil and its preparation, deep planting, cultivation, judicious train- 
ing and winter protection. 

An elevated location with a south or a southeastern slope, is considered 
the most desirable for the vineyard. It will also add to its value if pro- 
tected from the north and west winds by a shelter belt of evergreens or 
other trees. Grapes need a well drained warm soil, moderately rich, with 
hot dry weather to mature perfectly. 

/ 



240 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Prepare the ground by deep plowing or sub-soiling, pulverizing thoroughly 
to a good depth. The Concord and other strong growing varieties need 
plenty of room. Plant in rows eight feet apart, the vines eight to ten feet 
apart in the row. Mark out each way with a marker the distance you wish 
to plant. Open the row with a plow throwing the soil to each side until 
you have a trench or have loosened the soil as deep as you wish to plant. 

In our soil and climate deep planting, not less than fifteen inches, is con- 
sidered essential to success. 

In planting, incline the vine to the north, spread the roots out well, cov- 
ering with good surface soil well packed. The trenches may be filled 
gradually with the cultivator during the summer. The cultivation of the 
vineyard should be thorough during the summer, but not deep enough to 
disturb the roots. The surface of the soil should be kept loose and no 
weeds or grass be allowed to grow. 

The first few seasons or until the vine is well established, a small stake 
to each vine will be all the support necessary. After the vines come into 
bearing, which should be in the third or fourth season, they will need the 
trellis, which may be of two or more horizontal wires from four to five feet 
.in height. 

If we expect to grow grapes for profit, we must produce first class fruit, 
and 'this cannot be done without a judicious pruning and training of the 
vine from year to year. There are many different systems advanced by 
writers on this subject, which seem very attractive, but are very difficult to 
carry out in practice. There are some general principles however, which 
should be well understood, and are recognized in all systems of training. 

The amount of fruit should be regulated according to the capacity of the 
vine. If too much bearing wood is left the vine overbears and fails to ma- 
ture its fruit and is in a poor condition for the next season's crop. The vine 
should be trained so that there shall be as near as possible an equal distri- 
bution of sap to all its parts. Fall or dormant pruning should be done the 
last of October or in time to put the vines down for winter protection. 

The largest and finest fruit is produced on the strongest canes of last 
season's growth, these should be shortened to two or three eyes, and all 
weak canes removed. Summer pruning consists in removing all unneces- 
sary canes and suckers, and should be done just after the fruit sets in June. 
The object aimed at should be to concentrate the strength of the vine in the 
fruit and the canes designed for next season's crop. The vines should be 
trained so that there will be a free circulation of air under and around 
them. Winter protection if not always necessary to a crop in Central Iowa 
is always beneficial, and should be recommended for all vines. Laying 
down and covering the bearing wood will be sufficient for our hardy varie- 
ties; the more tender should be entirely covered. 

DISCUSSION. 



Mr. Willard: I would select as the five best varieties, Worden, 
Concord, Lady Pocklington, and Moore's Early. I think the Worden 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 241 



the best. I prefer one year old vines, if strong to set out. I trim to 
two or three eyes. The Brighton sometimes does not hold its leaves, 
but usually it does. 

Prof. Budd: I consider the telegraph is No. 3 on the list. 

A paper was then read by H. W. Lathrop, Iowa City, entitled, 
"Horticulture and Home Making." 



HORTICULTURE AND HOME MAKLNGr. 



BY H. W. LATHROP, IOWA CITY. 



" Home, home, sweet, sweet home, 
Be it ever so humble, 
There is no place like home." 

Whatever statesmen, educators, moralists, partisans, or sectarians, may 
claim as the foundation of our national prosperity, and our social and edu- 
cational advancement, the aggregation of our happy and well ordered homes 
underlies all their claims, and is the bed-rock on which rests all the valuable 
structures built by these statesmen, educators, moralists, partisans, and sec- 
tarians. 

In childhood, vigorous manhood, or senile old age, in prosperity or adver- 
sity, in sickness or in health, it is in the home we seek our most enjoyable 
comforts, and here we look for our most delightful pleasures. When absent 
from it for years, months, or but a day, it is that home which occupies our 
best thoughts, and it is to that we return with the most ardent joy. 

The four prime essentials of a horticultural home are: 

"A noble husband well skilled, 
A model wife well skilled, 
A commodious house well filled, 

And a fertile farm well tilled." ^ 

This husband should possess all the attributes that go to make up the best 
neighbors, and the best citizens; so educated, and with a mind so balanced 
as to be able, ready and willing to perform with intelligence and alacrity all 
the duties that may be devolved upon him by his family, his friends, or his 
fellow citizens. 

The wife should be the counterpart of the husband; both possessing all 
the knowledge necessary, the one to be a good farmer, nurseryman, or gar- 
dener; and the other well versed in all the duties pertaining to good house- 
keeping, and apt and ready in the performance of those duties. 
31 



242 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



/ 



The house may be a 41 love of a cottage " fitted for two, or a spacious man- 
sion that could accommodate a dozen with the necessary retinue of servants. 
Neither need be expensive, but both must be convenient, and built in good 
taste. The house is to the home what the shell is to the egg, the intrinsic 
value of both being the contents. 

One of the most valuable additions to the home, and to become a part of 
it, is a family of children, not equal in number to those who, the Hebrew 
tradition says, graced the household of Adam and Eve, (33 sons and 423 
daughters), but they should number from a third of a dozen to half a score; 
and that should be the happiest family in which they range in age from baby- 
hood, through childhood and youth, to junior manhood and womanhood, 
and where the friction of the domestic machinery is reduced to its minimum, 
by having that machinery well lubricated with conjugal love, filial affection, 
parental respect, and maternal confidence. 

The home should be the best school the children could attend, and the 
parents the best teachers that could be employed, and when either the boys 
or girls attain their majority, they should be in possession of all the prac- 
tical knowledge essential for them to have, possessed by the parents. 

The boy who is to become a horticulturist should not let his tenth year 
pass before he commences the study of botany, and he should not remit 
that study till he masters all of it that pertains to practical horticulture, 
and much of this can be gleaned from the horticultural publications of our 
own and sister States, this knowledge to be gained under the tutelage of 
one or both parents. He should acquire a knowledge of the geology of our 
soils, the constituents of these soils, and how best to treat them, as well as 
their adaptation to the various fruits raised upon them. He should know 
something of meteorology, entomology in its relation to fruit growing, veg- 
etable physiology, how plants grow, how they feed, etc. He should study 
the history of horticulture, and learn why many old sorts of fruit have been 
discarded, and how new ones have been originated, or whence introduced, 
and learn what progress has been made both in the science and art of horti- 
culture. As this is both a science and an art, he should practice the art as 
he studies the science, and object lessons should be given him by his par- 
ental instructor. 

If the young pupil in this domestic school could receive there such an ed- 
ucation as he needs, and such as it shouid be a pleasure for him to get, the 
desire to leave home for other pursuits would be suppressed till it became 
necessary for him to swarm forth from the old parental hive, and build a 
home for himself. In addition to this he should have a good general educa- 
tion from the best school within his reach. 

In our grandmothers' days the girls were to a great extent the sewing and 
knitting machines of the family, and those sewing and knitting machines 
were the most eligible candidates of the time for matrimony, but a young 
man of our time would as soon wed a gardener's wheelbarrow as a modern 
sewing or knitting machine. 

This relief from sewing and knitting in the old fashioned style, stitch by 
stitch, hour after hour, day after day, week after week, has given our moth- 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 243 



ors, wives, sisters and daughters more time for study, and there is no reason 
why that time cannot be devoted to nearly the same study by the girls as 
engrosses the attention of the boys. The flower garden is their especial 
province, and in that they would find opportunities for the application of 
much of the knowledge thus obtained. 

The northwest is a different school from that in which many of us were 
taught, and it is a different workshop from that in which we labored in our 
younger days; new theories are being presented for study, and new prob- 
lems for solution, and those who do their studying in this home school, and 
labor in this home workshop of the northwest, will be best fitted to perform 
as horticulturists, life's duties in that workshop. 

" The Duchess of Oldenburg " was the subject of a paper by C. L. 
Watrous, of Des Moines. 



THE DUCHESS OF OLDENBURG APPLE. 



BY C. L. WATROUS. 



What is the land of its birth place? 

To many men this will seem an impertinent question, prompted by an 
excess of heretical doubts concerning a subject iong ago settled. Downing, 
and after pomologists, attributed the Oldenburg to Russia, and have been 
followed, without question, by the general public. Moreover, certain late 
explorers of that country, while not exactly claiming to have found the 
Oldenburg there, have still spoken confidently of having found " the home 
of the Duchess " in a certain Russian province. 

The people of Iowa have lately invested a very great many thousands of 
dollars in new and high-priced Russians recommended by those offering 
them as being as hardy as the Duchess, and a certain number of weeks 
earlier or later, or, recommended as being a certain per cent hardier than 
the Duchess, and therefore more valnable than that Russian. Thevwhole 
propaganda of the new ^Joctrine of Russianism has been in fact so inti- 
mately interwoven with and so based upon the high reputation of the Olden- 
burg as a hardy and valuable Russian, that it would suffer serious damage 
if deprived of that support. 

It has been strenuously urged that in a great country like Russia there 




might be reasonably expected other apples as valuable as this one, which has 
undoubtedly come from there. This was reasonable, provided that only the 
Duchess, in fact, had come from that country, and it almost seems sinful 
to doubt where so much depends on faith. Yet it is more than doubtful 



244 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



whether the apple we know and prize as the Duchess of Oldenburg is a 
native of Russia, or was ever cultivated there, outside of the government 
experiment stations. If it originated there and was adapted to that coun- 
try, it is reasonable to suppose that it may still be found, at least, in the 
region of its origin. It is also reasonable to hope for better results in this 
country from apples originated in the same region or a neighboring one, 
rather than from those originated in a region widely differing in soil and 
climate. This latter consideration led to the inquiries upon which the 
present paper is based. The writer has received most of the sorts imported 
by the United States Department of Agriculture about 1870, also those im- 
ported by the Iowa State Horticultural Society some years later by its then 
secretary. The Oldenburg not appearing among either of these two exten- 
sive importations, further search was made. 

Having learned from President Berckmaur of the American Pomological 
Society that his father had tested some five hundred varieties of apples 
from the south region of Russia. I applied to him for assistance. In his 
reply he used these words: " I could throw no light upon the origin of the 
Duchess of Oldenburg." 

A similar letter of anxious inquiry to Mr. P. Barry of Rochester, New 
York, whose firm has imported and tested Russian apples many times and 
from many sources, brough the following reply: " I am not aware of the 
Duchess of Oldenburg having been received among importations from Rus- 
sia. Several of the Russian varieties fruited by us bear considerable 
resemblance to Oldenburg, and are evidently related. The Borovitsky has, 
I believe, everywhere proved to be Oldenburg. Downing found it so. The 
colored portrait of Borovitsky in Lindley's British Fruits in 1841, is Olden- 
burg. Borovitsky was received by the London Horticultural Society in 
1824, from the public gardens of St. Petersburg, Russia. The Oldenburg is 
valuable almost everywhere. The fact that the apple was received from 
the botanical gardens in St. Petersburg is not any evidence of nativity in 
that country, but rather that it was a stranger on trial there." 

In an interview in the fruit hall at a meeting of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society at Boston in 1887, Mr. Charles Gibb, of Canada, who has twice 
explored extensively in Russia and is moreover the recognized American 
authority on Russian nomenclature said: 

"We found at Kazan the Duchess if it was the Duchess of so fine and so 
wild a quality that no one could be sure of its identity." He has in his 
published reports expressly disclaimed having located our Duchess of 
Oldenburg in Russia, and in private letters to mys*elf and others has lately 
said he could throw no further light on the subject. Neither Mr. Tuttle, of 
Wisconsin, nor Mr. Weltz, of Ohio, who has lately explored in Russia un- 
der the auspices of the Department of Agriculture, nor yet any other out 
of the many who have imported scions from Russia have ever, so far as I 
am aware, found or claimed to find the Oldenburg among their treasures. 
The whole evidence upon which to base a claim that the Oldenburg is a 
Russian, rests in so far as I have been able to discover, upon two facts: 
Firstly, that the London Horticultural Society received it under the name 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 245 



Borovitsky from the government botanical gardens at St. Petersburg, and 
secondly, that later explorers have found other apples bearing a strong 
family resemblance to it in different parts of Russia. 

But these two facts are in themselves no evidence whatever to sustain 
the claim of Russian nativity for the Oldenburg, and in the face of a total 
lack of positive proof that the Oldenburg now exists, or ever did exist in 
Russia outside of the government experimental gardens, they have consid- 
erable weight as negative evidence. 

The name Oldenburg points strongly to the little North German Grand 
Duchy of that name as the most probable place of its origin. An intelli- 
gent gardener in this State has lately stated to the writer that near the 
boundry of the province of Oldenburg, he knew an apple, called Schlotte 
by the peasants, which was colored like the Oldenburg, tasted like it, was 
sour, coarse in flesh and a good cooker like it, and finally was much like it 
in season and in growth of trees. All this may be profitably considered in 
making up a judgment. President Berckmans says that of the five hun- 
dred Russian sorts received by his father, the most of them had names of 
German origin. In his opinion they were largely seedlings raised by Ger- 
man immigrants to Russia from seeds of apples from their former German 
homes. Any list of American importations of apples from Russia betrays 
the same birth marks and leads to the same conclusion. The Oldenburg 
apple possesses a most wonderful constitutional power of adapting itself to 
widely differing circumstances it is almost a cosmopolitan. Its value to us 
is beyond estimation. But I see no reason for basing any prophecies con- 
cerning the future behavior or prospective value of any natives of Russia 
upon its well known reputation. 

The constant use of the good reputation of this fruit, coupled with the 
confident assumption of its undoubted Russian origin has cost and is still 
costing the citizens of this State very dearly by inducing them to try hosts 
of unknown Russians in the hope of finding some of them as valuable here 
as the Oldenburg. If there exists anywhere any proof that the Oldenburg 
is a genuine Russian the believers in the brilliant future of that race of 
fruits in America will doubtless bring it forward, since nothing less than 
positive and undisputed evidence can now settle this question in their 
favor. If this paper shall bring out the evidence, its object will have been 
fully accomplished. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Budd: I have seen the original tree Duchess of Oldenburg, 
or rather, a scion taken from that tree. Its home is on the Volga, 
and we found three hundred varieties of Duchess. 

Mr. Watrous: Mr. Gibbs said " we did not see the Duchess in 
Russia, but we found many trees and apples similar to it, but not the 
same." 



246 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Mr. Patten: The first thing that led me to question the generally 
received opinion that this apple was a Russian was the fact that seed- 
lings from this apple differed so much from each other, as much even 
as do the seedlings of any of our American apples. The Russian 
apple having grown for a long time in the same locality, usually 
nearly reproduce themselves in their seedlings. I do not consider 
the Yellow Transparent more than half as hardy as the Duchess. As 
a rule the apples which have come from Russia are not very success- 
ful in this country. It is claimed that the Duchess came from Rus- 
sia, and as it is extremely hardy, therefore we might reasonably ex- 
pect to find other hardy varieties from the same country. But it is 
my belief that this apple did not originate in Russia, and so with me 
this argument wholly fails. 



THURSDAY MORNING SESSION. 



The session opened with a paper, " What Trees to Plant," by C. 
G. Patten, Charles City. 



WHAT TREES SHALL WE PLANT? 



BY C. Gt. PATTEN. 



So long as a majority of even professional horticulturists do not answer 
this question by practical examples, so long it will be necessary to talk 
about and try to answer the question, " What trees shall we plant?" 

Mr. Plumb, of Wisconsin, has written a stood deal upon the subject of 
" local adaptation." He has regarded it, as it truly is, a subject of great 
importance. If planters could but realize the necessity of fully considering 
the subject of local adaptation before planting, the question of " what to 
plant" could be answered by themselves and at but little expense, so far as 
the older varieties are concerned. 

When we consider the fact that but few of our cultivated fruits have a 
wider range of successful culture, the importance of local surroundings be* 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



comes apparent. If one is about to plant an orchard it is not enough that 
he knows that his soil is similar to that upon which stands the successful 
trees of his neighbors, if his neighbor's orchard is upon considerably higher 
land than where he proposee to plant. For an altitude of twenty to thirty 
feet greater than his may decide the failure or success of his planting, un- 
less he discovers that the varieties successfully grown upon the hill are also 
a success on the same general lens upon which he proposes to plant. In a 
climate like ours, where hardiness is of the first importance, every other 
point of vantage should be carefully considered. 

The answer, then, to the question of " What trees shall we plant?" can 
be best answered by the planter if he will take the time to learn of the suc- 
cessful varieties that are grown immediately around him. Soil and eleva- 
tions have much to do with the success or failure of trees and plants. 

Mr. Haviland, at Fort Dodge, reports almost entire freedom from blight, 
both with Russian and American varieties, while Mr. Ferris, at Hampton, 
has suffered severely with blight, especially with his Russian sorts. Mr. 
Haviland's location is partially hilly, with a firm, though perfectly drained 
subsoil, while Mr. Ferris' soil is comparatively level prairie, rich in humus, 
and with a fairly retentive subsoil. At no other place in the west have I 
seen such remarkably thrifty and vigorous Tetof sky trees as on the elevated 
red clay hills of the Baraboo region in Wisconsin. Indeed, such varieties as 
St. Lawrence, Talman Sweet, Plumb's Cider, Early Joe and American 
Golden Russet were, in 1886, standing on those hills in perfect health, at 28 
years from planting, the three first named showing no signs of decay where 
arge limbs had been removed from them two or three years previous. In 
no other localities so far north, and away from the influence of the great 
lakes, are apple orchards doing so well. I call attention to these instances 
to impress the importance of determining by local observation the varieties 
that are best adapted to any given locality. But as our work in this country 
is as yet largely experimental, we should still further plant such varieties as 
local and State horticultural societies advise, as well as those recommended 
by reliable fruit-growers and nurserymen. 

Departing from the text of the paper, permit me to add that it is the duty 
of every citizen, in whatever calling, to contribute, so far as he is able, to 
the general welfare and happiness of his fellows, and the horticulturist 
cannot be excepted. It therefore becomes his duty, in the extremities of 
horticulture, so far as he is able, to plant the choicest seeds of his best 
fruits, that the coming generation may have an abundance of better fruit 
than it has been his fortune to enjoy. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Brackett: As localities differ in soil and climate each must in 
a great measure determine for himself what trees to plant. Those 
trees suitable for one district may not be successful in another. In 
the southern part of our State I would not plant a Russian, but in- 
stead would take some of our own older varieties. 



248 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



"Propagation and Culture of Raspberries," was the subject as- 
signed to L. W. Clemens, Scott county. 



PROPAGATION AND CULTURE OF RASPBERRIES. 



BY Li. W. CLEMONS, OF SCOTT COUNTY. 



My method is, after procuring good healthy plants of the Black-Caps, to 
transplant as early in the spring as the soil will admit of working, on land 
prepared the previous season. If it be sod land, it should be well rotted. 
Harrow thoroughly, then mark off the rows with a corn-marker about four 
feet wide, then set every alternate row three feet apart in the row. 

Cultivate the first season with a five- shoveled or double- shoveled plow, 
and keep clean with hoe, and just before the tips touch the ground, stir the 
land, leaving it as rough as possible, so the tips will easily catch hold. 

A good method is the first year to plant the centers with sweet corn to 
prevent the canes from swaying and wearing off the tips; it is also well to 
leave the corn stalks standing all winter for protection, then during the 
winter procure some small posts, three and a half feet long, sawed square 
at one end, three inches in diameter, sharpen the smaller end, and drive in 
in the spring, sixteen feet apart in the row to the depth of one foot, leaving 
the post two and a half feet high, then string wires on the tops of the posts 
and fasten with stables, then tie the canes to the wires and clip off the use- 
less ends, and when the new canes reach the wire clip off the tips at a uni- 
form height of two and a half feet. 

It is best to leave the wire (as the cost is but little) for protection to keep 
the wind from tipping the rows over. 

I would prefer a north incline for part of the field so as to hold a part of 
the crop to supply the late market. 

I am not in favor of the second clipping in summer. In harvesting the 
fruit, as soon as each picker gets two to four quarts, they should be put in 
the shade in cases to prevent discoloring the fruit; then store in a cool 
place during the night, with the cases half filled to prevent moulding the 
fruit. 

RED RASPBERRIES. 

Tyo grow the " Turner," " Cuthbert," or M Malboro," it is not necessary to 
plant the rows more than six feet apart and two and a half feet in the row. 
The " Turner " and " Cuthbert " should be cut back when the young plants 
attain the height of two feet. The " Marlboro " is of moderate growth and 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



249 



need not be cut till spring. Shaffer's " Colossal " and " Philadelphia " may 
be treated the same as Black- Caps. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Cobban: Which way should the rows run? 

Mr. Willard: I think it makes no difference, but I get more fruit 
from the north side than from the south. I never found it necessary 
to give the raspberry any support. 

Mr. Clemons: During the first year the canes sprawl over the 
ground, and in every wind the fruit gets covered with dirt. I there- 
fore give them support the first year. It does not cost much and I 
think more than pays. 

Mr. Branson: It may be necessary to tie up the canes the first year 
but not afterward. 

Mr. Root: I plant heavily of Marlboroughs. This year I sold 
over 500 quarts from one acre. I shall plant ten acres of this variety 
in the spring. 

Mr. Clemons: I have the best luck with rows running north and 
south. If east and west the sun burns up the berries on the south. 

Mr. Brapkett: My plan is to bend down the canes with the wires, 
often taking out the staples and then I oover up the tops. I wire my 
Cuthberts entirely. 

Mr. Willard: The Marlborough is as hardy as the Turner and fully 
as productive. The Hanson is also hardy. 

Mr. Branson: I think our lowest land properly drained is the best 
for growing raspberries. 

A paper on "Propagating and Growing Evergreens" was then 
read by D. A. Porterfield, Traer. 



32 



250 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PROPAGATION AND GROWING OF EVERGREENS. 



BY D. A. PORTERFIELD. 



God in his goodness has given us a great variety of trees for our comfort, 
but what has he given us that is of more use than the beautiful evergreens, 
and he has adapted them to every clime, from the sunny south, where it 
never freezes, to the wilds of Dakota, where the mercury falls from 50° 
above to 50° below zero in one night. The question is often asked, could 
we do without the evergreen? and our answer is, no. Now, if this be true, 
we should consider the propagation and care of the same, and as this sub- 
ject has been given us by your Secretary we will commence at the beginning, 
that is, the seed. In the first place, by all means secure good seed. We 
have planted without soaking, and have also soaked from one to twenty- 
four hours, and have seen no difference in the growth. In fact we have 
never failed to have evergreen seed grow. We make beds by using eight- 
inch boards, making the beds four feet wide and eight inches deep. We 
make the ground very rich, and put in about four inches of clean white 
sand, then sow seed, and cover by throwing sand over with the hand, cov- 
ering about one inch deep, and pack well. Shade with lath put close to- 
gether. If dry, we water about once a week, by sprinkling heavily over top 
of lath. Wet them good, as one good wetting is worth fifty poor ones. They 
should be watched very carefully, and when necessary take oil cover for a 
day or two, but never in het weather, or in a heavy rain storm. 

Some years the whole crop will damp off and be lost. Never leave them 
more than a week without looking over. It takes experience to grow ever- 
greens successfully from seed. Take off cover for two or three weeks at a 
time during the following summer. The next spring transplant, mulch 
heavily and shade lightly. The next spring take off all shade, and the spring 
following they are four years old, and need transplanting into open ground. 
We do not cultivate evergreens, but mulch heavily with leaves, etc. We 
root-prune carefully every time we transplant into deeply plowed and well 
mellowed ground, and in rows, at first transplanting eighteen to twenty 
inches apart, and four to six inches in row. At second transplanting, rows 
two to two and one-half feet apart, and six to ten inches in row. Third 
transplanting, rows three feet apart and twelve to fourteen inches in row. 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 251 



We then have trees ready for market, and trees six years old grown in this 
way are as hardy as oak, and as easily transplanted as maples. But above 
all things do not let careless men handle or transplant evergreens, as a 
good man is better worth $3.00 per day than a poor one is worth fifty cents. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Burton: I think one secret in transplanting is to pack the 
dirt very hard around the roots by tramping as heavily as possible 
about the tree. 

Mr. Bruner: The trees should be set out immediately after they 
are dug up. I have difficulty in growing Red cedar from seed. 

Edward Hoyt: The Scotch pine is one of the most rapid growers 
and one of the best for shelter planting in the west. It is a round, 
broad- topped tree best planted alternate with Norway spruce or 
White pine to make a good bottom. The White pine is the best of 
all our native pines for general planting. It does not grow as fast as 
the Scotch pine for eight or ten years. They are about the same 
height in eight years, then it grows from six to eight inches a year 
faster than the Scotch pine. It is the most ornamental, and the best 
large growing evergreen to plant near the house, or along the road 
to trim up for a shade tree. The White pine has a thiner top than 
the other pines. It is the best general purpose evergreen for the 
northwest half of Iowa, if not for the whole State; the most orna- 
mental of all our native pines. The Norway spruce is the fastest 
grower of all the spruces, and one of the best evergreens for a single 
row wind break planted four to six feet apart. The American Arbor 
Vitae is one of the best for low screens and ornamental hedges. It 
bears the shears so well that it can easily be kept to the height of 
three feet. The American White spruce is the best for the door-yard 
and on the edge of groves. It is a nicer tree for small places than 
the Norway spruce. As it grows slower it will make a screen hedge 
and not require so much clipping. It is more hardy. The foliage is 
a silver grey color. It may always be known by its peculiar smell. 
But the Colorado spruce has the same smell. 

Mr. Patten: I consider the Austrian pine worthless in northern 
Iowa as an ornamental tree, but the Red pine is good in nearly every 
respect. 

Prof. Budd: I think the White spruce the most valuable ever- 
green tree we have, but the Red pine the finest for ornamental pur- 
poses. You can grow it from the seed as easily as you can lettuce. 



252 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Williams: The Black spruce does not appear to be at home 
here. 

Mrs. Dr. Dennis read the "star" paper before the Eastern Iowa 
Horticultural Society on 



FLOWERS IN EDUCATION AND ON THE SCHOOL GROUNDS. 



BY MRS. DR. DENNIS. 

Object lessons of nature learned in early childhood are never forgotten, 
and sooner or later bear good fruits and open the way to many delightful 
and lasting pleasures. We believe that every child loves flowers, plants, 
and should be taught concerning them. The small experience gained in 
kindergartens, that have a garden is sufficient to prove how children love 
the work and how they carry the love of it away. Mrs. Horace Mann 
speaks in one of her books, of a little boy, whose parents had a magnificent 
garden, who asked his teacher, when visiting the family, to go with him to 
his garden. He took no notice of the splendid flowers that dazzled her eyes 
as she followed him. At last they came to the spot. The object of interest 
to the little boy was a potato vine, on which a few blossoms appeared. His 
eyes glistened with pleasure as he exclaimed with delight, "See! are they 
not beautiful?" The teacher had advised the children who had home gar- 
dens, to plant each a potato and care for it. Some wise person has said if 
you wish to cultivate observation and keep your children in paths of virtue 
and refinement, give them the care of flowers, plants or fruit trees. 

Froebel was the father of the kindergarten, that great and beloved apos- 
tle of childhood, who founded a system of education which is destined to 
revolutionize all former methods of teaching little children. His battle cry 
was, "come, let us live for our children." In a letter to the teachers of 
Boston, Joseph Payne said: Froebel was influenced by nature. As years 
went on when nothing was done for his education bv others, he found 
opportunities for satisfying some of the longings of his soul by wandering 
in the woods, gathering flowers, listening to the birds or the wind swaying 
the forest trees, while he was laying up in his mind the various impressions 
there produced as a store for his usefulness in future years. He was in fact 
left to educate himself through nature. His first teaching consisted in liv- 
ing among his flowers and in his garden— a piece of field which he and his 
pupils cultivated in common; beautifnl plants and shrubs were planted and 
cared for in this little garden. Froebel asserted in after years that when a 
child freely seeks flowers, cherishes and cares for them in order to wind 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



them in a bouquet or wreath as a present to parents or teacher, cannot be 
a bad child or become a bad man. 

Many of the children attending our public schools come from cheerless 
homes, devoid of everything calculated to appeal to their sesthetic nature. 
The culture of flowers in our schools would be instructive, educational, 
pleasant and moral in its effects. They impart a cheerful aspect to the vari- 
ous rooms, and we believe the intercourse with those beautiful silent teach- 
ers of nature has its influence in character building. Children brought up 
amid such influence will be less rude, can be trusted among plants and on 
public grounds, and their culture will do much toward subdueing vandalism. 
It used to be thought necessary to put a high fence around all public squares 
and private flower grounds. We hope the time is not far distant when all 
high fences can be removed. This brings us to school grounds which are 
not keeping pace with school architecture. The school grounds should be 
the chief center of attraction in every neighborhood and form our practical 
education in everyday life. Money is often spent in surrounding the school 
lot with an inappropriate, ungainly fence, and the outside decoration is con- 
sidered complete. Nothing gives us a stronger impression of desolation 
than to enter one of these. A few dollars expended in planting trees, 
flowers and shrubs about it would exert something more than an aesthetic 
and civilizing influence upon a body of school children. No school lot is so 
small that a place cannot be found for such improvements. The smallest 
lot in the community can be made to contribute knowledge and love for 
plants and a charming field of labor for the pupils. 

I cannot pass this subject without a few words on trees, for which you 
will pardon if you think me to blame. Prof. Sargeant, editor of Garden and 
Forest, in an editorial, says: "The people of our country are singularly 
ignorant about our trees, their real character, the mode and manner of 
growth; and even their names. If our cities and villages are ever properly 
adorned with well selected trees, well planted and well protected, this will 
be brought about through an appreciation of trees born of seed planted in 
our public schools, and if there is ever in the United States a stable, suc- 
cessful and popular system of forest control and forest management appli- 
cable alike to the forest of the State and to the humble wood lot of the 
smallest farmer, it will rest upon a basis of knowledge of trees and their 
importance to the community commenced in the primary schools." 

Prof. Erasmus Schwab, director of the military college at Vienna, in his 
work on " School Garden," (translated by Mrs. Horace Mann,) says: " The 
public school must impart in the children the love of trees and make clear 
to them what a part of the woods fulfill in the household of nature, and of 
what importance they are to man. It must awaken in them the conviction 
hat bad wood husbandry is the ruin of agriculture." 

Dr. Schwab favors school gardens, and says the school garden needs 
to-day in every county only some advocate of intellect and organizing talent 
to be before the end of this century participated in by the commonwealth. No 
one can read nis book without feeling convinced of the utility of his plan 
both for instruction and pleasure. Children love to study the different 



254 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



forms of foliage about them. They take delight in noting the characteristic 
form of the maple, hickory, oak, pine, etc. The time is past when it is 
thought a husbandman can carry on his work with no other aid than raw 
experience; he must have a knowledge of natural history and general 
amount of culture. 

No intelligent person would make an agricultural school out of the public 
school or deprive it of its peculiar character; but children should be taught 
and become acquainted with the plant world. For common and practical 
purposes it will help destroy superstition in the people, through educating 
the sense of observation; help to banish improvidence, cultivate love of 
nature and confidence in her teaching, and children will learn to protect 
our trees. 

The future is before us, and contains for the willing, working horticul- 
turist possibilities undreamed of. With such teachers as Professors Budd, 
Welch, Knapp, Bailey, and others, who are willing, ready and able to teach 
their loved profession by taking their scholars in the field and illustrating 
their work, may we not make rapid progress in this profession in the next 
ten years? Shall we not expect much, the coming generation, of horticul- 
turists? Let us labor and work to seek and impart information, agitate 
new truths, progressing and growing stronger feeling every day more and 
more, and with Bossmussler, " That nature is our home, and to be a stranger 
in it brings unhappiness and disgrace to us and our children." 

On motion, Mrs. Dennis was elected an honorary member of the 
Society. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Budd: The visitor in Europe will find the trees around pub- 
lie places labeled with the botanical and common names. We might 
do something toward teaching horticulture in schools by adopting 
this practice. 

Mr. Watrous: It is a great surprise that there is so much ignorance 
in this country on the subject of horticulture. But if our teachers in 
the public schools were like the one that has read this paper we womld 
not be so far behind the Europeans in our knowledge of plants. 

Mr. Watts: I have known men so foolish as to plant Slippery elm 
trees on school grounds, and the children soon stripped them and laid 
it to the horses. 

Mrs. Dennis: I would plant other elm trees and keep on planting 
elm trees so long as they were stripped, and take the spoiled ones for 
object lesson teaching, imparting and impressing on the minds of 
those children a respect, care and love for trees they never realized 
before. There are trees more suitable than the elm for school 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. £55 



grounds. In regards to lying: A child who would tell such a lie is 
to be pitied; his life, early teachings and circumstances have depraved 
him. The more children are taught to study nature, the nearer they 
will be to God, and if brought up under such influence will not be so 
depraved. 

Mr. Watts: I don't wish to be understood as opposed to tree 
planting, but I think we should select better trees than the Slippery 
elm. 

Mr. Holmes: I must express my gratification with the paper just 
read. I believe if the methods she has recommended were carried out 
in our public schools, the next generation would be much improved 
in the right direction. 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 



"Something that Fruit Growers Should Do," was a theme ably 
presented by Prof. L. R. Witherell, Davenport: 



SOMETHING THAT FRUIT GROWERS SHOULD DO. 



BY PROF. L. R. WITHERELL. 



Those people who, misled by unphilosophical whims or stupid ignorance 
-delude themselves that this world of ours is nearly at its journey's end, and 
that thought, progression and invention have reached their zenith in this, 
the nineteenth century, or that class of Minimists who eternally croak 
about the " insignificant grain of sand " that we inhabit and call our world, 
should become students of nature for a few years and they would readily 
learn that our world nas not run its race, and that it is not " so small a 
world as some would like to make it." They would learn that it has yet 
about fifteen millioDS of years to revolve before it shall reach its best stage 
of inhabitability. They would learn that it will yet support in comfort and 
happiness a thousand intellectual creatures, for every man, woman and 



256 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



child now inhabiting the globe. They would learn that for every acre of 
good, tillable soil of to-day a hundred will be added that are yet to be re- 
claimed from mountain range, from desert, from marsh and lake and ocean, 
until our world will more nearly resemble the model little planet Mars, as 
seen by the monster telescope of to-day. 

What will the teeming millions of the future do, and on what will they 
subsist? are questions that we must assist in solving as our good old ances- 
tral, toiling forefathers assisted us in the developments of the early ages, 
the history of which is hidden by the misty vail that hangs between the 
present and the past. 

When we consider that so little of the world is yet occupied; when we 
consider that there are comparatively so few people at the present; when we 
consider ^hat one family in one hundred in favored Iowa are properly sup- 
plied with fruit, and perhaps not one family in one thousand the world over, 
receive and use even a moderate supply; when we consider that of the mil- 
lions of plants now on the earth, only a few thousands have ever been ap- 
plied to any use, and perhaps not one in a hundred that might be developed 
into luscious fruit has yet been so developed, we can just begin to grapple 
with one subject, " something that fruit growers should do." 

Oh! you may explain, you are planning too much work; you over- task me, 
" you make me tired." I will answer, did Stephenson make anybody tired 
by starting his locomotive engine? Yet, behold the countless thousands of 
workers developed by this gigantic industry. You can help start something 
useful as well as Stephenson. 

If we are true horticulturists we can receive our pay as we go along, by 
the pleasure and profit of our calling. But you may ask how are we to de- 
velop the unused plants into fruits or produce? Simply by observing every 
berry or plant you may see in an undeveloped state, study its peculiarities* 
and utilize it, if possible ; and if one fruit grower in one thousand shall dis- 
cover and utilize one plant in his life time, we shall double our fruit pro- 
ducts in the next two hundred years. 

Then, again, you may ask, will we not overstock the market? Not a bit 
of danger. The wants of the human family are increasing, and are not yet 
supplied. We must educate people to raise and use more fruit. Let me 
illustrate. A farmer in one obscure township in Illinois began to raise 
strawberries. At first he had no market, but the farmers soon learned to 
buy and put up the fruit; the small towns began to patronize him, and to- 
day that vicinity raises and uses one hundred times as much fruit as for- 
merly. It is the universal experience of all fruit growers, that the demand 
keeps pace with the supply. 

We must do something to develop more fruit growers especially interested 
* in small fruits. Of course, each farmer will once or twice in his life time 
put out an orchard of trees; but how many will persevere for over fifty years 
like an honored member, Mr. Enoch Mead, of Davenport, Iowa. 

Here are some of the thoughts and sayings brought out by a country can- 
vass in introducing small fruits. 



EASTERN IOWA. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 257 



One lady, whose husband was a potato grower, said : •* Oh, how I do long 
for plenty of fruit. We have potatoes, potatoes, potatoes, until I am sick 
and tired of them. I have cooked potatoes in every conceivable way for 
variety, but they are potatoes still; we have eaten them boiled, baked and 
fried, and in potato soup, and even potato pie." Why can't we have fruit 
like other folks ? Poor woman! What a dearth of comforts! Cannot such 
families be reached by heaven's best food blessing— plenty of fruit? 

One German farmer said: " I got not any time to bodder mit de fruit." 

Plenty of farmers showed me orchards and fruit patches that were de- 
stroyed by hogs and cattle, or grown in miserable jungles. 

Not one farmer in twenty has the patience and grit to keep a fruit garden 
in order. They seem to be too busy trying to raise more corn to fat more 
hogs to sell for cash to buy more land to raise more corn to fat more hogs 
to sell for cash to buy more land, and so on, ad infinitum. 

The fruit industry can be made a greater and more important industry 
than the bread industry, the meat industry, the dairy industry, or any other 
industry built on the food demand, and yet we are poorly organized. No 
workers in the field, no cheap literature, no protection from the rapacity of 
the common carriers, no established prices and no effort to protect our- 
selves like other producers. Our goods are perishable, and we can take 
what dealers combine and decide to give us or let our crops rot. We should 
be prepared to can, preserve or evaporate every pound of fruit that cannot 
be sold at a fair profit, for some hungry family is longing for and anxious 
to pay for every pound of fruit if we can only reach them. 

Our fruit trees are too frail, too tender, too short-lived. We must get 
down to the cause and remedy the defect. I have a piece of the oldest ap- 
ple tree of America, the pioneer of them all. It was set out in a tub, and 
came over in the Mayflower. It was transplanted in the town of York, in 
Maine, and bore fruit continuously for two hundred and forty- four years. 
I have seen an old orchard of ten acres, near Quincy, 111., in which every 
tree was perfect and bearing, and they had a trunk diameter of from two 
to two and a half feet. I have seen many apple orchards in the East simi- 
lar to the above. Apple trees in Europe and Asia have been known to bear 
fruit for hundreds of years. What is the matter with our soil and climate? 
Can we overcome the defect? Can we ever protect our trees from the my- 
cilium of decay? 

We must eliminate the thorns from our blackberries and black raspber- 
ries, as we have from the red raspberries. The thorns are not needed. 
They are relics of the past, like the horns on our cattle and sheep. Let us 
unite in dethorning our fruit plants. It can be done. It will be done. It 
must be done. 

We must think as well as preach, and, above all, must " practice what we 
preach," or give up the preaching. Theories and theorists are no good un- 
less backed by practical results. I want every fruit-grower to work out a 
new thought in regard to fruit-growing, once a year, and demonstrate it by 
fact, and in a few years fruit-growing will be a more reliable and profitable 
business. 
33 



258 



STATE HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The fruit-growers of Iowa, Dakota and Minnesota cannot hope to suc- 
ceed in raising tropical fruits, but they can all raise a gradually increasing 
variety of fruits adapted to the soil and climate of each locality, and there 
is not a doubt that even bleak Alaska may yet find many varieties of fruit 
adapted to her short, hot summers. 

This paper is prepared with the hope that it will stimulate our growers to 
engage in more original and aggressive work in their chosen industries, to 
the end that the world may be made better by the life work of each indi- 
vidual fruit-grower of America. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Budd: A ten-year old child can do the work of dehorning as 
well as a grown-up man. To hydridize, carefully take the stamens 
off and put over the flower a paper saok, occasionally taking it off to 
shake over the flower the pollen from the other side of the cross. 

Mr. Patten: I believe it is entirely practical for any one to hy- 
dridize our fruit and make any improvement toward a desired stand- 
ard. 

Mr. Barton: If the author of this paper should develop into use- 
ful plants the Canada thistle and hundreds of other noxious weeds, 
he would be a benefactor to our own race, and many portions of our 
country would be made valuable whioh are now worse than deserts. 

Mr. Holmes: In regard to utilizing the Canada thistle. I remem- 
ber that the tomato, as early as 1820, was of small size, and often 
kept on the mantel as a novelty and called by the name of Love Ap- 
ple. I believe the Canada thistle might be made into paper. 

On motion, Mr. A. Branson was appointed a delegate to the North- 
ern Society, which meets at Nora Springs the 19th and 20th of this 
month. 

The committee on awards made their report, which was accepted: 

There were 47 entries of apples and crabs, and we have allowed premiums 
as follows: 

Best collection of fruit grown in any one county, awarded to C. 



P. Osborn, Linn county $ 5.00 

Second best, to A. Branson, Cedar county 2.00 

Best collection grown by exhibitor, A. Branson 8.00 

Second best, A. G. Williams 3.00 

Best collection seedlings grown by exhibitor, L. W. demons 5.00 

Second best, I. £. Schooly 2 00 

Best plate seedlings grown by exhibitor, A. Branson 2.00 

Best display of crabs, A. Branson 1.00 

Best plate Roman Stems, A. G. Williams .50 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



259 



Best plate Willow Twigs, S. Maddock $ .50 

Best plate Ben Davis, S. Maddock ,50 

Best plate Black Annette, L. G. Heald .50 

Best plate Pewaukee, A. G. Williams .50 

Best plate Grimes' Golden, A. Branson .50 

Best plate Wealthy, A. Branson .50 

Best plate Snow, A. Branson .50 

Best plate Utter's Red, A. Branson .50 

Best plate Talman Sweet, A. Branson .50 



G. B. Brackett, 

C. H. Griffith, 

D. F. Bruner, 

Committee. 

On motion, resolved that the Board of Directors appoint a Super- 
intendent to take charge of the fruit, flowers and vegetables exhib- 
ited at our meetings. 

The committee on nominations reported the following, which was 
adopted: 

President— A.. G. Williams, of Chester Center. 
Vice-President— A. Branson, of West Branch. 
Secretary— C. W. Burton, of Cedar Rapids. 
Treasurer— H. Strohm, of Iowa City. 

Directors— W. O. Willard, of Grinnell; L. W. demons, of Davenport; Geo. 
Bomgardner, of Cedar Rapids; D. A. Porterfield, of Traer; W. B. Gregg, 
of West Liberty. 

Mr. Bomgardner brought a grape vine to be pruned, as an object 
lesson, before the Society, and |Prof. Budd, Professor of Horticul- 
ture in the Iowa Agricultural College, was requested to wield the 
shears, which he did with a grace born of experience. The running 
conversational discussion which ensued, by Messrs. Budd, Burton, 
Patten, Fluke, Holmes and Bomgardner, rendered the exercise very 
instructive. 

The committee on place of meeting reported in favor of West 
Branch. 



260 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



EVENING SESSION. 



A paper on Relative Profit of Fruit Growing in Iowa and Califor- 
nia, was read by Prof. J. L. Budd. 



FRUIT GROWING IN IOWA AND CALIFORNIA. 



BY PROF. J. L. BUDD. 



Mr, President and Members: 

Your Secretary requests me to give a few notes on the relative profits of 
eommercial fruit growing in Iowa and on the Pacific coast. To many such 
a comparison may seem like the height of folly, but the careful investiga- 
tor will find that the fruit grower of moderate means on the Pacific slope 
has serious drawbacks which are not noted in the posters of land specula- 
tors. The story in detail would far exceed the present limits, so I will give 
very briefly some of the reasons why the ordinary grower of small fruits 
and orchard fruits for market on the west slope does not realize the profits 
which land dealers parade in connection with large operators who not only 
grow fruits, but handle for shipment the products of the smaller growers, 
followed by brief outline of the possible profits of methodic fruit growing 
for market, by the grower of moderate means on fairly favorable soil, in 
Central Iowa. Among the drawbacks of the common fruit grower in Cali- 
fornia the following attract the attention of all horticultural tourists: 

Distance from market— The markets within reach of steamers on the 
Pacific coasts of the east and west continents are wholly unreliable, and 
shipment eastward over the great mountain ranges to the far distant cities 
of the Atlantic slope must ever remain very expensive and risky. At this 
time the lowest rates obtainable by large shippers is I think from $250 to 
$300 per car. 

Fruit packers— The existing combinations for packing, canning, convert- 
ing into wine, and shipping, are such that the ordinary producer is com- 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



pelled to accept the price offered by the companies, or wealthy ranch 
owners. 

Water rates.— The land of the great valley between the coast range and the 
Sierra Nevada range is desert like and wholly unproductive, as a rule, with- 
out a full and regular supply of water for irrigation, and every drop of the 
precious fluid is under the control of souless corporations, or the few for- 
tunate early settlers or their heirs. The small fruit grower or orchardist of 
moderate means must pay the price asked for the water measured out to 
him, and he is not always able to get the needed supply at the time needed 
for saving his crop in the perfect manner required for distant transporta- 
tion. 

Unmarketable fruit.— While a large list of temperate zone and sub- tropical 
fruits may be grown for home use at almost any point in the valleys and 
foot hills where water is obtainable from the Mexican line north to Mount 
Shasta, the commercial grower must select his altitude and soil to produce 
the grade of fruit needed for distant shipment or for use in the canneries, 
dryers, and wineries. As instances: oranges can be grown over great areas 
of the great state of California, but tourists will unite in the statement 
that oranges profitable for shipment are only grown at a few points with 
special soil, elevation, and exposure to the dry winds of the interior deserts. 
They will also unite in saying that the price of lands at these favored points 
is beyond the reach of the class of growers we have in mind in writing these 
lines. While it is true that sections yet untried may be found as well 
adapted to orange growing as Eiverside, or the Bed Lands, the trial by par- 
ties with limited means will be as risky as a lottery scheme. 

Grape growing for profit seems also confined to favored sections already 
well occupied. The section in the hot desert like plain near Fresno seems 
well adapted to the perfect growth of the raisin grapes, and the great heat, 
and dewless nights, are favorable for curing the market. Indeed the clim- 
ate is specially favorable for growing and curing the grape over large areas 
of the Lulare valley, but the volcanic wash left by the mountain streams 
has been occupied by favored first settlers, and trial has shown that the 
surface of land destitute of the mountain wash will not approach the state- 
ments of land dealers in any kind of crop production. As to wine grapes, 
'tens of thousands of acres are profitless or have been grubbed up, on ac- 
count of unsuitable soil, a bad selection of varieties, or the lack of a 
possible market with prices above the cost of growing. As a rule the 
wineries grow a large portion of the grapes needed, and the deficit is made 
up by purchase at some price of the best specimens of the best varieties 
within reach. 

Tourists will also agree in the statement that tens of thousands of acres 
of the peaches, apricots, prunes, etc., of the smaller growers annually go to 
waste. The great companies and large proprietors with vested water rights 
fill the packing houses, refrigerators, and canneries, during the brief har- 
vesting season, and the smaller growers are left to care ,,for their crop as 
they can. 



262 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



A land of beautiful homes and mammoth enterprise; leaving out other 
serious drawbacks to profitable fruit growing by the new comers with mod- 
erate means I will add that the statement made several years ago by Beu j. 
F. Taylor that California is " a land of beautiful homes and mammoth en- 
terprise" is more apparent now than then. 

The home seeker with an assured income, can select in the great and 
varied state any climate he may wish, and soon may surround his home with 
a variety of trees and fruits that will give it an Eden like aspect. Truly it 
is a land of beautiful homes and as the years go on the number of the af- 
fluent home makers will increase. 

In like manner the mammoth enterprises in city building, water depart- 
ment, industrial development, and money making organizations and trusts 
will continue to increase in number and magnitude. But that the state will 
change for the better for the fruit growers with small or moderate capital I 
do not believe. 

FRUIT GROWING IN IOWA. 

The would be commercial fruit growers in east central Iowa can buy 16fr 
acres of good rich upland prairie with some improvements, near to a rail- 
way station, for less than the selling price of five acres of so called orange 
land near to Riverside or Red lands in south California. I will suppose the 
purchaser to have some knowledge as to the selection of soil for the differ- 
ent fruits, and their culture and marketing, and that he has capital enough 
to gradually plant and care for one hundred acres of his tract in fruits, and 
feed the balance in the best shape for growing provender for teams and 
cows for home use, for vegetable garden, etc. With some skill in propaga- 
tion we will suppose he plants in the course of five years five acres in straw- 
berries, five acres in raspberries, ten acres in blackberries, ten acres in 
grapes, ten acres in cherries, ten acres in plums, ten acres in pears, forty 
acres in apples. 

With the best obtainable varieties, systematic culture and management, 
and some skill in boxing and preparing for market, we all must admit he 
would find a ready market along the line of his railway and its connections 
at good prices for his strawberries, blackberries and grapes. With ten 
acres of grapes it would richly pay to provide dry, cold storage and hold a 
part of the crop for quick sales and high prices, after the grape season was 
over. 

If confined to the older list of varieties the planting of ten acres of cher- 
ries might seem risky, but some of the new varieties from east Europe 
have fruited heavily in the State during the past two years on ground where 
trees, young and old, of the Early and Late Richmond and English Morello 
have been killed by the recent test seasons, and the quality of the fruit is 
far superior for any use to the old sorts. That good cherries will find ready 
sale in any western market I need not say. 

As to plums, the ten acres would pay large dividends, if planted with our 
native varieties, such as De Soto, Wolf, Wyant and Maquoketa, but I have 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



reason to believe it would pay still better if planted in part with such east 
Europe sorts as Early Red, Black Prune, Moldavka and Hungarian. 

The planting of ten acres of pears would appear to be premature and 
risky. But, if confined to the eastern Europe varieties which have fruited 
in our State during the recent severe seasons and which have never shown 
a trace of discolored wood or blight, when planted on high, dry soil, it would 
be far more likely to prove profitable than a pear orchard of like extent in 
most parts of South California. We might not grow as many bushels within 
a given time from a given area, but we would realize far more from what 
we did grow. With my present knowledge as to the hardiness of trees, and 
the quality of fruit of such varieties as Bessemianka, Gakousky, Touka- 
vetka, Autumn, Bergamot, Kurskaya and other sorts, I would not hesitate 
in setting ten or twenty acres of them for profit on suitable soils and with 
suitable exposure. 

Forty acres of apple orchard may also appear in these days to be a trifle 
risky, but with proper selection of varieties and the methodic packing for 
market of the summer and fall varieties, there can be no question as to the 
profits, if we are confined to the few sorts that we are sure of as to the 
hardiness of the tree and productiveness of summer and autumn sorts. We 
will suppose planted 500 trees of the Blushed Calville, 200 Breskovka, 10O 
Beautiful Aread, 250 Duchess, 250 Anisette, 250 Wealthy, 250 Longfield, 250 
Good Peasant, 250 Varonesh Rosy. All of these varieties are as hardy as 
Duchess, except Longfield and Wealthy, and all of them are early and con- 
tinuous bearers of handsome and good fruit, coming in early succession 
from the season of the Yellow Transparent to Christmas. 

Up to the season of the Wealthy, the fruit of the first 1,300 trees could 
be very profitably shipped in half-bushel crates to the line of customers 
mainly who were using the small fruits. Those who have not tried it have 
little conception of the large, handsome and good summer apples that can 
be readily sold at a profit when put up in regular succession in neat crates 
that show the coloring of the fruit between the laths. 

The planting of 750 trees of varieties earlier than early harvest is sug- 
gested, as at that season our markets are bare, except some green, shriveled 
specimens from the south. 

From the season of the Wealthy, to that of the Varonesh Rosy in Jan- 
uary, the fruit can be profitably shipped in clean, new barrels, kept in cool 
storage until shipped to fall orders. 

WINTER VARIETIES. 

As we have had as yet only specimens of the hardy winter varieties se- 
lected in 1882 in the corn, tomato and melon portions of eastern Europe, I 
will not include them in this estimate, but assume that the planter in east 
central Iowa finishes the 40 acre planting with such hardy stocks as Hiber- 
nal, Recumbent, Silken Leaf and Shreve. 

The next spring top-work with Willow, Roman Stem, Black Annette and 
Scotts Winter intermingled, with a view to perfect fertilization of blossoms. 



264 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The use of Whitney's No 20 and Duchess stocks is not advised, as we have 
much evidence favoring the idea that winter sorts on them ripen prema- 
turely. I will only add that if root grafted trees of such ironclad sorts as 
Golden Remette, Winter Stripe, Sklanka of Bogdanoif, Bogdanofd and 
Royal Table are planted it will not prove more experimental than has apple 
growing in the sheltered valleys of south California, so far as profits are 
concerned. 

The question box was opened and responses made as follows: 

"How Green House Men Amass their Wealth?" 

I. N. Cramer: The impression is that florists are all growing rich. 
But the immense expenses are not known to the public. Sold straw- 
berries at 25 cents a quart, and I was told that they tasted of silver. 
Taxes, too, are high, and keep piling up, and yet some florists do grow 
rich, but their wealth comes from increase in value of real estate. 

" Fruit Thieves — How to Exterminate Them?" was answered by 
Geo. Bomgardner. A shotgun was one remedy. He counseled feed- 
ing the birds that steal fruit. 

" The Cherry Market— Will the market be supplied?" Prof. Budd 
thought it would. 

"Common or Botanical Names?" 

C. W. Burton. He was much in favor of the common Anglo- 
Saxon names. 

" Whatsoever a man sows that shall he also reap." 

C. G. Patten. It is a saying that if a man sows the wind he will 
reap the whirlwind. The florist, working in harmony with nature's 
laws, is able to produce something better and do good to ourselves 
and our neighbors. 

" Can satisfactory results be reached by root grafting the cherry, 
plum and pear?" 

Prof. Budd: Last year 95 per cent, of our grafts grew. Don't let 
the graft bud start in the graft cellars. Keep them dormant. 
" Gathering grapes from thorns." 

C. L. Watrous: Holy Writ says it can't be done. He might tell 
who are to make up President Harrison's cabinet. We can read that 
in any paper. It will take waiting and work to get grapes from 
thorns. He expects to get the best plums from our wild stock, and 
so on through with other fruits. 

"What are the defects in horticulture?" 

Wm. H. Holmes: He did not feel competent to fully answer the 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



question, and it was, withal, an ungracious task to call men's atten- 
tion to their defects. 

" Ought Iowa horticulturists grow grapes for wine?" 

Rev. John Hood. He would answer in the negative. Nothing 
could be more commendable than your work of horticulture. "Am I 
my brother's keeper?" We are our brother's keeper, and I know you 
would not place a stumbling block in the way of any brother. My 
father used to make wine, and we indulged in the use of it, and its 
use grew upon me. The Savior did not make intoxicating wine. It 
was harmless grape juice. 

" Cut and dried impromptu speeches — how best prepared for mar- 
ket?" Johnson Brigham. 

His observations this evening did not suggest any lack of ability 
on the part of the speakers to cut and dry their speeches. His friend, 
Dr. McClelland, used to be given to carefully prepared impromptu 
speeches, and it is said that the reason he moved to his out-of-town 
home was that he might escape from the intrusion of boys while re- 
hearsing his impromptu efforts in the back yard. The doctor isn't as 
particular now. After declaring himself never more surprised in his 
life when called on to speak, he now coolly pulls out his manuscript 
and reads his speech. The speaker related several instances illus- 
trating the over careful cutting and drying of impromptu speeches. 

"What I know about fruit packing," Dr. F. McClelland, of Cedar 
Rapids: 



WHAT I KNOW ABOUT FRUIT PACKING. 

BY DR. F. MCCLELLAND, CEDAR RAPIDS. 

Mr. Chairman, and gentlemen of the Eastern Iowa Horticultural Society: 

I do not claim my speech to be impromptu. It was carefully prepared, 
and Bro. Brigham will find no flies on it. 

The question, " What I Know About Fruit Packing," strikes me as being 
somewhat ambiguous, as it does not clearly define what kind of fruit pack- 
ing is meant. 

If it means packing fruit into the commissary aparatus I am at home 
on the subject, as I have had a wide and varied experience in this kind of 

34 



266 



STATE HORTICULTURAL. SOCIETY. 



packing, especially in my earlier days, as I don't believe any urchin in the 
State of Pennsylvania could pack away more peaches, pears, apples, cher- 
ries, blackberries, strawberries, watermelons, muskmelons, and all kinds 
of fruit, wild or tame, ripe or unripe, good, bad or indifferent, rotten, raw 
or cooked, than I could, especially if I had to secure it surreptitiously, that 
is, when the man with the shot-gun was not around, and the bulldog was 
napping. And in those days quantity was more of an object to me than 
quality. But since my masticators have become few and far between, and 
my taste has become more exacting, and my digestion somewhat out of tune , 
I prefer quality to quantity, something I don't often get, except on the top 
layers, when I purchase my fruit in the market, and even with my limited 
demand for fruit I find my purchases must be large if I secure a sufficient 
quantity of the quality I desire from the top layers of the package. 

But if the question calls for light on fruit packing for the market I am 
compelled to say that to me it is a dark subject, and my experience in un- 
packing leads me to say that for ways that are dark and tricks that are vain 
commend to me the average fruit packer of modern times. So, you see, all I 
know about packing fruit I have learned by unpacking it, and my knowl- 
edge of the industry has been gained by knocking the heads out of barrels 
of apples and removing the top layers from baskets and crates of small fruit. 
And I must confess that the light thus thrown upon fruit packing but sorely 
reveals any pleasant or satisfactory realizations as to the quality of the 
whole. 

And what I have learned in this way has forced me to the conclusion that 
fruit packing is a snare and a delusion, and that the individual who pur- 
chases a barrel of apples or a basket of peaches or strawberries expecting to 
find the quality throughout to correspond with that of the top layers will 
find himself as badly fooled by the time he gets half way to the bottom as 
did the confident politician who bet on Grover Cleveland's election this fall. 

I may be harsh in my criticisms, a little off in my conclusion, and a trifle 
cranky in my notions about fruit packing, but I feel, in replying to this 
question, as I do when I get down to the heart of a barrel of apples like 
saying that, compared with the prevailing methods of packing fruit the oleo- 
margarine fraud and bull butter delusion, the chickory and pea coffee sell, 
the doctered flour snare, and the glucose swindle, are legitimate callings. I 
make this bold, and perhaps you will think brazen assertion, because in the 
swindles named the delusions are not realized, nor the cheat suspected, nor 
can it be often determined without a chemical analysis, and the consumer* 
while thus in ignorance, is just as well satisfied as if he were using the gen- 
uine article, and if the poor defrauded stomach does not rebel, and can stand 
the racket the balance of the corporeal structure is not likely to complain. 

But in the fruit-packing fraud the natives are not long in finding it out. 
The removal of the upper layers reveals to him a state of things, a quality 
he had not bargained for, and it requires a very vivid imagination for the 
average purchaser to make himself believe that he has gotten even a shadow 
of what he purchased, and the most humble and devoted adherent to ortho- 
dox doctrine and teachings finds himself repeating in suppressed but fer- 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 267 



vent tones the maledictions of the ungodly by the time he gets half way to 
the middle of a barrel of apples, or has removed the top layers of a basket 
of small fruit. 

Ignorance is bliss as regards the frauds in eatable articles, but ignorance, 
and per consequence, bliss, is impossible to the purchasers of fruit packed 
by modern methods. 

But, gentlemen, it is unnecessary for me to dilate further upon this sub- 
ject. You all know how it is yourself, as most of you have had more expe- 
rience in packing fruit than I have had in unpacking it, so I will conclude 
with the hope that we may all live to see the day when each package of 
fruit in market will be branded and sold for just what it is— good, bad or 
indifferent; sound, solid, ripe and large, of superior quality throughout, or 
small, green, gnarly, specked or rotten. I see no good reason why the inno- 
cent oleomargarine should be barred as an article of food, and its sale pro- 
hibited unless marked just what it is, while the colic and cramp-producing 
and doctor-bill-creating unripe and unwholesome fruit is permitted to get 
its work in without let or hindrance. 

On motion, the following were made honorary members: Messrs. 
J. L. Budd, Ames; C. G. Patten, Charles City; C. L. Watrous, Des 
Moines, and G. B. Brackett, Denmark. 

On motion, the Board of Directors was authorized to change the 
time of meeting if they considered it advisable. 

The committee on resolutions reported as follows, which were 
unanimously adopted: 

In closing this very pleasant and profitable annual meeting we desire to 
place on record some expression of our appreciation of the kindly welcome 
and the many courtesies received from the citizens of Cedar Rapids. There- 
fore, be it 

Bmlved, That our sincere thanks are due to his honor, Mayor Mullaly, 
for his kind words of welcome to the city, and for the very enjoyable ride 
through its streets, through his courtesy. To the O'flara Bros, and their 
representative, M. P. Mills, for the free use of the pleasant and comforta- 
ble hall in which our meetings have been held. To H. G. Higley, Esq., for 
plants used in decorating the hall, and particularly for his generous enter- 
tainment of our Society at his pleasant home, whereby the inner man was 
comforted and our hearts cheered. To the proprietors of the Grand, Clif- 
ton, Globe and Empire hotels for reduced rates to our members, and to the 
Daily Republican and Evening Gazette for printing the proceedings of 
these meetings. 



268 STATE HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



TREASURERS REPORT. 



H. Strohm in account with Eastern Iowa Horticultural Society: 
1888. DEBIT. 

December 5. To cash on hand $ 63.78 

To membership fees 4.00 

October 15. To appropriation from State Society 100.00 

To membership fees at Cedar Rapids meeting 48.00 

Total % 215.78 

1888. CREDIT. 

December 6. By salary paid Secretary $ 50.00 

By postal cards, programmes and postage 11.40 

By cleaning hall 1.00 

By premiums on fruit . . . . 33.00 

By fruit entry cards .25 

By expenses of A. Branson to Northern Society 8.50 

By balancejmhand 111.63 

□ t -ZT-fciaai 

Total $ 225.78 



EASTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 269 



NAMES OF MEMBERS. 



D. Patterson Belle Plaine. 

L. W. demons Pleasant Valley. 

James Dyer Pleasant Valley. 

D. F. Bruner Toledo. 

Charles Root Hopkinton. 

John Meader Delaware. 

William Ure Fairfax . 

C. P. Osborn Fairfax. 

S. F. Parker , .Bertram. 

fl. Strohm Iowa City. 

A. Cooper Coal Creek. 

W. H. Holmes Davenport. 

N. K. Fluke Davenport. 

Prof. J. L. Budd Ames. 

A. G. Williams .Chester Center. 

C. L. Watrous Des Moines. 

A. Branson West Branch. 

Geo. Bomgardner Cedar Rapids. 

T. J. Smith Cedar Rapids. 

Wencil Haugh Cedar Rapids. 

P. W. Reeder Cedar Rapids. 

P. Mullally Cedar Rapids. 

S. H. Shoemacher Cedar Rapids. 

C. H. Robinson Cedar Rapids. 

W. J. Bowers Cedar Rapids. 

F. Lucas Cedar Rapids. 

F. McClelland Cedar Rapids. 

H. G. Higley Cedar Rapids. 

C. W. Burton Cedar Rapids. 

M. J. Shaw Springvllie. 

B. D. Coppack * Springville. 

Eli Hodgins Springville. 

S. G. Gritman Springville. 

D. A. Porterfield Traer. 

H. Royce. Shellsburg. 



270 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



A. J. Budd Shellsburg. 

Thos. D. Strand .• Norway. 

W. O. Willard Grinnell. 

j. E. Schooley Center Dale. 

J. N. Kramer & Son Marion. 

J. H. Bishop Marion. 

C. H. Griffith Eagle Grove. 

G. B. Brackett Denmark. 

Lewis Young Benan, Grundy county. 

J. Carl Sturt i . Solon 

Jacob Kimm Watkins. 

Dr. A. B. Dennis Western. 

Mrs. L. Y. Dennis Western. 

Edward Hoyt. Scotch Grove, Jones county 

John Lanning Lafayette, Linn county. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

LIST OF OFFICERS. 



PRESIDENT. • 

S. W. Wilson Atlantic. 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 

W. K. Follett Malvern. 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

George Van Houten .Lenox. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

L. O. Williams Council Bluffs. 



DIRECTORS. 

Taylor county-— H. Cade. Lenox. 

"Union county— Henry Jones Afton. 

Montgomery county— T. E. Ellett Red Oak. 

Mills county— A. C. Sabin Glen wood. 

Pottawattamie county— Alex Wood Council Bluffs. 

Cass county— Silas Wilson Atlantic. 

Harrison county— M. Pugsley Woodbine. 

Guthrie county— Richard Hopkins Bear Grove. 

Shelby county— W. M. Bomberger .. Harlan. 

Sac county— El wood Tatum Wall Lake. 

Page county— S. E. Field .Shenandoah. 

Adams county— Joseph Beath Corning. 

Fremont county— G W. Perkins Farragut. 

Dallas county— John Wragg Waukee. 

Madison county— W. H. Lewis Winterset. 

Adair county— L. M. Kilburn Fontanelle. 

Ringgold county— D. N. Smith Lenox. 

Monona county— Christian Steinman Mapleton. 

Lucas county— S. L. Morrison Chariton. 



272 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



F. G. Waterman Villisca. 

Jacob Smith Brooks. 

George Van Houten Lenox. 

L. M. Kilburn Fontanelle. 

S. N. Phelps Woodstock, Minn. 

Christian Steinman Mapleton. 

S. L. Morrison Chariton. 

L. Fancolly Atlantic . 

Thos. A. Davis , Glenwood. 

W. A. Bomberger Harlan. 

Alex. Wood Council Bluffs. 

L. A. Casper Council Bluffs. 

H. A. Terry Crescent City. 

S. H. Redmon Villisca. 

A. S. Bonham Council Bluffs. 

L. A. Williams Glenwood. 

S. W. Wilson Atlantic. 

Prof. J. L. Budd Ames. 

R. W. Carson Minden. 

B. Harcourt Carson. 

Alex. Osier Carson. 

L. O. Williams Council Bluffs. 

Silas Wilson Atlantic . 

J. B. Black Harlan. 

J. W. White Harlan, 

Franklin Clarke Living Springs. 

D. N. Smith Lenox. 

John Wragg Waukee. 

Thos. Astrop Malvern. 

N. P. Dodge Council Bluffs. 

Thos. Bonham Malvern. 

E* D. Hammond Norfolk, Neb. 

J. W. Murphy Glenwood. 

W. K. Follett Malvern. 

F. W. Taylor Omaha, Neb. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



273 



E. F. Stevens Crete, Neb. 

R. D. Hammond Malvern. 

C. L. Watrous Des Moines. 

A. F. Collman Corning. 

F. H. Bruning Kent. 

Col. W. F. Sapp . . Council Bluffs. 

E. Bradford Glenwood. 

T. P. Moon. Glenwood. 

A. C. Sabin Glenwood. 

J. W. Templeton Council Bluffs. 

J. P. Hess Council Bluffs. 

John Barbour Pacific City. 

R. C. Menerary Crescent City. 

N. M. Pusey Council Bluffs. 

Ed. Ervine Avoca. 

J. F. Record " Glenwood . 

John Y. Stone Glenwood . 

B. A. Bonham : Council Bluffs. 

L. Prouty Council Bluffs. 

O. J. Smith Council Bluffs. 

T. P. Treynor Council Bluffs. 

G. A. Holmes. . . . Council Bluffs. 

H. A. Johns Sioux City. 

D. S. Lake Shenandoah . 

J. H. Wallace , Creston. 

James Rainbow Council Bluffs. 

A. B. Mair Council Bluffs. 

D. J. Carpenter Fairbury, Neb. 

Wm. H. Kuhn Council Bluffs. 

Horace Everett Council Bluffs. 

F. W. Menerary Crescent City. 

M. E. Myers Council Bluffs. 

H. W.Marshall . 

L. P. Trowbridge Iveyville. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Mrs. J. L. Budd Ames. 

Mrs. L. O. Williams Council Bluffs. 

Mrs. T. P. Moon Glenwood. 

Mrs. J. P. Hess Council Bluffs. 



35 



274 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 



c It is hoped that each member will make notes, during the season, so as to 
be[ able to make a full report at next meeting. Except Local Committee, 
each member will act separately and report on each topic assigned. 

LOCAL COMMITTEE. 

L. A. Williams, Glenwood. 
J. W. Murphy, Glenwood. 
A. C. Sabin, Glenwood. 
S. C. Osborn, Glenwood. 

E. Bradford, Glenwood. 

HOME GARDEN. 

S. W. Wilson, Atlantic. 

FLOWER GARDEN. 

L. A. Casper, Council Bluffs. 

RUSSIAN APPLES. 

Christian Steinman, Mapleton. 
W. C. Haviland, Fort Dodge. 

SMALL FRUITS. 

H. A. Terry, Crescent City. 

ORNAMENTALS. 

A. S. Bonham, Council Bluffs. 

NATIVE PLUMS. 

F. W. Meneray, Crescent City. 

THEORETICAL HORTICULTURE. 

L. O. Williams, Council Bluffs. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



275 



WHAT WE HA YE LEARNED NEW IN HORTICULTURE. 

X. A. Williams, Glen wood. 
H. A. Terry, Crescent City. 

FORESTRY. 

B. Harcourt, Carson. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

L. M. Killburn, Fontanelle. 

TREES FOR THE HOME. 

S. A. Beach, Atlantic. 

BEAUTIFYING THE HOME. 

Silas Wilson, Atlantic. 

HORTICULTURE IN HOME-MAKING. 

George Van Houten, Lenox. 

GRAPES. 

A. C. Sabin, Glen wood. 

HORTICULTURE AS A BUSINESS. 

W. K. Follett, Malvern. 

WHAT WE HAVE LEARNED NEW IN THE NURSERY. 

F. W. Taylor, Omaha, Neb. 

EXPERIMENTAL HORTICULTURE. 

Christian Steinman, Mapleton. 

SEEDLING APPLES. 

J. H. Masters, Nebraska City, Neb. 

HORTICULTURE FOR THE HOME. 

G. W. Perkins, Farragut. 

MARKETING FRUITS. 

A. B. Mair, Council Bluffs. 



276 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY* 

ORCHARD MANAGEMENT. 

John Wragg, Waukee. 

EVERGREENS. 

J. B. Black, Harlan. 

F. H. Bruning, Kent. 

WIND-BREAKS. 

George Van Houten, Lenox. 

IS FRUIT AND POULTRY FARMING A GOOD COMBINE? 

G. W. Franklin, Atlantic. 

(SUBJECT TO BE CHOSEN.) 

D. J. Carpenter, Fairbury, Neb. 

IOWA AND NEBRASKA HORTICULTURE COMPARED. 

E. D. Hammond, Norfolk, Neb. 

HOW FAR IS WINTER PROTECTION PRACTICABLE AND PROFITABLE. 

Ira M. Needles, Atlantic. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL SESSION. 



HELD AT COUNCIL BLUFFS, DECEMBER 11, 12 AND 13, 1888, IN COUNTY 

COURT-HOUSE. 



Session opened Tuesday, December 11th, at 10 a. m., S. W. Wilson, 
President; George Van Houten, Secretary. 

Session opened with prayer by L. A. Williams. 

L. A. Casper invited the members of the Western Iowa Horticul- 
tural Society to dine with him Thursday. 

On motion the invitation was accepted. 

Renewal of membership declared to be in order. 

Announcements as to hotel arrangements were made. 

On motion the Society adjourned until two o'clock, p. m. 



AFTERNOON SESSION— FIRST DAY. 



IMet pursuant to adjournment. 

The President introduced Hon. M. F. Rohrer, mayor of Council 
Bluffs, who welcomed the Society in words substantially as follows: 



278 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 



Mr. President and members of the Western Horticultural Society, Ladies and 
Gentlemen: 

It is with feelings of no ordinary pleasure that I, personally, but more 
particularly, in behalf of the city and citizens of Council Bluffs, welcome 
you, the members of the Western Iowa Horticultural Society, and others to 
this city. 

It is always a pleasure to welcome all strangers, to call their attention to 
the attractive features of this locality, but this pleasure is enhanced when 
these strangers compose so valuable an association as the one now in ses- 
sion, and devoted to the consideration of horticulture in its various branches, 
so intimately connected with the vital interests of all communities; for, 
primarily, the wealth of a nation springs from horticulture, in its vegetables * 
fruits and flowers, in connection with the different cereals. 

While it has been the privilege of our city to welcome conventions of va- 
rious kinds, such as political, medical, educational and others, all of which 
had before them for consideration, questions of special importance, yet their 
subjects were in a measure of temporary benefit, so that the incoming of 
a few years would render them of no practical value, to give way to higher 
and more momentous principles relating to the same subject; but your sub- 
jects simplified down to the consideration of those productions of nature r 
which spring from the ground, not only possesses a present but a future in- 
terest, to be continued as long as each yields her increase for the happiness 
and sustenance of man. 

Your mission, as I understand it, is to consider and decide upon the best 
methods by which the productions of earth can be made to reach their high- 
est development. 

Doubtless there are some here who saw this land in its primitive condition, 
and as nature made it, the undulating prairie. 

Stretching afar to the setting sun, decorated with the simple but beauti- 
ful prairie flower, the deer and buffalo, the only food for man: with only 
here and there a clump of scraggy bushes to relieve the eye; but how changed; 
now upon its surface the waving of the tall oak, and the prolific garden sa- 
lute the eye. 

The simple prairie flower was the only buttonhole bouquet in these early 
days, this little article now so indispensible in the drawing room, and for 



WESTERN IOWA HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



which your speaker confesses a weakness, possessing, as it does, a charm in 
itself, reflecting the thorough cultivation which flowers now receive. 

It may here be remarked that we have, in our city and adjoining, several 
eminent horticulturists who, in the department of flowers and vines, as well 
as in other branches vie successfully with horticulturists of eastern States 
in the perfection to which they have brought the various kinds. 

More important than the flower department, and of greater practical value 
to the citizen, is that which relates to trees, vegetables and. fruits. 

Less than eighteen years ago nearly all fruits were brought from Michi- 
gan, Illinois and Missouri. Having come from a fruit country I immedi- 
ately enquired the reason why, and the casual reply was that fruit would 
not grow here. Allow me, then, gentlemen of this Association, to return 
you the thanks of a grateful people for your noble efforts by which you have 
demonstrated that the soil and climate of western Iowa will produce as rich 
and finely flavored fruit as any other section of the world. 

Keferring back to the same date, the variety of vegetables was so limited 
that it might be said the meal yesterday was cabbage and potatoes, and to- 
day potatoes and cabbage; but thanks to the enterprise of the farmer, the 
horticulturalist and the vegetarian, the variety has been so extended as to 
embrace the larger number of vegetables actually classified which are grown 
to great perfection. 

The progress thus made by you and your Association in the short period r 
has never been surpassed in any horticultural district, an honor of which 
you can well feel proud of. 

Our city of 35,000 people in early days was quite shadeless; now, in sum- 
mer, it is noted for the number of its trees, the fragrance of the buds and 
blossoms of springtime and the beauty of its foliage. 

The above facts are fully affirmed by the large variety, and splendid speci- 
mens of fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc., contributed to this exposition. 

These contributions will enable you to note the advance made in their cul- 
tivation, and thus assist your discussions to take a more practical and utili- 
tarian turn having to do with subjects of immediate importance. 

Permit me to emphasize the cordial welcome which we, the citizens of 
Council Bluffs tender to your honorable Association, hoping that your visit 
here will be both pleasant and profitable; that you will have the opportunity 
of riding over our sixteen miles of paved streets, seeing the beautiful public 
improvements, and visiting the largest and grandest park west of Chicago. 
At night, by the aid of electric light-towers one hundred and fifty feet high, 
we light up the vineyards, fruit and vegetable farms until light sufficiently 
brilliant contributes to keep constantly growing, flowers, plants and tender 
vegetables in our multiplicity of hot houses, and always when dayligh dawns, 
a portion of the daily surplus of our products is sent to our sister city, Omaha, 
on trains propelled by lightning. 

The express trains of our twelve different lines of railway carry our pro- 
ducts daily in every direction, north, south, east and west. In conclusion, 
permit me again to tender to you the welcome and courtesies of the city of 
Council Bluffs, and to express the hope that your session will be profitable* 



280 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



your sojourn here pleasant, and when you leave for your homes it will be 
with kindly remembrances. 

President S. W. Wilson called on Hon. Silas Wilson to respond to 
the address of welcome. 

Silas Wilson: Mr. Mayor, ladies and gentlmen, in responding to 
the address of welcome, which duty has been assigned to me, I cer- 
tainly lack words to appropriately express my feelings. I can but 
think of the first meeting that I attended of this Society, which was 
in this city, some nine or ten years ago. I had heard of the meeting 
of this Society, but no one seemed able to tell me anything about it. 
I hunted two hours for the place of meeting, wken I blundered into 
an obscure hall in this city. I mustered up courage to push open 
the door, and it happened to be the Western Horticultural Society. 
There were only eight or ten persons present, only one of whom I 
knew, that was Mr. Raymond, so long and favorably known by the 
citizens of Council Bluffs; and even at that time a veteran in hor- 
ticulture. The work of this horticultural society will not have 
been done until the markets of this city and all the cities of our ter- 
ritory shall be fully supplied with fruit. The horticulturists of 
western Iowa have put their theories in practice, and, notwithstand- 
ing unfavorable seasons, and severe winters, have in a measure sup- 
plied your markets. Mr. mayor, they used to say that we could not 
grow fruit here. Eighten years ago I came to this country and set- 
tled in an adjoining county. The people said, what are you doing, 
coming here trying to raise fruit; they seemed to think the country 
was too high and windy to raise fruit. We now raise almost all we 
want, and will soon be able to contribute to the supply of our less 
fortunate neighbors. We not only come here to talk, but come to 
learn important lessons, and consult as to the best methods of con- 
ducting our work. I want to extend to you Mr. Mayor, and the citi- 
zens of Council Bluffs, a cordial invitation to attend our sessions. 
We want you to come into our meetings and take part in our deliber- 
ations. 

Report of Director of Union county, by Henry Jones, read by 
Secretary. 

Report of Director of Ringgold county, by D. N. Smith, read by 
Secretary. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



281 



EE PORT FROM UNION COUNTY. 



BY HENRY JONES. 



To the Western Horticultural Society, greeting: 

As I have had no opportunity to make any extended observation, my re- 
marks will be confined to the central part of the county. To start with, 
currants, cherries and plums were a total failure; strawberries were a fair 
crop, but we had very wet, hot weather for more than a week of their prime, 
and the loss was very heavy. Marketed the first berries June 13th, finished 
the last of the month; average price about ten cents per box; demand good. 
Raspberries, the canes were badly damaged by our hard winter so that we 
got a small crop of small berries. Sold at 12 i to 15 cents per box; demand 
good. Blackberries, canes badly damaged, but a wet June and July brought 
out a fair crop of berries. Price, 10 cents per box; demand good. Grapes, 
the vines were badly damaged by the winter, and the wet weather in July 
brought on rot and blight; many kinds lost all of their leaves, the Delaware i 
Duchess, Vergenus and Elvira lost all of their leaves, the Concord suffered 
very great loss of leaves, and blight, similar to apple blight killed many 
canes entirely. The crop was short and sold at from 3 to 10 cents per 
pound, mostly 4 to 5 cents. The season for ripening was very slow and 
Pocklington and Elvira did not get ripe, although our first hard frost was 
the third of October. The leaves of Pocklington and Agawam were all 
right with fine bunches of large grapes. 

Apples were a short crop. Crabs very plenty. Early apples were Duchess, 
Red Astrachan, Red June, Early Harvest and Sweet June. Of winter ap- 
ples the Janet and Winesap were small, Ben Davis, Willow and Roman 
Stem scarce, Sweet Pippin and Grimes' Golden very fine, Fameuse good. 
The price ranged from 35 oents to $1.00 per bushel all through the season- 
Trees, vines and plants have made a good growth, and have ripened the 
wood in splendid order. Very few new patches of strawberries on account 
of dry spring for two years. Tomatoes very fine, only a small portion of 
the crop ripened. Potatoes were large in size, good in quality and condition . 
I got the best yield from Burpee's Empire State potato. There has never 
been so good a demand for fruit of all kinds here as this year, and the pros- 
pect ahead is good for any one that has fruit to sell. The weather con- 
tinues fine this 10th day of December. 
36 



282 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OP DIRECTOR OF RINGGOLD COUNTY. 



BY D.N. SMITH. 



lo the honorable members of the Western Horticultural Society: 

Sirs— I regret that 1 cannot be with you at this meeting. My business 
calls me at home, and I hope you will have a good, successful meeting. As 
to making a report, I shall do the best I can for you in behalf of our county. 

Apples, in our immediate vicinity, were a light crop. A few orchards on 
limestone, clay and on the north hillside bore well, while some on the same 
soil and the south side failed, or nearly so. In the extreme south side of our 
county the crop was more general. Ben Davis was the finest, and bore 
heavier than any other varieties. The Dominie was a good crop, too, being 
almost as good as the Bens. The Jonathan bore well; the Jannet, spar- 
ingly, but good size. The Walbridge bears well for me every year, although 
I see by reports that they are condemned by the Society as a bearer. Roman 
Stem does well, and gave almost a full crop this year. The Roxbury Rus- 
set was as full a crop as any we had, although I cannot recommend them, 
as nobody likes them, and I don't myself. 

As to cherries, Early Richmond and May do not do here. 

The Wolf and Miner plums do well when they are clustered. 

Strawberries do fine, and with a fair season they are extra. The Crescent 
takes the lead. 

Raspberries and blackberries do well; in time of drought we must use 
caution to mulch heavily. 

Red cedar does splendid here. I have them four years old, seven and 
one-half feet high, of Mr. Bruning's propagation. 

I wish the Society much success, and also enclose $1.00 for the proceed- 
ings of this meeting. 

DISCUSSION. 

John Wragg: The last point in that report is the planting of 
evergreens, and Mr. Smith tells us of his sucoess. I have been plant- 
ing for years, trying to get the people to see the benefit of evergreen 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 283 



planting. There is a prevailing opinion among farmers that ever- 
greens grow very slowly. I am glad we have this experience of the 
rapid growth of red cedar. I have frequently said that a man cannot 
do anything that will add more to the value of his farm than the 
planting of evergreens. If evergreens are well cultivated they will 
make satisfactory growth. I went back to my old home a few years 
ago, where I left in 1860; a few varieties of evergreens grow, native, 
there, and they have been planted extensively there. While there, 
the mercury was 20° below zero, yet a person could get about com- 
fortably. It also adds very much to the appearances of the country 
to have evergreens. There is no use in losing a large per cent, but 
good care and careful planting is necessary. In lawn, where soil is 
hard, or in blue grass sod, they will not do very well, but in good 
soil and with good care, they will give satisfaction. 

Prof. Budd: I would like to say a word about red cedar. Mr. 
Bruniug has been distributing western red cedars from the Platte 
valley in Nebraska. This Platte red cedar is hardier and more 
upright in its habits than any other. To say red cedar, is an indefi- 
nite saying; the Tennessee red cedar will kill down like the peach. 

L. A. Williams: I only wish to add a word as to the value of ever- 
greens.. The objection to planting evergreens is their liability to 
die at time of transplanting. But they are dead when planted. I 
have had remarkable success in planting evergreens. I got a car load 
of Mr. Douglas; my ground was a mass of stumps and hazel brush; 
I put out about two thousand, and they were a success. The trees 
are now from ten to twenty feet high; they have outgrown the 
suckers from the stumps. In regard to red cedar, I got twenty-five 
hundred from Mr. Bruning last season, and only lost about five per 
cent. 

Thomas Bonham: We have trees that have grown very rapidly 
and have given corn cultivation. As Mr. Williams says, we need 
have no difficulty in planting them at all. We have planted several 
thousand, and they have done well. One man planted forty eight trees 
and lost only four. Another man planted thirty and saved but four; 
out of the same trees and all planted the same week. We ought to 
instruct planters how to plant evergreens, and the trees should be 
clipped for three or four years to get them in the desired shape. 

J. B. Black: As our reports go to farmers, I think we should give 
them a word of caution. I would not plant southern red cedar if I 



284 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



could get them for nothing. The northwestern red cedar have done 
well. 

President Wilson: Have you seen anything like twig blight? 

E. D. Hammond: I have noticed something like twig blight, but 
do not know the cause; I got the trees from Mr. Bruning. 

President S. W. Wilson read his address, after which L. A. Casper 
read a paper on Landscape Gardening. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



BY S. W. WILSON. 



To the Members of the Western Iowa Horticultural Society: 

Again we are permitted by the blessing of our God to meet and extend to 
each one that friendly greeting we owe to each other as horticulturists. All 
interested in one common and grand industry of our commonwealth. That 
of horticulture and in all its branches, and it is a pleasure to me to be 
granted the privilege of addressing you on this our thirteenth annual re- 
union. An association less selfish in its interest than any other associa- 
tion, having only as our motto, the benefit of mankind, the building up of 
the interest of the State in which we live, and the health and wealth of its 
citizens. For health is wealth, and what association is to-day laboring 
more earnestly for this than the Society that you and I have the honor of 
being members. By growing and improving of fruit and vegetables and 
ever preaching the doctrine, that every land owner in this State no differ- 
ence how small can have a fruit and vegetable garden, thereby bringing 
health and happiness to his family. 

What is more elevating to humanity than the outgrowth of our industry. 
What more advances the wealth of our state than the works in which we 
are engaged? What to-day would place our beloved state more in advance 
of the States around her than this statement, that fruit growing in Iowa 
has become a success in all her borders? 

Members of the Western Iowa Horticultural Society, I believe this is our 
mission and this is why we are now in session in the city of Council Bluffs, 
that we may relate our success and failures. That each one may be bene- 
fited by the experience of his co- laborer in this grand and good work. If 
any member of this Society has been experimenting in some new line and 
it has proved to be a failure, tell it to this Society so we may avoid the same 
experience, and on the other hand if it proves to be a success tell it to this 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



285 



Society, so that your brethren may be benefited thereby, and that in dis_ 
cussion of topics that comes before this Society, that location and soil may 
be taken in consideration. As it is a well known fact that there is in the 
bounds of this Society some diversities of soil and variations of climate. 
For instance, in the south and eastern part the soil is dark and underlayed 
with a closer, more compact subsoil. While the central and more northern 
parts has an open porous subsoil. And as to climate we find in our past 
severe winters a variation of several degrees, and you will see by examining 
the reports from parties in different parts of our district, that a great many 
varieties of fruits and shrubs that are now grown in the southern part can- 
not be grown in the northern part successfully. Nine years ago this Society 
held its annual meeting in this city. Numerous changes have taken place 
in those nine years. Some of us doubtless thought at that time all that was 
necessary was to push forward, grow and plant the varieties we were then 
growing, and we were on the highway to success. But the cold winters dur- 
ing the latter part of those nine years has taught us a different lesson. 
Varieties of apple and other fruit that were looked upon at that time as a 
success, are now a thing of the past. That horticulture is; advancing and 
that we have been taught some valuable lessons, and that we have made a 
partial success no one will deny. 

I believe we can only form a faint idea of what horticulture will attain in 
the years to come. Varieties will be found and so arranged as to variation 
in climate and soil so as to be adapted to each other, and that it will be a 
success, from its southern limits to its northern line, and from the Great 
Father of Waters on the east to the Big Muddy on the west. And every 
hill and vale will be covered with fruit and flowers and the generation yet 
to come will rise up and call you blessed, for what you have done in bring- 
ing about this great blessing of humanity and the great benefit to our com- 
monwealth. Now as to how this will be brought about, whether it shall 
come from varieties we are now cultivating and others in the hands of ex- 
perimentalists, or yet to be imported from a more northern climate or from 
our native seedling and by cross fertilization, I am not here to say. But let 
us encourage each and let us accept with thanks whatever is given us of 
value. 

Our material advantages are scarcely to be overestimated. The love of 
home and surroundings are imbedded in every human heart, and this nerves 
us for the work that comes before us, and we push forward in the school of 
horticulture. But let us not forget the twin sister of our industry, agricul- 
ture, which must go hand in hand with or rather in advance. The prairie 
must be broken, fields plowed, dwellings, churches and school-houses built, 
and the soil prepared by the best of cultivation, and then comes our mission 
following in the foot-prints of agriculture by beautifying the homes by 
planting of fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs. 

And now allow me to call your attention to this matter of ornamentation. 
The planting of flowers and flowering shrubs and ornamental trees new 
and old, common and rare. We do not have enough talk on this topic in 
our Society. Let us talk more on this subject. Let us interest our lady 



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



friends in this one grand and good work of flower culture by requesting 
them to write essays and to take part in our discussions on this subject, for 
if any one can be more interested in this work than we, it is the ladies. 
Let us endeavor to bring the young men in this work and encourage them 
to meet with us by giving them places on committee work along side of our 
honored fathers in this work; so that they may be prepared to take your 
places by the experience you have handed down to them and carry on the 
work by taking hold of it where you were compelled to drop it, that they 
may push forward the work with the same or more vigor than you have 
done; that the work may be carried on without the loss of one moment of 
time. 

As to the work before this session, I don't know as I have any topic to 
present that is new, but there is one part of horticulture in this State, and 
while it has been before this Society, yet it seems to me farmers of our 
commonwealth do not understand the advantages that may be derived from 
the planting of forest trees. Look at the large amount that is shipped 
annually in the adjoining States and the west and southwest. Nurserymen 
that are acquainted with the trade of those States will tell you that the 
trade in forest tree seedlings in those States is immense, while the most ex- 
tensive forest tree growers are in those States; our State is doing but 
little in the planting of timber. That we need timber to shelter us from 
the blizzards of the northwest and for local use, no one will deny. And 
that every acre so planted becomes one of the most valuable of any of the 
farm, you would not think of doubting, and yet this matter of timber 
planting is sadly neglected. I suggest that we give this matter more study 
in our Society. 

Second. That if it can be so arranged in regard to experimental stations 
in the bounds of this Society. If we could have an annual report from 
each experimental station direct, it will be a great benefit to the members 
of this Society. 

Ihird. That as we now have some funds, and at the present prosperity 
the Society will have; and'l believe this cannot be used for any better pur- 
pose, or one that will be of more advantage to this Society, than paying out 
of said funds in premiums. I recommend that this Society appoint, before 
the close of the present session, a committee of three to arrange a premium 
list, and to offer such premiums as the funds of this Society will admit, and 
to arrange such laws as is necessary to govern the paying of said premiums 
hereafter. 

Ladies and gentlemen, I thank you for the courtesy you have extended to 
me, and for this honor you have conferred upon me, one of your weakest 
members. I now return to you the trust you placed in my hands. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



LANDSCAPING. 



BY L. A. CASPER, COUNCIL BLUFFS. 



Mr. President and gentlemen of the Western Iowa Horticultural Society: 

It has been brought to my notice by Mr. Wood at a very late hour, that I 
was one chosen by your committee to prepare for this meeting a paper on 
Landscape Gardening. This is a subject embracing such a large field of 
action that it seems hard to bring it before this association in such manner 
as to make it interesting. It includes so many different styles, and almost 
every one has his own ideas or opinions regarding them; some prefer to fol- 
low nature, or rather assist nature where they think necessary, to take 
away, and where she appears to have forgotten to put anything, to plant 
there, and still keep it as near natural as possible, so that when you look 
upon it you do not see the gardener's work there, only a beautiful piece of 
natural scenery; others, again, lay out a park or grounds after a set plan 
prepared beforehand. 

The laying out of parks I consider the most important branch of land- 
scape gardening, and this is the first to which I shall give attention. While 
we have some of the most beautiful natural parks in the country, it is a 
fact that there is but little done toward improving the same. It will be 
useless for me to go into detail as to how they should be laid out, as that 
depends altogether on location and natural surroundings. Take, for in- 
stance, a square or triangle, or any piece of ground where you have stiff and 
even lines to commence with, and perfectly level, my idea would be to plant 
the trees and shrubs out in such a place in straight rows at regular dis- 
tances apart, and trim them to a uniform height; and also at the bottom, 
say about fifteen feet from the lawn, to where you allow the trees to branch 
out; not only this, but the trees must be made to grow perfectly straight; 
this can easily be done. If any tree is inclined to grow crooked it can be 
held back with a cable until it is growing the desired way, as in so doing you 
follow strictly the lines of the ground you are working on. Then, again, 
on the other hand, if you have an irregular piece of ground, with hills and 
valleys, etc., the foregoing rule would not apply, as it would be absurd to 
have a row of trees running up and down a hill and across a valley; the best 



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



and most appropriate way to plant such a place would be to make it appear 
as natural as possible, with winding drives and walks, and openings here 
and there to disclose a nice piece of scenery; this should be arranged before- 
hand, so that when a person turns a corner in a drive or walk he would 
come suddenly upon it; coming to it at once and unprepared, would make it 
appear more beautiful to him; seats should also be provided at advan- 
tageous positions, so that people may rest and enjoy the view. Now, as to 
the size of trees to be planted. I should advise in favor of large trees; this 
would entail a little expense, but would benefit the people at once. If you 
plant small rows the people bearing the greatest expense would receive but 
little benefit from it; only the succeeding generations. In selecting large 
trees for planting, care should be taken to take only those varieties that are 
not subject to tap roots; it is useless, my giving you a list of varieties I 
think best, as that depends to a certain degree on the locality. 

Walks and Drives— There can be but little said in regard to above with- 
out taking in the location. With regard to our public parks the road lead- 
ing to same should always be made as direct as possible. Many people vis- 
iting lawns like to see the parks, and would go to them if the way was not 
so roundabout, as it is in many cases; you have to go around such a dis- 
tance that it leaves any person with limited time but very little to spare in 
sightseeing when they arrive there. This rule should also apply to walks 
leading to front entrance of private residences; the best way to a house is 
the most direct; then, if you wish, you may have winding walks branching 
out at intervals from the sides for pleasure and recreation. 

Flowers and bedding in parks.— These are necessary adjuncts to the proper 
and complete arranging or laying out of a park. Nothing attracts more 
attention than a few well and tastefully laid out beds, in the style known 
as carpet bedding. 

The plants most generally used in this work are so brilliant in color that 
they stand out in pleasing contrast to the green of the turf and surrounding 
trees. The beds should be placed in a piece of open ground, so that they 
may receive plenty of sun and air, the most necessary thing for the full 
development of their dazzling colors, as but very few plants do well in the 
shade. 

The ground devoted to the bedding should be in an easily reached point 
from the main entrances of the park, as every one who goes there is 
attracted mainly by the floral and bedding display. 

The plants most suitable for bedding in this section of the country are: 
Colons, alternantheras, achyranthus, ecteveria, sedmus, allyssums, celosias 
(coxcombs), vincus, golden pyrethrum, geraniums, verbenas, pansies, etc. 

A fine effect is also produced by grouping on the lawn, canuas caladimus 
and reciun (castor oil plant). These make large specimens, and their height, 
coupled with their large, handsome foliage, have quite a tropical appear- 
ance. Another good plant of imposing appearance is the Abyssinian banana 
(musa ensete). 

The next point I would touch upon is the refined and tasteful appearance 
given to a city by having trees planted along the streets and boulevards and 



WESTERN IOWA. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the bedding done in private gardens. Nothing gives a stranger such a good 
impression as to see house after house with a beautiful flower bed or two in 
front and a well kept lawn. 

This costs but little, and adds greatly to the beauty of the home and col- 
lectively to the town. As I see by your programme a gentleman has been 
appointed to give a paper on this particular subject, I will not dwell on it 
any longer. 

Now, to conclude, I would just like to say a few words respecting our 
cemeteries. It is a lamentable fact that we are far behind the eastern coun- 
tries in the decoration of our departed friends' graves. I would suggest a 
plan which I think would give general satisfaction, if carried out; that is if 
a sufficient number of lot-holders could be got to subscribe say from two to 
ten dollars per annum per lot, in proportion to the number of graves and 
according to varieties of plants they wish used in the planting of same. 
This would include care of the beds, watering, mowing the grass, and re- 
placing any plants that would die out. In order to take full advantage of 
the above plan sufficient subscribers would have to be got to warrant the 
employment by a responsible person, to whom should be given the contract 
for same, of a man who understands such work and who would give his 
whole attention to it. 

The cemetery commissioners should also make it a condition of sale when 
they dispose of a lot to any person, that they keep the grass on such lot 
mown and in good order. 

It is not generally known that mowing grass when a foot high (as some of 
it is allowed to grow), is injurious to the roots, as you expose to the sun 
tender rootlets and blades of grass that have been growing in the shade and 
will not stand the sudden exposure, but die out. In this Way many other- 
wise nice lawns are spoilt, and especially in dry, hot seasons. 

A man, for instance, who has a lot in the cemetery goes up there once or 
twice a season; takes his sickle and cuts the grass, some of it below the sur- 
face and some an inch or two above. This has a bad effect, killing some of 
the grass and allowing other parts of the lawn to become weedy and thin 
and to have a bad appearance generally. 

All this would be avoided if the plan suggested by me could be adopted, 
as it would then be cut regularly once a week with a lawn mower, which 
cuts the grass evenly and does not tear it out by the roots. This is the only 
way to keep a lawn in good condition. 

And now, finally, gentlemen, I wish you every success in all movements 
for the spread of horticulture, so ably prompted and carried out by this 
Society. 

DISCUSSION. 

Silas Wilson: We ought to take more interest in landscape gar- 
dening, in making our homes. We have to look more after our 
bread and butter than the beautiful. But the time is not far distant 



37 



290 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



when we will make rapid advancement in the direction of ornament- 
ing our homes. 

Prof. Budd: The subject has been ably presented in the paper 
just read. In the parks of the Old World, they give an appearance 
of retirement, and in laying out the roads, so as to add to their 
length, it gives the grounds the appearance of being larger than they 
really are. If a road comes in, for example, at one corner, and by 
gently curving and winding to conform to the lay of the ground, 
passing out at the opposite corner, with a foot path more direct, to 
be screened from the outside, such roads and paths will seem longer 
than they really are, and they will be rural retreats. In parks in the 
West, there is too little attention given to variety. Soft maple, box 
elder and other common varieties predominate. Cut leaved birch, 
weeping willow, basswood, hard maple and wild olive make a nice 
contrast. For evergreens, native white spruce, white pine, blue 
spruce and red pine are fine. Would make only one suggestion; we 
should imitate our eastern brethren in some things. We have some 
things to boast of in this country, but the parks of the Old World 
are far ahead of ours; and in the parks of London and Berlin you 
will see everything labeled, and in common names. In Lincoln Park, 
Chicago, there is nothing labeled, and when people come to rare 
trees and plants tbey are always asking, " what is it?" This ab- 
sence of names is characteristic of American parks. 

John Wragg: Nature does a great deal, but we can do a great 
deal to improve nature. A little attention on our part, the proper 
selection of trees, will do a great deal to improve and beautify. 

Report of Adair county, by Jacob Smith, was read by the Secre- 
tary. 



REPORT FOR ADAIR COUNTY. 

BY JACOB SMITH. 

After another year's experience, we have but little added knowledge to 
record. Slowly we grope toward the light of positive facts, and when we 
are almost sure we have discovered the key to success in fruit culture, some 



"WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



291 



unknown quality comes in to knock the props from under our theories and 
leave us in the dark as before. Still we work on, with varying success and 
failure, having faith and hope that among the many earnest, devoted stu- 
dents in the science and workers in the art of horticulture, some sure 
methods will be discovered by which we may be able to produce reasonable 
crops of fruit of choice varieties. 

There has been an increased interest in the production of fruit in Adair 
county, and, while some have allowed their orchards to go to decay, many 
have filled in the gaps made by the dying and the dead, and planted out 
new orchards of reputed hardier varieties. 

The crop of strawberries was very good, especially in moist situations. 
On high and dry land the berries were small and unsatisfactory. I am sat- 
isfied that this fruit does best in very rick soil, where the grower can sup- 
ply an abundance of water during the fruiting season. 

Raspberries made a good crop, and blackberries bore enormously. 

Plums and cherries were an entire failure, and trees of bearing size are 
badly injured. The trees of Russian varieties, received from Prof. Budd, 
are growing thriftily, but I know of none which have yet come to bearing. 

Grapes produced a fair crop, and in some locations, where they did not 
overbear last year, the vines were very full. I am more pleased each year 
with the Worden, and consider it a more desirable variety for common 
plenting than the Concord, which has been so long recommended. With 
me the Worden is of better quality, more productive, and a more vigorous 
grower. 

The apple crop was a good average. Some of the finer varieties, like 
Jonathan, Winesap and Iowa Blush, were full of fruit. There was but 
little fire or twig blight, and I am persuaded that thick planting is a pre- 
ventive of sun- scald. When my orchard trees were planted sixteen feet 
apart, and now shade the ground completely, there is much less loss by 
bark- scald than where the trees are farther from each other. My trees, 
where so planted, have suffered less from winter- killing than most orchards 
in the neighborhood. 

The evergreens have been planted to a considerable extent in the last few 
years, and have proved very satisfactory. If properly handled, they may 
be as safely transplanted as apple trees, and grow very rapidly after they 
get a start. The red cedar proves a very fine and hardy tree, and, with us, 
grows rapidly. 

Every farmer ought to plant an acre or two of catalpa, or white willow, 
to be used, in a few years, for posts, poles and other woods. They prove 
very convenient on every farm. 

The budded fruit tree agent struck this county, but met so cool a recep- 
tion that he soon departed for greener fields. 

On the whole, the outlook for the successful culture of good fruit is 
growing brighter, but it will take knowledge, pluck and persistence to win. 



292 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



DISCUSSION. 

L. O. Williams: It occurs to me that the failure of our cherry 
trees is a matter for proper consideration. Have we had any varie- 
ties that have not failed? I would like to hear from the Wragg 
cherry. 

John Wragg: I can make only a slight report of this variety, as 
it has only been slightly introduced. About seven years ago I got 
sprouts from the western part of our county, growing under a tree 
of this variety; these first trees planted bore well the past season. I 
wrote to the owner of the nine original trees, which are now twenty- 
six years old; he wrote to me this fall that they were in good condi- 
tion, and had never failed to bear a good crop. A friend got a few 
of the first trees I sent out. I visited him last season, and on these 
trees, only planted about four years, he had about a peck of cherries 
to the tree. My own trees of the same age were too near large ever- 
greens, and while they had not done well, still did as well as could 
be expected under such conditions. Have word from all over the 
State, and especially from the north; they are giving satisfaction. 
The fruit is similar to English Morrello and late. 

Geo. Van Houten: They had some fine cherries this year at the 
college farm. 

Prof. Budd: As to the Wragg cherry, will say that I believe it is 
a stray from North Polan, III. Manger & Berry raised many of 
these varieties years ago, but could not sell the trees because of their 
small size. This is probably one of the trees they sent west, but it's 
identity is lost. Mr. Van Houten has spoken of the cherries on the 
college farm. We had the Wragg there, and it bore as long as it 
lived, but it is not hardy enough there; but our ground and location 
is very hard on the cherry. In regard to the other cherries, we had 
frost at the time of blossoming that killed De Soto Plum — and I 
will not say more as to hardiness. We have thirty varieties, some of 
which are earlier than Early Richmond, and some are later than 
English Morrello. Some of these will prove hardy two hundred 
miles north. The Ladimer trees are not over six feet high, and they 
will bear at three feet. They are hardy and thrifty, and will be 
profitable this far south. I made a statement at the State Fair that 
they had thirty per cent more grape sugar than Early Richmond. 
The later ones were about the size of English Morrellos, but they 
grew on small trees — dwarfs. Those of the earlier varieties are 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



293 



about the size of Early Richmond, but have smaller pits. The inter" 
mediate varieties are in size from smaller than Early Richmond, to 
larger than English Morrello. i 

N. P. Dodge read a paper entitled "A Plea for Better Homes." 
Paper from N. S. Phelps, Woodstock, Minnesota, was also read. 



A PLEA FOR BETTER HOMES. 



BY N. P. DODGE OF COUNCIL BLUFFS. 



The unattractive and unfinished appearance of the average western home 
is noticed by every traveler who comes from the older States. 

The temporary character of our dwellings, our unsightly yards and out- 
buildings are unworthy a people who stand so high in the scale of intelli- 
gence and are noted for their industry and enterprise. 

There are no people on the face of the earth who work so hard and so 
many hours each day as the men and women in the newer States and Terri- 
tories of the northwest. 

This is especially the case with the farmer and his wife, and also the men 
who are engaged in mercantile and other business enterprises in our towns 
and cities. 

They bend all their energies to the advancement of their material inter- 
ests and neglect the home and its surroundings. The farmer wants more 
land or more stock or a better shelter for what he has, and too often the 
thin board house, with yard bare of trees and flowers, which was built for a 
temporary shelter, becomes the permanent home where children are born, 
grow up, and from which they go forth with a deep-seated prejudice against 
life on the farm . 

In our villages and cities the homes are more comfortable and convenient, 
but without architectural beauty or neat and attractive yards. 

Hide through western Iowa at this season on the different lines of rail- 
road that center in this city; what is the impression left on your minds? 

A beautiful agricultural country, cribs and barns filled with the recent 
bountiful harvest, cattle and hogs in every pasture and feed yard; you ex- 
claim, what a rich country! So it is judged by its productions. 

Did you notice the homes on these farms, how inferior and unattractive 
they were? 

How was it with the villages, were you not impressed more by their rag- 
ged appearance rather than with their beauty, the buildings showing the 
builder to have been his own architect, planning for the most room at the 
least expense, with unsightly out-buildings and neglected yards? 



294 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



This is not so much a question of money as it is of a wise and proper use 
of that money, more than money; it is the giving of thought and of time. 

What a grievous mistake for residents of a new country to neglect the 
home. There is more involved than the comfort of themselves and their 
families. 

It will often decide the character of those who settle near them, deter- 
mine the moral and intellectual atmosphere, and have much to do in shap- 
ing the lives of their children for good or evil. What can we do to correct 
this evil? 

First by convincing men there is more moDey in building a house with 
architectural beauty and ornamenting the grounds with trees, lawn and 
flowers than in building a plain house and leaving the yard neglected, and 
that such a home on a farm will add more to its value, than double the 
money expended in other improvements. 

In our towns and cities the real estate men know how easy it is to sell a 
cottage which is attractive in its outward appearance and surroundings. 

You must also convince men and their wives and daughters that the time 
and thought devoted to beautifying the home will prove to be a rest from 
the work to which their life is devoted and bring to them health and happi- 
ness. 

In Switzerland, far up on the steep mountain side, unapproachable except 
by a mule path, is the Swiss chalet, the home of the Swiss peasant, built of 
square Cedar logs two stories in heighth with projecting roof, miniature 
windows and porches, often ornamented with wood carving in which the 
Swiss are skilled; it sits there in the midst of grass plots, in outline as 
viewed by the passing traveler, a thing of beauty costing its builder about 
five hundred dollars. 

If the Swiss peasant, whose annual income does not exceed two hundred 
dollars, oftener one hundred dollars, can afford a home like this* is there 
any good reason why the farmer, business man, mechanic and laborer in 
this country should not lay aside from his larger earnings sufficient to build 
a neat and tasty cottage and give of his time for the ornamentation of his 
grounds? 

The homes in the country and villages of old England are the delight of 
every American traveler. The beauty is not in the buildings, for they are 
but plain brick or stone. It is in the neat and well kept yard, the trimmed 
hedge, the beautiful lawn and running vines; more than all, in the beds of 
flowers. These are seen everywhere; they surround the peasants' cottage 
and princes' palace. The English women make much of flowers; they are 
seen in profusion in every door yard. 

The American women can surpass their English cousins in the ornamen- 
tation of the interior of their homes. Now let them give more time to the 
ornamentation of the exterior with flowers, shrubs and vines, and you will 
find the full rosy cheek of the English girl transferred to our own wives 
and daughters. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



295 



Woodstock, Minn., December, 1888. 
George Van Houten, Stcretary Western Iowa Horticultural Society: 

Dear Sir— As I do not expect anything I may write to be preserved for 
publication 1 shall not be careful to observe the rules you have given. You 
may read it if you are pleased to do so. 

My knowledge of horticulture in Minnesota or any where else is too lim- 
ited for me to presume to speak for a State. My own garden lot is almost 
too much for me to handle wisely or successfully. I suppose that many if 
not all the members of your Society could tell more about Minnesota horti- 
culture than I can. I know, however, that it is more difficult to grow some 
kinds of fruit here than it is in Southern Iowa. The varieties of apples that 
can be raised successfully in Minnesota is very small as compared with what 
I saw at Glenwood, Iowa, three years ago. Our winters are too severe for 
anything but ironclads' Still quite a number have already secured com- 
mendable success in orcharding in Minnesota, and no doubt much more 
might have been accomplished if a larger number had been equally inter- 
ested in the work. Some small fruit can be grown here with about as much 
certainty as in Iowa, if they receive a reasonable amount of attention and 
care. 

I see you have arranged in your programme for reports from directors of 
counties. I will not assume to be a director of a county or even a township, 
but will say something of my own little place. I have six acres of forest 
trees that are doing quite well. Some seasons they have been injured con- 
siderably by insects, but the past season was more favorable, and most of 
the trees made a good growth. 

My strawberries, gooseberries and currants both grew well and fruited 
well the past season. Raspberries grew well, but the fruit, both in quantity 
and quality was inferior to the previous year. But what of my orchard? 
Well, I have a pretty nice place, for a small orchard, and it is something to 
have the place still remaining intact. In the first place I obtained my trees 
from the ubiquitous tree peddlers, and as usual, some of them were worth- 
less; still I have planted enough good trees to have had quite a number al- 
ready bearing fruit if they had not been destroyed by the jack-rabbits. 
These rabbits are very destructive to fruit trees in winter when the snow 
is deep. They have not only ruined my fruit trees, but they bite off all the 
raspberry canes that extend above the snow, and even the top of evergreens 
and flowering shrubs that are not covered with snow do not escape them. I 
have not yet learned how to fight them successfully, and I am not the only 
one who has suffered from their depredations. 

Now I am going to write something that I expect you will think is worth 
reading. Inclosed please find one dollar for membership in Western Iowa 
Horticultural Society. 

Very truly yours, 

S. N. Phelps. 



296 



STATE HOKTIC U LTURAL SOCIETY. 



DISCUSSION. 

W. K. Follett: I only have trouble with rabbits once each season. 
I quarter apples, put stricnine on these pieces, and scatter them about, 
and have no further trouble with rabbits that season. 

The President announced the following committees: 

RESOLUTIONS. 

John Wragg, J. B. Black and B. Harcourt. 

FRUIT. 

F. W. Taylor, Thomas Bonham and W. M. Bomberger. 
Adjourned. 



EVENING SESSION— FIRST DAY. 
Treasurer reported as follows: 

PREMIUMS PAID FOR LAST MEETING. 



J. W. Murphy $ 3.80 

A. C. Sabin 1.20 

Jacob Smith 1.50 

George Van Houten 1.50 

Stationery 2.00 

Postage 13.50 

Printing programs 6.00 

Postal cards, and printing same , 2.50 

Envelopes 8 00 

Incidentals 1.45 

Salary last year 75.00 

Total $116 45 

Becelved membership fees last year 52 00 

By sale of fruit at Red Oak 5.50 

Received from State Society 100.00 

On hand at last report 24.69 

Total $ 18219 

Deduct the amount paid out 116.45 

In hands of Treasurer $ 65 74 



Geo. Van Houten, Ireasurer. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



297 



Prof. Budd moved the appointment of a committee to consider the 
recommendations of the President, in his address, and the report of 
Secretary. 

Motion carried, and President appointed Prof. Budd, Silas Wilson 
and L. A. Williams. 

A. F. Collman read a paper on " Ornamentals." 



ORNAMENTALS. 



BY A. F. COLLMAN. 



Mr. President— The subject assigned me is a difficult subject to write on, 
for we differ so much in our opinions and tastes. Go where you will, and 
observe every home on your way and you will hardly ever see two homes 
just alike, and our natures are about as different as our homes, and I sup- 
pose this is as it should be, for we learn from each other's failures, as well 
as successes. Sometimes I walk through my trees and wish that I were 
younger once more so I could plant different and then thank God that my 
lot was cast in our sunny southwestern Iowa, where so many choice trees 
and shrubs seem to be so perfectly at home. 

I realize that it takes time and lots of hard work, and money to orna- 
ment our homes. But my friends it pays. We read mens' character by their 
faces and their walk, and we read character by the homes we live in. Our 
houses may be very small>nd old, yet the trees and shrubs that we may 
have make it 11 home, sweet home." 

What to plant is the question. Nearly all our evergreens are suitable. 
The Norway spruce looks well everywhere, and the older it gets the better 
it looks. It thrives all over our great State. 

In southwestern Iowa the Balsam fir is a thing of beauty, especially in 
our black loam or rich corn ground. The W hite spruce seems to be per- 
fectly at home in Iowa. The White pine seems to do well on high ground. 
Scotch and Austrian pine do well with me. And don't forget to plant a 
few Arbor Vitse, the taller they get the better you like them. And leave a 
place, too, for a few Bed cedar, and be sure to plant a few our western Sil- 
ver spruce. They are in my opinion the king of the evergreen family. They 
seem to be perfectly hardy with me. Their habit of growth is different 
from most of our ornamental evergreens, being very dense, and of a silver 
hue. I would never do without it if I could get it. But we must not for- 
get to plant a group of Hard maple. They are very ornamental, and the 
very best shade tree we ever had. Nearly every time I look at my Sugar 

38 



298 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



maple tree3 E thiak of my early boyhood and the days of long a?). And I 
would plant the European larch; they are very thrifty on dry grouud* 
always ornamental and useful, and always free from iusects We can't well 
get too many of them. And we must not forget the Catalpa, the Bur oak , 
the Golden willow, and many others that have special value. 

But we must not overlook a few of the leading shrubs. One of our finest 
shrubs is Prunus triloba— it is very ornamental; it forms a beautiful round 
head which in spring is literally covered with its rosy scarlet flowers an inch 
or more in diameter, and as perfectly double as any rose; it is just beauti- 
ful. The Snowball and Lilac deserve a place, and the beautiful Hydrangea, 
Wiegelia, and many of the hardy roses should not be forgotten. 

How to get and grow them might not come amiss. If I was not on the 
list of nurserymen I might feel less hesitancy in expressing my views, but 
just consider me a friend and I will tell you. 

Of course you would not trust a tree peddler again. They bit you once 
and it was their fault, and if they bite you again it will be your fault. You 
know they can tell you a lovely story, and just what you want. But go to 
your nearest nursery and select just what you want. Don't let the sun 
shine on the roots if you can help it; have the roots sprinkled before you 
pack them away, use plenty of packing; tie them down firmly or pack in a 
box, and put your wagon or box in the shed out of the wind; get the holes 
ready and plant nicely in mellow, moist ground, and your trees and shrubs 
will all grow and you will be well paid for all your trouble. 

DISCUSSION. 

L. O. Williams: I would like to know more about prunus triloba. 

A. F. Collman: It is hardy with me. It grafts readily with the 
plum, and can be put on the tops of ordinary plum sprouts. 

Prof. Budd: It is best top- worked on Miner or Chickasaw; grafted 
up well, it makes a nice tree and is hardy. Grafted on wild plum it 
throws up suckers. We graft on Miner because it takes better than 
on Americana; Prunus vergatta is quite as beautiful; flowers are very 
much like Prunus triloba, but prolongs the season. I would like to 
know of some of the newer trees, as Populus boleana, and how they 
propagating it. 

John Wragg: I have but little trouble in budding it. I am very 
much interested in it. It is a form of the Abele or silver poplar; 
the leaves are larger, thicker and whiter, and it does not sprout. It 
is hard to propagate, and will probably be high; it buds on cotton- 
wood, and is hard to make grow from cuttings. 

Prof. Budd: Populus volesti does well crown budded; I do not 
know any common name for this poplar. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



S. W. Wilson: We worked a few on cottonwood and Jiad very 
good success. 
The Society took a short recess. 
Called to order. 

Election of officers declared to be in order. 

President appointed J. B. Black and G. W. Franklin as tellers. 
The election resulted as follows: 

President—S. W. Wilson, Atlantic. 
Vice-President— W. K. Follett, Malvern. 
Secretary and Ireasurer—Geo. Van Houten, Lenox. 
Assistant Secretary— L. O. Williams, Council Bluffs. 

DIRECTORS ELECTED AS FOLLOWS: 



Taylor county, H. Cade Lenox. 

Union county, Henry Jones Afton. 

Montgomery county, T. E. Ellett Bed Oak. 

Mills county, A. C. Sabin Glenwood. 

Pottawattamie county, Alex. Wood .Council Bluffs. 

Cass county, Silas Wilson Atlantic. 

Harrison county, M. Pugsley Woodbine. 

Guthrie county, Richard Hopkins Bear Grove. 

Shelby county, W. M. Bomberger Harlan. 

Sac county, Elwood Tatum Wall Lake. 

Page county, S. E. Field , Shenandoah. 

Adams county, Joseph Beath Corning. 

Fremont county, G. W. Perkins Farragut. 

Dallas county, John Wragg Waukee. 

Madison county, W. H. Lewis Winterset. 

Adair county, L. M. Kilburn Fontanelle. 

Binggold county, D. N. Smith Lenox. 



Motion that fixing the place of meeting, be deferred until to-mor- 
row afternoon. 
Carried. 

Mr. Steadman, who was to deliver an address, not appearing, Hon. 
John Y. Stone was called out and spoke as follows: 

Mr. President and gentlemen— It is hard enough to be called upon to make 
a speech on a subject you understand, and it is very embarrassing for me to 
be called upon to make a speech on a subject I know so little about. I came 
here to-night to hear Mr. Steadman, but he has failed to put in an appear- 
ance, and I shall be prepared to break his back when I see him again; be- 
cause of this failure, however, it is very appropriate for me to be called out 
in place of Mr. Steadman; because if there i& a man in western Iowa that 



300 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



knows less about horticulture than Mr. Steadman, it is myself. It is agree- 
able to know that your work has been so efficient, and has been crowned 
with at least a measure of success. You are engaged in a work that calls 
for the best muscle and the best brain; and you are engaged in the discov- 
ery of nature's secrets, which is the discovery of nature's law. This calls 
into play the best efforts of man. I feel inadequate to teach you; you are 
much better informed on these subjects than I am, and I gladly would 
learn from you. It is late, yet I would like to hear from Prof. Budd and 
others, and would like to ask a few questions. I have a piece of land set to 
trees, and saw the green leaves still on them, and would like to know what 
would occur if the mercury would suddenly run down to zero? 

Prof. Budd: I believe that has been a trouble; trees growing late 
and trees failing to ripen up. In western Iowa you have the best soil 
in the State. Judge Bacon, in his orchard on the bluffs in Harrison 
county, grows varieties that fail elsewhere. The conditions are 
favorable for the perfect ripening of wood. In wet weather the 
water settles away very readily, and in dry weather, by capillary 
attraction it is drawn to the surface. In visiting orchards in the bot- 
toms, trees of hardiness, of Fameuse, were found to be dead or dam- 
aged, while on the bluff lands varieties much more tender were in 
fairly good condition. I asked the question of old Dr. Stall, what 
were the best varieties in northwest Europe? He looked at me, and 
after a while said he could recommend for a particular kind of soil. 
I think we do not pay enough attention to soil; as the difference in 
soil is often more than the difference in latitude; we talk of a variety 
for all over the State, but we will probably not find it. But we will 
get so we can recommend different varieties for different kinds of 
soil. 

Motion by A. S. Bonham that we adjourn until 9:00 a. m. to- 
morrow. 
Carried. 



SECOND DAY— MORNING SESSION. 



Met pursuant to adjournment. 

President announced as committee on nomenclature, Prof. Budd, 
C. L. Watrous and A. F. Collman. 

A paper on Winter Protection was read by W. M. Bomberger. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. %Q1 



BLACKBERRY CULTURE-WINTER PROTECTION. 



BY W. M. BOMBER G-ER , OF HARLAN. 



When large returns for capital invested and labor involved are gotten out 
of any business adventure or enterprise, then it is usually conceded that 
some practical work has been connected with it. The investment by one 
person of $6,600 in one animal, the eighth Duchess of the Hillsdale Short- 
Horn herd, or the investment of same sum by another person in two hun- 
dred and twenty head ungraded cattle is made for the same purpose, viz., a 
profit; but, individual adaptability, business methods, enthusiastic deter- 
mination, inborn tact, push, dogged persistence, natural advantages, and 
market, these besides many other factors determine the success of either 
person. Let it be remembered, also, that when you hear a man that has had 
success in anything make loud and vigorous claims as to the reasons thereof, 
that while riding his hobby and telling you all about it, this hobby of his, 
this one idea does often completely take possession of him so that he is just 
the worst kind of a fellow to mislead you by the omission of some other fea- 
ture of the business that is just as essential, but has not pressed itself so 
forcibly upon the hobby-jider's attention. Hoping that this is sufficient 
warning I herewith present the following on the practical side of protecting 
small fruits. Will consider blackberries and raspberries because they, with 
a cool, wet spring and moist, hot mid- summer were at their best; and my 
raspberry plants being scattered and having one acre blackberries, 2,000 
Snyder hills in a plat by itself, could more readily keep an account of outlay 
and receipts. Since what is so of the protection of the blackberries is in the 
main of the raspberries, I narrow down this paper to the consideration of 
the protection of one acre of blackberries. It was planted in spring of 1886. 
A partial crop of berries and a crop of potatoes grown between rows paid 
for plants, labor, interest and tax first year. The items this year are as 
follows, first crop, which was grown with protection: 



CREDIT. 



By 72 5-16 bushels fruit, 136 qts. at 15 cents, 2,169 qts. 

at 12* cents 3 292.02 



302 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



DEBIT. 

To interest on land worth $100 per acre and taxes. . $ 7.50 
To laying canes in fall, raising and pruning in spring 26.50 

To plowing, hoeing, pinching terminal buds 15.25 

To unre turned boxes and crates and picking 51.60 

$ 100.85 

Net profits $ 191.17 

I get 95 cents for every dollar invested in land and labor expended. This 
blackberry patch is like many other things— it has a 41 might have been" 
connected with it. A heavy rain, mingled with considerable hail, passed 
over it the night of August 5th, when the berries were at their best, making 
the ground almost black with ripe fruit. A heavy shower the next day beat 
them in the ground so they could not be saved. I put my loss low when I 
put it at five hundred quarts or $50. This, added to what 1 did myself in 
the care of this berry patch, would have male the acre net me about $270. 
Then no account is taken of what the pickers, visitors and birds eat, which 
was no small amount. Not being able to be with the workmen who laid 
them down last fall but a few minutes in the morning and at noon, I found 
that upon raising the canes this spring that they broke off ten per cent of 
them that had to just simply be raised and thrown away; that would have 
given me five hundred quarts more, or made the net profits over $300, the 
amount of $100 lost through the storm and breaking of the canes. 
A ten rod row yielded nearly five bushels I noticed one bush favor- 
ably situated that had had three pickings yield two quarts the fourth 
picking, and they were not all yet. The best picker picked two and 
one-half bushels per day. At their best they counted from one hundred 
and ninety to two hundred and twenty- five berries per quart. Took pains 
to make a count on one bush that numbered six hundred and thirty- five 
berries. Where pruned short, berries measured from one and one- fourth to 
one and one-half inches long. I am ready now to say to any Jessie straw- 
berry man, I believe. In fact the Snyder blackberry gave me a complete 
surprise, as did the Shaffer Collosal raspberry and the black-caps. Some 
Shaffer hills yield me a net profit of sixty cents per hill, and were of such 
size that pickers handled them at the rate of one peck an hour. Ohio black- 
caps netted $12 to $20 per ten rod row. 

As to method, instead of working two men together according to the es- 
tablished way, I can both make time and get better work done by putting a 
man to a row and either work with them myself or place an experienced 
man over them and have the work watched very closely. With heavily 
gloved hands gather laterals and top of hill together, bend down in line 
with row. Place one foot on it near top, with the one foot free and hands 
also, work a few spadesful earth around the foot holding hill down until 
there is enough to hold the hill down. Then remove foot and finish up. 
Some canes bend best at the root. Remove earth away from side you wish 
to bend, cane toward, also opposite side down to subterranean root, go on 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



opposite side, place heel of boot against cane where it joins root, throw 
your whole weight against it several times. This will start it. Now go on 
other side again, with one hand holding on to the top and laterals and the 
other hand on canes, one and one-half feet from ground, bring it over care- 
ful, all the time bending at such points the hardest that show least signs of 
breaking until you get the hill down. This can be regulated with the hand 
not holding the top of hill. This applies to heavy canes branched low. 
Slender, tall canes can be gotten down easily and quickly without digging 
at root. They lay best in damp, moist weather and from day light to 10 a. 
m. In taking up the earth to cover get spadesful by sliding it horizontally 
under the ground so as not to reach down, cut roots and fetch up suckers. 
Always lay the canes the same way. The strain on the root in bending 
canes over causes most active cell building in adventitious buds forced by 
plant directly at union of cane to root. This causes the strongest growth 
aside of each old cane, and is the means of keeping new growth in the orig- 
inal row and because of vigorous growth there this makes less sprouting be- 
tween rows,Iwhich is such a nuisance in blackberry culture. When I planted 
this patch, for certain reasons, I run rows east and west. August 10, 1887, 
a heavy storm from the southwest swept over it and thoroughly soaked the 
ground, after a nearly three months' drought. The canes having just com- 
pleted their growth but being too green to break, bending in the wet ground 
at the root, were nicely laid over to the northeast. I laid them all in this 
direction close to the north side of the row. So much digging to cover and 
uncover, cultivation, hoeing, etc. , brought up a very vigorous growth of new 
wood in a dense hedge row with fruiting canes altogether in shade on north 
side of row very close to ground. Hence my fruit ripened in a very dense 
shade. I picked it when thoroughly ripe. It was without core, red spots or 
sun-sclad, and luscious indeed. I had difficulty in convincing many that I 
was selling the Snyder blackberry. It is a well known fact that the finest 
berries, and those that melt in the mouth, are usually scattered here and 
there in the densest shade near the ground. Try this on a large scale. Pass 
it around, please, and I think you will revolutionize blackberry culture, and 
Michigan and Missouri fruit picked half ripe and put in Iowa market will 
bother you very little. Another important point is to have the land of 
your plantation lay in such a slope as to receive a heavy drifting of snow 
from prevailing winter winds. With me these are in the northwest. My 
land slopes southeast and is nearly at the top of a ridge which breaks sud- 
denly northwest and the northwest winds sweep this northwest slope bare 
of snow, which is shot upward over my place upon which much of it is 
dropped, making with laying my canes a second covering for them. In the 
selection of a location for a fruit farm this is about one of the first things I 
would take into account. 

Since I have devoted so much space to the protection of the blackberry, I 
can but only mention in a sentence the results of the protection of the 
grape, a subject I consider of most importance. Protected Worden vines 
gave me, in this unfavorable year for the grape, bunches weighing a full 
pound, that were grown without pinching new growth or manipulating vine 



304 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



to cause abnormal growth. Will not omit that to get down raspberry canes 
easily nipping off terminal buds must be attended to just in time, and the 
lower the laterals are started the better. I nip when from ten to twelve 
inches, going over the patches three to five times. Strange to say, the Shaf- 
fer Collosal, with me, is the most willowy and easily gotten down. Canes 
must be pruned shorter than if left exposed. If one has had several heavy 
crops prune long, as fruiting buds are not so plentiful after a series of heavy 
crops. If after blossoms are gone you find you have left too much fruiting 
wood, cut back again. This is the way to get fruit off years. If planta- 
tion is young or has had a rest prune short, leave one- third to one* 
half of lateral. Go over after blossoming, and cut back with shears any you 
may leave too long. Judging from my experience in my location, by the 
means of protection, I think that western Iowa can, in favorable seasons, 
produce from one hundred and five to one hundred and thirty-five bushels 
of blackberries per acre, at an expense of from $110 to $150 per acre, the 
profits being determined by price received for the fruit. But I advise the 
inexperienced to go slow and learn first how to handle five hundred hills by 
actual experience before undertaking to grow acres; and I wish here to call 
attention again not to forget the other details of the business while hear- 
ing a hobby-rider press special claims upon you of but one feature of the 
business that he thinks important. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Budd: I wish to say that I consider that a very valuable pa- 
per. It we grow blackberries and raspberries, or grapes in this lati- 
tude, to be sure of a crop we must give winter protection. If we 
give winter protection we will always be sure of a crop. If the canes 
are left uncovered, if not killed they will be lowered in vitality, and 
will not produce best results. I do not wish to offer any criticism on 
the paper, but would offer this suggestion: Mr. Root, of Hopkinton, 
has, for several years, been pursuing a system of evolution or devel- 
opment in winter protection. He lays down, as described by Mr. 
Bamberger, but instead of laying down in the row, he lays down 
across the row. In cultivating in the row there is a hollow, and the 
ground is loose. After the canes have been laid down it is hard to 
keep them upright. He then stretches one wire, and fastens to stakes 
three feet high. When time comes to lay them down again the sta- 
ples can be easily drawn, with an instrument made for that purpose, 
the wires laid down on the ground, the canes are laid across the wire 
and covered. The wire is an advantage in taking up canes in the 
spring, and if the rows run east and west, the canes having been laid 
north, the canes will stand at a considerable angle toward the north. 
The new growth coming up from the roots will shade the fruit at 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



time of ripening, and will help to prevent the drying up of the fruit 
that sometimes occurs in time of drought. 

W. M. Bomberger: I do not find it necessary to wire up, as they 
retain their position without any support. If they should lean very 
much it would interfere with proper cultivation. It takes thorough 
cultivation to make a perfect blackberry. A perfect blackberry is a 
rare thing. Fruit shipped in is hard when shipped, and has no show 
in competition with winter protected, well cultivated fruit. I have 
been trying to find out some kind of an instrument suitable to culti- 
vating blackberries. A plow having handles that work on a swivel, 
or arranged with some device for getting close up under the row, is 
what we need. A diamond plow is a good thing for cultivating black- 
berries. I consider it an advantage to have the fruit near the ground, 
as the heat is even near the ground, and they will ripen better. 
Grapes near the ground on the north side of the row are very sweet. 
I have been trying to get this same sweetness in th6 blackberry. I 
begin to layer about the first of September, but until the leaves drop 
did not cover the canes all up. Just put enough to hold the canes 
down. I sometimes cut up the old blackberry wood with a spade and 
put it under the canes. 

President Wilson: How far apart in the row do you grow your 
canes, and how far apart are the rows? 

W. M. Bomberger: I grow them in hedge row. The method of 
bending down canes causes new canes to grow up near the old cane. 
I would have the rows eight feet apart. 

Prof. Budd: I would like the recommendation that I made con- 
cerning stakes and wire quite clear. Those little stakes are driven 
so near the row as not to interfere with cultivation. The canes lean 
over eight or ten inches, the wire holding them all in place, so that 
there is no trouble in cultivating. 

W. M. Bomberger. In the first place I should be very careful in 
handling the canes, and would bring them up nearly to a perpendic- 
ular, and have no trouble to get them to stand. Even if close to the 
ground there are but few barrels that get dirty, and they can be 
washed. We commenced gathering our berries on the twenty-fourth 
of July, and continued marketing until the twenty-fourth of August. 
We had berries for our own use for fully six weeks. 

A paper on "Horticultural Institute Work" was read by C. L. 
Watrous. 

39 



306 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE WORK. 



BY C. L. WATROUS, DES MOINES. 



If farmer institutes are desirable at all it seems not a difficult task to show 
that a horticultural department is quite as necessary as any other. 

There is probably no other subject resting so near to all our daily lives 
upon which there is such a general lack of intelligence as upon that em- 
braced under the generic term horticulture. 

Business men are not ashamed to say they know nothing about such mat- 
ters who would be ashamed to confess ignorance upon other subject of far 
less importance to health and comfort of living. 

Vastly more of the phsical prosperity and well-being of a people depends 
upon its food than is generally imagined. A highly organized, nervous, ac- 
tive people require to be more generously and healthfully nourished than a 
half savage one, in order to maintain reasonable health uDder such incessant 
strain. 

Again, in such a climate as our, wherein diseases of the liver and other 
digestive organs are especially troublesome, a generous supply of fruit is of 
far greater importance than in a cooler, moister climate, where the special 
diseases are likely to be those of the throat and lungs. An inhabitant of 
New England, Canada or Scotland has little need of fruit, as compared with 
the dweller upon the rich soils and under the burning sun of an Iowa August 
or September. 

For this reason alone, the sanitary one, our people have especial need to 
be taught, through farmers institutes, the vital importance of abundant fruit, 
to maintain the health and vigor of their families, but also to be taught the 
common rules about planting, cultivating, gathering:, preserving, storing 
and preparing for the table all the fruits desirable and capable of successful 
cultivation in the various regions of our commonwealth. 

The great importance of such teaching upon the health and comfort of 
this, especially upon the rising generation, can scarcely be over-estimated. 

Moreover, these institutes could be made of immedse value by dispensing 
knoweldge that would strongly tend to prevent much of the fraud now prac- 
ticed by conscienceless vendors of worthless or ill adapted trees and plants. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



. These sinners find ready victims to the most presposterous impositions 
because, when one knows nothing about the subject, a lie is just as credible 
as the truth and goes far better in selling at high prices most wonderful 
trees and plants from foreign lands or other distant parts, grapevine rasp- 
berries, got by grafting a raspberry upon a honeysuckle and producing fruit 
of wonderful succulence and siie, growing on thornless stems; everbearing 
mulberries from Russia, that bear two crops in summer and a third in win- 
ter, if transplanted into fresh soil in a cellar; applq trees budded on French 
crab stocks, thereby being rendered blight proof, borer proof and iron-clad 
against any degree of cold or heat, while bearing fruit in unlimited quanti- 
ties and of a quality beyond compare; all these, and many other equally 
preposterous frauds, have found and still find plenty of faithful believers, 
who are willing to risk their money on their faith. The amounts of cash 
drained from hard workers ill able to lose it, would foot up something enor- 
mous if known. 

Very few men are aware of the fact that a tree or plant if really a great 
success in any distant locality is, for that reason, much less likely to suc- 
ceed with them because individual trees and plants have very little power of 
adaptation to different circumstances. Few people know or stop to think 
that a tree propagated by grafting or budding has less power of adopting 
itself to changed conditions than a plant reproduced locally from seed, and 
this lack of knowledge costs us dearly every year. 

Some elementary instruction should also be imparted at these institutes 
upon the important subjects of seedling production and selection, because 
it is a fact that every fruitful region known to man has had its especial type 
of fruits fixed by seedling production in that especial region. And these 
special regions are far less extensive individually than is usually supposed. 

It was said by some of the most experienced pomologists at a late meet 
ing of the American Pomological Society, that the premium specimens of 
fruits had habitually been observed to come from the region or from near 
the region of their origin. These facts have an instructive and useful les- 
son for us in this prairie region, unlike, in many respects, any other region 
on the globe. 

Another great subject would also naturally be urged in these institutes. 
I mean the moral and material benefits to be derived from planting about the 
home for shade in summer, shelter in winter and beauty and comfort at all 
times. 

No tongue or pen can tell the inestimable benefit to the rising generation 
of beautiful homes in the country, near the healthful and softening play of 
nature's health giving processes. Great cities are moral and physical de- 
stroyers, constantly fed by the best blood and brain from the country, on 
pain of depopulation otherwise. Ours is yet a State of country homes. 
This proposed work would tend to keep it so. 

These are only a very few considerations in favor of the proposed educa- 
tional work, but these are surely enough for those who love their State and 
their posterity. 



308 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



DISCUSSION. 

W. M. Bomberger: 1 learn that the State of Wisconsin, has given 
great aid to the institute work, and they have published reports, that 
are in great demand. 

Report of Montgomery county, by T. E. Ellett, Director. 



REPORT OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 



BY T. E. ELLETT, DIRECTOR. 



I have to report the poorest apple crop of any previous year of my knowl- 
edge for Montgomery county; quality inferior, uneven in size, and seven 
out of ten wormy and scabby. 

All fruits ripened three weeks earlier than usual, save the apple crop of 
1887. Sweet June, Snow, Grimes' Golden, Maiden Blush and Ben Davis 
were the heaviest bearers; Janets a total failure. 

The apple crop continued to fall badly from time of forming until matur- 
ity, requiring -early picking to save the fruit. Grimes' Golden, Roman Stem 
and Jonathan were mellow and good eating December 1st. 

Small fruits, two thirds crop; shortened by drought; quality good. 

Snyder blackberrj, Turner, Mammoth Cluster and Red Antwerp rasp- 
berries gave best results. 

Strawberry prospects early in the season, as indicated by bloom, unusually 
large, but shortened by frost when in that state. A good rain ten days 
before the finish would have given a fine and larger crop. 

The plum crop an entire failure, made so by frost, there being a dense 
bloom. 

Concord grape crop large and flavor good. 

Montgomery county is at the front with all fruits adapted to locality. 

Fruit trees seem to be going into winter in good condition, the fall season 
being favorable for forming fruit buds, and we confidently look for a good 
crop for 1889. 

Apples retailing at 50 to 60 cents per bushel, probably owing to bad keep- 
ing qualities. 
The potato crop a good average and fair quality. 
Cabbage an over production. 
No rain since October 20th. 
A two inch snow fell November 17th. 

Water for stock very scarce, the dryest period in the county's history. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



I take issue with the action of the last Horticultural Society in the varie- 
ties of evergreens to be planted, and recommend Norway spruce, Red cedar 
and White pine; Arbor vitse, never! 

If I am in order, I desire to call your attention to a return to the growing 
of Osage orange for fence purposes, with a view of abolishing barb wire as 
much as possible. Barb wire fencing is in no way cheaper than Osage hedge 
plants, and the value when made is in my judgment two hundred per cent 
less than a hedge, both being made in the best manner. When once erected, 
wire is almost as expensive to keep in repair— (but to admit that it is never 
to be repaired)— the damage to both man and beast annually will keep 
trimmed and in the best of repair a hedge fence from one year to another. 
And what is more beautiful? An ornament in summer, a wind-break in 
winter, and an everlasting fence, care for it or not. Save the cost of plants 
to the builder (twelve dollars to the mile), the farmer works in his time and 
saves remaining cost at home. Much more can be said in condemnation of 
barb wire; then what will we conclude? 

DISCUSSION. 

Geo. Van Houten: I desire to second Mr. Ellett's plea for the 
hedge fence. It may seem out of place, and is perhaps useless, to 
advocate the Osage orange for fence purposes, but considering the 
ease and certainty with which it can be grown in Southern Iowa, and 
considering the great loss of stock by barbed wire, it is surprising to 
me that the idea of hedge fencing should be abandoned. Osage 
plants cost but little, the work can be easily and cheaply done, and, 
with the exception of the one element of time waiting for it to 
grow, it is the cheapest fence that can possibly be made. The dam- 
age by wire fence is not by barbs alone, but it is an excellent con- 
ductor of lightning, and when the storm drives stock to a wire fence, 
they are standing in just the right position to receive the fatal shock, 
though the bolt may have descended upon the fence at a point quite 
distant. 

Reports of Directors of Mills and Madison counties were read by 
Secretary. 



310 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF MILLS COUNTY. 



BY A. C. SABIN. 



The year has been a fairly prosperous one for planting of trees, vines and 
plants. Our spring was quite seasonable. Rain came just right to save 
our plantings, and trees have made a very fine growth. 

As nearly as I can ascertain, the increase in acreage in our county is 
about 1,000 in apple and cherry, and an increase in grapes of 50,000 vines. 
In small fruits the plant was not as successful. In strawberries the stand 
was good, but the acreage was not increased; neither was it in blackberries. 
In raspberries there was a perceptible gain, but Gregg plants did not do 
Well. They started all right, but seemed to lack vitality. 

There was one crop that did the best it ever has with us, and that was 
weeds. They came up by regiments, divisions and corps, and knew no such 
thing as defeat. Hope the balance of you have not had such an expensive 
summer as we have had. 

Small fruits, when they came, were poorer than last year. I cannot ac- 
count for it. One of our neighbors had a first rate prospect for strawber- 
ries. His bed in 1887 did extremely well, and the rows, when spring came, 
were many of them as fine as I ever saw, but the fruit was not there; it did 
not set properly, and what did was poor. The same was true of raspber- 
ries and blackberries. Grapes were not over a third of a cropland not 
nearly as good as they were last year. 

Apples were about one third of last year's crop. There were none bar- 
reled and shipped; all were sold to wagons in the orchards, and brought 
from 25 to 50 cents. Berries sold for 12i cents per box, on an average. 
Grapes brought from 2 to 3 cents per pound. 

Our orchards look better than we had reason to expect, after going 
through two dry seasons and carrying to maturity such a heavy crop as 
they did last year Some varieties have not recovered from the strain, no- 
tably, Ben Davis. It persisted in blooming this year, while Genitan, Jona- 
than and many others took a rest and have recovered in a good degree from 
the crop of 18S7 

Cherries were a total failure, as were plums Vegetables were rather 
better than last }ear, with the exception of potatoes 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY %H 



We have not been able to decide which is the most profitable, apple, plum 
or cherry. 

In raspberries our choice is Shaffer, and in blackberries Snyder, although 
we prefer Taylor's Prolific for table use and canning. In strawberries it is 
still Crescent, with Mt. Vernon a close second. Currants are not profitable 
with us. In gooseberries we prefer Downing; it gives us two crops out of 
three. Prunus Simoni promises well; not planted very much yet. In 
grapes it is Concord, Moore's Early and Worden, with Pocklington for 
white and Niagara for further trial. 

Evergreens have made a good growth, and the planting of them is in- 
creasing. We look for an increased acreage put into fruit the coming year, 
and hope for a more profitable one. 

John Wragg, director, of Dallas county, reported verbally as fol- 
lows: 



DALLAS COUNTY. 



BY JOHN WRA.GG, DIRECTOR. 



Mr. President: I have made no written report, but will tell you briefly as 
to the situation in our county. The situation in our county is about the 
same as reported from Madison county by Mr. Lewis. 

The Worden grape is increasing in favor with us. 

Cherries were an entire failure; the old cherry trees are almost gone, only 
young trees of the old varieties remaining. Of the Wragg cherries there 
were only a few trees in bearing, but they did well. It is now past its ex- 
perimental age, and so far as planted has been a success. 

In evergreens, will say that I have been surprised to see White pine ex- 
tolled, but I begin to see that in different parts of the State that it does not 
do equally well. Along the two great rivers that border this State the cli- 
mate is different and possibly more moist. I have advocated Scotch pine; 
and for the first ten years, when a man needs it most, it is away ahead of 
any other variety. Further north the White pine does better, and there is 
a possibility that it does better along the rivers in this latitude. The faster 
evergreens grow they are more open; the slower they grow they are more 
dense. As to Red cedar, I do not think there is a tree that can be planted, 
for posts and other uses, that can be more profitable. I prefer Red cedar to 
catalpa, although I am friend of catalpa, and would recommend it exten- 
sively. Nine tenths of our people look upon Red cedar as being a slow 
grower; but, on good soil, with good cultivation and under favorable cir- 



312 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



cumstances, will grow to fence-post size in ten years. As to catalpa, a word 
of caution is necessary to those who have not planted it. They must be 
planted thick or they will make heavy side branches and slow, ugly growth; 
they should be planted two to four feet in the row, and the rows not further 
apart than four feet. 

A word as to White pine. I may be considered a heretic when I express 
my views. Some folks recommend planting White pine for lumber; but I 
cannot do it; you cannot do it. When nature plants a grove of White pines 
for lumber, they are planted so thick that limbs cannot grow on them; per- 
haps no branch thicker than a lead pencil, until they are a considerable 
height. They grow to a height of 80 or 100 feet, with a tuft of branches at 
the top no larger than a fifteen foot tree as we grow it. There will soon be 
White pine in Iowa large enough for saw logs; but what kind of lumber 
will they make? Limbs have been grown all along the body and the lumber 
from such trees would be a mass of knots. In old trees in the pineries there 
are no knots on trees, as compared with our trees grown in open ground. 
White pine, grown in nature's way, two or three feet in diameter, the first 
cut will be entirely free from knots or limbs. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Budd: I want to take issue with Mr. Wragg, and as to his 
conclusion in growing White pine. The fact is, I don't believe it. 
We have men in the State who have demonstrated the fact that 
White pine can be grown profitably. If White pine are grown eight 
feet apart each way, with larch between, they can stand until the 
larch are large enough for use, when they can be cut, leaving the 
pines to occupy the ground. Not two miles from here, on the Ray- 
mond place, is a demonstration of the fact that White pine can be 
profitably grown for timber. On my farm are White pine large 
enough for small saw logs now. They are fifty feet high and only a 
tuft of leaves at the top. The young White pine trees are very 
cheap; you can get them almost for nothing. I see three of these 
reports speak of the White willow and recommend it for planting. 
We should plant the best willows. The Salix Fragilis is one of the 
best. It was introduced by the Mennonites. I have disseminated 
it over the north to a considerable extent. It has thicker and better 
leaf than the White willow; the wood is red or salmon color. 

L. O. Williams: I am more interested in strawberries than in for- 
estry. The Jessie has not come up to recommendation in reports. 
They are poor berries, as compared with Bubach. I consider it un- 
promising; I am disappointed in it. I would like to hear from 
others. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



L. A. Williams: I want to drop a hint that I got from a farmer, 
who recommends Osage for timber. He claims that it is better than 
any other. If any one has seen it planted for timber I would like to 
hear from him. 

A. S. Bonham: I would like to say a word on the timber subject. 
I have known catalpa for thirty years, and have never seen one half 
as large as my body. I do not consider it valuable. It is not nearly 
so valuable a timber as Osage orange, and will grow but little faster. 
On a farm near this city, an Osage orange hedge planted twenty years 
ago, where plants have been thinned, they are now as large as my 
thigh, and some of them will make two lengths of posts. 

E. F. Stevens: In regard to catalpa, Robert Douglas gives us some 
good advice. The reports from the tree claims from Kansas and 
Nebraska are variable, and he attributes the difference in part to the 
seed and the source from which it came. When Mr. Douglas began 
contracting for tree claims in Kansas, he got seed from southern Ar- 
kansas; but he now only recommends seeds from not farther south 
than Missouri. We have been planting for fifteen or sixteen years, 
and find that seeds from the north do much better than seeds that 
came from the south. In places in Nebraska, where rains do not wet 
down more than eight or ten inches, the catalpa winters well, and in 
four years has a diameter of 2-J to 3^ inches and a stand from ten to 
twelve and a half feet high. They grow very well and are being 
planted extensively and successfully. 

A. B. Mair: If Mr. Bonham will come out to the Raymond place, 
he will see catalpa trees that are larger than his body and sixty feet 
high. If planted close, they will grow up in good shape and will 
give satisfaction. 

Geo. Van Houten: If properly planted Osage orange will give 
satisfaction in southern Iowa. It should only be planted on dry, 
porous soil, the warmer the better. Plant close, say two feet apart 
in the rows, and rows not farther than four feet apart. They should 
have thorough cultivation for the first few years, and thinned out as 
they begin to crowd. The thinnings of Oaage orange will be very 
valuable for stakes, and even small sticks will do for fence posts for 
wire fence. We have no other wood as durable, or that will grow in 
better shape for fence posts, if planted close and well cultivated. 
The larch will also pay well to raise as timber. It should be planted 
close, say four by four feet, or intersperced with White pine or other 



40 



314 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



evergreens as recommended by Prof. Budd, and they will not need 
thinning out until they are large enough for fence posts. The larch 
always grow in good shape. The catalpa will give satisfaction if 
properly grown. It must be planted close and well cultivated. It is 
not suitable for interspersing with evergreens, as it is inclined to 
straggle, and the leaves are too large and the shade too dense to 
allow the evergreens a fair chance. I am glad to hear Prof. Budd 
recommending the willows. The white willow can be grown profita- 
bly on the prairies, and if there are better varieties I welcome their 
introduction. Some folks recommend growing willows for firewood. 
I cannot afford to do this, as I can sell my willow poles for more 
than enough to buy coal, and thereby I save labor of chopping. 

The subject of orchard insect pests was declared to be in order. 
The President called on Mr. Follett to open the discussion. 

W. K. Follett: When I joined this Society I expected to be a lis- 
tener -'rather than to try to teach any one. I have been a blunderer, 
and perhaps one of my worst blunders is in attempting to open dis- 
cussion on this subject to-day. I have the credit of having the best 
orchard in Mills county. I ordered my trees, and succeeded in get- 
ting fairly good varieties — blundered into it; but I have the orchard. 
Insects are very troublesome, but the codling moth is the very worst 
enemy to successful orcharding. The moth, like grasshoppers, is 
easily managed if taken in time. When I go through my orchard 
and find insects or other enemies doing damage, I fight them. In 
fighting codling moth, I get any kind of cans, such as fruit or oyster 
oans, and make a little bale of wire to fasten them in the trees. I 
fill these cans with a mixture of equal parts of molasses and cider 
vinegar. These traps should be arranged as soon as the trees come 
into bloom, or, better, before, as I have seen the moth flying in the 
spring when the water would freeze in the water-troughs at night. 
The codling moth is migratory in its habits. You can catch them 
all out of an orShard, the large ones in three or four nights; then 
you will not catch any more of the old ones, but you will get the 
young ones. A neighbor thought I was mistaken, as he thought they 
were full grown when they come oat of the cocoons. But I think 
the young ones can be told from the old ones. After having appa- 
rently caught all the moths, if warm weather occurs, with soft, 
balmy south winds, the cans in the south row will be entirely full, 
the next row nearly full, and so on, less, with very few in the cans 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 3^5 



on the north side of the orchard. I saw a man at our fair who said 
he had hardly a perfect apple, and his orchard was only three miles 
south of mine, while my apples were almost entirely free from moths. 
John Y. Stone, in his orchard near Glenwood, caught lots of them, 
and all who have tried this remedy report having captured many of 
the moths. I am satisfied that I caught a bushel by measure, and 
while some orchardists had not one perfect apple out of ten, I had 
nine out of ten without worms. Buyers came from other places and 
bought of me, because my apples were free from worms. I know 
nothing about borers. About seven years ago I planted a crop of 
Early Rose potatoes on bottom land. Had failed on high land, and 
went down there. After planting Early Rose and Early Ohio for 
myself, I planted Peachblows for my brother-in-law. I worked them 
once when the potatoes were about eight inches high, when I found 
the potato stalks wilted down. I found little flies or bugs working 
on the top buds of the potatoes. These bugs or flies were sucking 
the juice, and the Early Rose and Early Ohio did no good, while the 
Peachblows, coming later, made a good crop. This year I found the 
same kind of insects, and wherever they missed a hill there was a 
good yield; but wherever the insects worked there were no potatoes. 
They are very small— not over one fourth of an inch long — about as 
large as house-flies; but they ruined my potatoes all the same. 

A. S. Bonham: Do you have a can on each tree? 

W. K. Follett: No; I have a row of cans for every third or fourth 
row each way. The cans can be fastened to the tree by a small wire 
bail, or by bending the edge of the can so water cannot run down 
the tree into the can; you can fasten to the tree with a three-penny 
nail. I went to a neighbor and bought a barrel of scorched molasses 
and a half- barrel of skimmings; and this, mixed with cider vinegar, 
makes a good combination. When the mixture gets covered over 
with moth, take them out and refill the can, as necessary. 

R. W. Carson: How would it be if you kept bees? 

W. K. Follett: Bees do not trouble this mixture, and it is only 
occasionally that a bee gets drowned in it. 

L. A. Williams: I tried this remedy, and cannot report decided 
results, and will tell why. When Mr. Follett gave this remedy, some 
years ago, it was new to most of us. I have been spraying with the 
arsenic remedy as recommended by Mr. Dixon; have a sixteen-acre 
orchard fenced off for hog pasture; and last year a neighbor wanted 



316 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



to use it for a calf pasture, and as stock was turned in early, we 
could not use the arsenic remedy; so I thought I would try Mr. Fol- 
lett's remedy; I had one hundred and twenty five to one hundred and 
fifty cans; I caught a great many insects that I thought were codling 
moth; I also caught some bees — a few. After replenishing cans 
caught more moth; kept replenishing until I thought danger was 
over; I then abandoned replenishing the cans, and about three of 
every seven of my apples were wormy; perhaps I would have done 
better if I had been more vigilant and continued longer to use the 
molasses and vinegar. I think I shall resort to the arsenic remedy 
again. 

W. K. Follett: I don't know how Mr. Williams made the mistake 
he did, as he spoke to me one day when it was rather too late, and he 
was going to spray. I told him that it was his privilege. He after- 
ward wrote to me, and I told him it must be kept up. I did not 
know last winter what I know now, that they were so migratory in 
their habits. If a man like Mr. Williams or Mr. Stone attempts to 
catch codling moth for a whole neighborhood he has a big job. 
There is nothing like doing a thing at the right time. If you turn 
over ground that has grasshopper eggs in it they will not hatch. 
You can go over a twenty-acre orchard in two or three hours, and if 
this remedy is properly applied, it will get away with the codling 
moth. Don't go home and try store vinegar and sweetened water, as 
it will result in failure. 

A. S. Bonham: How often do you renew the vinegar and molasses 
in the cans? 

W. K. Follett: It depends on the weather, and you must renew 
the south row oftenest, and the moth must be killed. 

L. A. Williams: I caught about as many in the middle as on the 
south side. 

Motion to adjourn until 1:30 o'clock. 

Carried. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 3^7 



SECOND DAY— AFTERNOON SESSION. 



The special order for fixing place of next meeting was taken up. 

Council Bluffs, Glenwood and Atlantic nominated. 

On canvass of votes, Glenwood was found to have the majority of 
votes cast, and was declared place of next meeting. 

Christian Steinman was elected director of Monona county and S. 
L. Morrison, director of Lucas county. 

Alex. Wood and A. S. Bonham each read a paper on Grapes, as fol- 
lows: 



GRAPES. 

BY ALEJX, WOOD, COUNCIL BLUFFS. 



At the request of my friend, Mr. Bonham, I take his place to say some- 
thing on grape varieties and grape culture. A great many more grapes have 
been offered to the public in the last five years, and although some of them 
have hard seals on their stems, the introducers of those vines evidently did 
not have any seal on their lips, and there has been nothing too extravagant 
or absurd for them to say in order to sell their vines. Out of a whole lot of 
rubbish we can get now and again a very good grape, but not one of them, 
so far as I know and believe, can take the place of the good old Concord; 
it still leads the van in new plantations and holds its place in the old ones. 
Next in importance is the Worden; it is of superior quality; is as hardy, 
and if anything, more prolific than the Concord. If I could plant but one 
vine it would be a Worden. With me the Worden can be marketed eight 
days sooner than Concord. Although the Worden is an excellent grape, yet 
it has two weak points which should not be overlooked. It has a very thin 
skin, and is therefore a poor shipper; and it does not keep well on the vim 



318 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



after ripening. I do not think it advisable to plant this grape in place of 
Concord, but would add twenty-five per cent t© my vineyard and plant with 
Worden vines 

In red grapes, the Brighton comes first on the list. With me it is a strong 
grower, an abundant bearer, and the quality of the fruit is very fine. The 
birds understand that, and I am obliged to bag the clusters to prevent their 
wholesale destruction. 

The Jefferson is another superb grape, but not so prolific as Brighton; 
still every one should have a few vines, the fruit is so good. We need a red 
grape in Iowa as hardy as the Concord, as prolific as the Worden, with the 
quality of the Brighton. Whoever gets up that combination will make a 
fortune. 

Looking at the white grapes from a commercial standpoint, the Niagara 
takes the lead in my vineyard. 

It is a rampant grower and bears an abundance of large berries in big 
showy clusters, and is very attractive in appearance; in quality about like 
Concord. The fruit is very persistent and will hang to the vine until de- 
stroyed by the frost. Consumers buy it readily for its good looks. The 
Niagara has not been planted here very extensively, but I think it will be as 
soon as our growers comprehend what a good market grape it is. 

The Pocklington deserves more than a passing notice. My experience 
with this grape shows it to be very hardy. Last winter was exceptionally 
severe on grapevines, and in covering the Pocklington I left one vine ex- 
posed, expecting it to freeze to the ground. I was astonished in the spring 
to notice it bud forth as vigorously as vines that were protected and bear as 
good a crop. This grape is worth planting, although with me the Niagara 
yields two pounds of fruit to its one. If I wanted a white grape for my 
own eating I would plant the Dutchess. It is of very superior quality, the 
clusters are beautiful. This vine is inclined to overbear, and the fruit 
should be thinned out one-half to prevent rot. Cultivation of the grape 
after it is planted in the field is simple enough; any method by which the 
ground is kept stirred and the weeds kept down is good. In my own prac- 
tice, a ten inch plow and a hoe are the only implements used. I look on a 
cultivator as a dangerous thing in a bearing vineyard. When through tie- 
ing up in spring, which should be not later than the first of May, plowing is 
began by throwing the furrow toward the center of the row and away from 
the vines; in two weeks this operation is repeated inversely and the earth 
turned toward the vines, in the meantime the hoe is used under the vines 
where the plow cannot reach. This carries us forward to the end of the 
month— the same operation is performed in June and also in July. This 
brings us to the first of August, when all work in the vineyard ceases. We 
have now only to watch that the trellis is kept in position and that no fruit 
touches the ground until the grapes are ripe. 

I cannot close tbis paper without calling the attention of the Society to 
to the fact, that during fifteen years of practical grape culture, year after 
year, my attention has been attracted to the ravages committed on the 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



vines by the severity of winter, sometimes more, sometimes less, but always 
conspicuous, abortive ends, dried up spurs and half dead vines, infested by 
borers. This is noticeable in all unprotected vines around Council Bluffs. 
On the other hand, vines that are laid down and covered, no matter how 
tender the variety, come up fresh and vigorously in the spring, carrying a 
good crop of fruit. I have never seen a borer in a vine that was carefully 
protected in winter. My experience has led me irresistably to the conclu- 
sion that in this vicinity at least, if we want a good crop of grapes every 
year our canes must be protected, no matter what the variety may be. 



GKAPES. 



BY A. 8. BONHAM, COUNCIL BLUFFS. 



Variety and culture is my subject, and will say that as a bit of history I 
will pen this short paper. 

Near a quarter of a century since, in the spring of 1864, 1 bought and 
planted 500 Concord vines. The next spring I planted 3,000 more Concords, 
and for several years thereafter I added more or less to my vineyard. I also 
put out quite a number of other varieties. Among them I will name a few 
that were highly recommended at that date: Catawba, Isabella, Diana, 
Clinton, Iona, and a few of the Rogers' Hybrids. I fruited most all those 
varieties, and many of them were very nice, especially the Catawba, Diana, 
Hartford and the Iona; but, to be brief, they were short lived in this cli- 
mate. There was no money in them, and you know that was what we were 
after. 

But not so with the Concord. It grew and bore me nice large crops. The 
3,000 vines that I set the spring of 1865, bore one season, the fifth year after 
planting, over 10,000 pounds per acre, but that was an exception, many 
crops being light; but prices, those days, run down from 16 to 10 cents, and 
consequently brought me good money. After a few years my neighbors 
caught on, and so 1 had competition; then the railroads came, and they 
brought more competition, and so the price is now about three to four cents 
per pound. 

Now as to cultivation, everybody knows how to plow and to plant, and 
everybody should know that good cultivation pays every time. 

Now, Mr. President, I have given you my adventure of twenty-five years 
ago, when the people thought I was crazed— and so I was; and, sir, I have 
pressed my friend, Mr. Alexander Wood, to finish this essay, which he has 
consented to, as I have been laid on the shelf for the past ten years. Mr. 
Wood has been active in grape culture for ten or twelve years, and has 
given it his personal attention. 



320 



STATE HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



DISCUSSION. 

W. M. Bomberger: I would like to ask Mr. Wood his system of 
pruning. 

Alex. Wood: I have tried the spur system, but will resort to re- 
newal system. 

John Y. Stone: I would like to ask Mr. Wood as to the best 
methods of pruning and laying down. 

Alex. Wood: I can only give my own experience. I lay my vines 
down from the first, and managed this way they will bend very easily 
and cause very little troubling in handling. If they have not had 
this experience, they can be laid down in some direction, though not 
as easily as if properly managed from the first. 

B. Harcourt: I would like to hear from Prof. Budd on the man- 
agement of grapes. 

Prof. Budd: My system of covering has been criticised, but we 
wish to arrive at results with least labor. When you cut vines from 
the trellis they will fall down, and, after pruning, cover crown and 
cut points, leaving bow exposed. Prof. Bessey used to tell his classes 
that the dry winds of winter would extract moisture from a dry 
fence post. There is a great evaporation during winter. If the cut 
points and the bow are covered it will, in a great measure, prevent 
evaporation, and we have found this sufficient. This takes a great 
deal less labor, both in laying down and taking up again, and has 
given us very satisfactory results. 

F. H. Bruning: I will give you my experience, which is very 
much like that of Prof. Budd. I trim my vines to one or two buds, 
trained to an angle of 45 degrees. My rows run north and south. 
When I prune my vines and take them from the trellis, I put them 
up the hill and fasten the vines down with forked sticks. I then 
take a one horse plow, and, by making the horse walk fast, can cover 
my vines in a very short time. After first time I take a two-horse 
plow. Next year I plow the other way. I take corn-husks to tie my 
vines up in spring. As vines get older I run them lower, to keep 
them from cracking or breaking when bent down. I trim my vines 
as soon in the fall as the leaves are off. 

A. S. Bonham: I think that is a good way. But there is some- 
thing I want to speak of that is fully as important, and that is the 
ground that we plant on. The ravine where damp air settles are not 
the thing for grapes. Upon the slopes or hillsides grapes will do 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



much better. In damp locations grapes will not pay. I have dug up 
five acres in such a locality. My advice would be to every one not 
to plant in these ravines. I know three or four of my neighbors who 
have a similar location, and their grapes do no better than mine did. 

L, A. Williams: What do you say as to the fertility on the hill- 
sides? 

Alex. Wood: We have several packing-houses here, and I fertil- 
ize with bones. I also leave the wood that I cut off the vines. 

W. M. Bomberger: I have for several years trimmed with a view 
to laying down. It is hard to tell how I trim without charts to show. 
The first fall I cut off to the ground. Next year rubbed all buds off 
except two strong canes. Next fall cut one cane to within six inches 
of the ground, leaving the others six feet long. The next year one 
should be left three feet long and the other six feet, and allow two 
strong canes to grow from each of these. Have vines in shape of 
the letter T. By cutting out half of these each year, you will have 
a constant renewal system, and grow the fruiting wood from the 
roots. It is a mistake to have the fruiting buds on the terminal of 
the old wood. 

L. A. Williams: I understand that ten-pound baskets of grapes 
can now be bought at Omaha and Council Bluffs at twenty cents per 
basket. 

Silas Wilson: I think this is not usual, and think there must be 
an improper distribution. There may be several things combined to 
cause this, but such prices are not likely to occur again. 

A. S. Bonham: Cool weather during the grape season caused a 
small consumption. In warm weather much more grapes are used. 

Silas Wilson: Some may think I have a selfish motive in urging 
the growing of grapes because I raise vines to sell; but we certainly 
should raise enough for our own use. If they can be grown on land 
worth $150 per acre and shipped from the east, as has been done, it 
will surely pay to raise grapes here on our cheap lands. 

Alex. Wood: Grapes are not worth from three to four cents in 
New York. 

J. W. Murphy read a paper on Marketing Fruits. 



41 



322 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



MARKETING FRUIT. 



BY J. W. MURPHY, GLEN "WOOD. 



Mr. President and gentlemen of the Society: 

I am somewhat surprised at being called upon to give some ideas upon 
i3uch an important question as has been assigned me. My experience in the 
fruit business is very limited, as I have been in the business only four years; 
and, of course, you will not expect much from me on this important ques- 
tion. I can only give my own experience. There are three essentials: 
jflrst, to have fruit that is fit for market; second, to have it handled just 
right; third, to have a nice, clean, showy package to market in. The first 
fruit I have for market is the strawberry. This is one of the most difficult 
fruits to grow and market in good shape, I have ever tried. The first thing 
I do is to select pickers that will do as they are ordered. I have nothing 
picked that is not fit for market. All small and inferior berries are not put 
in the boxes. Fill the boxes as full as the package will allow, so as to not 
mash them, as there is considerable shrinkage in shipping strawberries, and 
often the price is cut down on account of not being full and the expense of 
picking and shipping such a package is just as much as though it was full 
and in good shape. We have a local dealer in our town that handles the 
most of our small fruit at a small commission. He has a better chance to 
look up the markets than we have, as he is in the fruit business the year 
round. He stands responsible for all fruit shipped by him. He commences 
before the fruit season comes to locate one responsible dealer in each town 
he ships to, assuring him that the fruit will be all O. K., and delivers in 
good shape, as he handles nothing but good fruit. The price is also fixed 
before the fruit is shipped, at a good figure, taking the demand in consid- 
eration. By this way of marketing the grower has nothing to do, only to 
get his fruit in order and deliver on the sidewalk in front of our agent's 
place of business, which is done only a few moments before the train 
arrives to take it away, making no delay whatever. If the retail dealer at 
any time gets dissatisfied at the price the fruit is billed to him, he can have 
his shipment cut off or added to, as he desires, provided the supply will 
admit of it; and we find, invariably, they want more fruit than we can fur- 
nish them. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



All our small fruit is done in this way. Last season I only had one ship- 
ment that went to a commission house, and that was sold, and the price 
fixed before shipping. - 

Last season I used the small berry box, which only holds three-fourths of 
a quart. I had just as good success as I did when I used the large box. 

In regard to handling and shipping apples, it depends greatly on the shape 
the market is in and the condition of the fruit, and the way it is handled. 
In this section we have lots of apple peddlers that come to our orchards and 
want apples. I think for summer and fall apples 1 can do better to sell to 
those peddlers than to ship myself, as it is in the busy season, and our time 
is sometimes worth more than the summer apples. The winter fruit can 
be handled much better than the summer and fall fruit. 1 pick my winter 
apples carefully in baskets, by the use of step-ladders only; pile them in 
the orchard, cover lightly with straw or hay, so as to keep the sun off. Let 
them remain two or three weeks, as most convenient; then take a nice new 
apple barrel to the pile for shipping; pick out a nice sample of the best 
apples to face the barrel with, as this is always expected by the dealers. 
We don't want to put the poorest apples in the head of the barrel, so as to 
make the dealers think that we are strictly honest; but my plan is to not 
offer anything for market that is not fit for market. It pays to throw out 
all poor, scrawny or specked apples. Pile up the barrel as full as it will 
hold, press them as tight as your press will allow you, so that there will be 
no shaking or moving in the barrel. They will keep much better, and when 
opened up for market will look fine, and show a full barrel, and be much 
sounder than a loosely packed barrel. For late winter or spring market 
put up highly colored and well-matured fruit. Never try to make a long- 
keeper out of a high-colored Ben Davis or Jenet; if you do, you are likely 
to fail, as they will not keep for me. Always ship, if possible, to the retail 
dealer if you can find one that you can trust to do the square thing by you. 

The commission man has a hard name, and in the most of cases they are 
a hard set of people; but I have been able to find some that I can trust with 
the handling of my fruit and get satisfactory returns. 

As time is getting short with me I will not say any more on this subject 
now, but I do hope this subject will be thoroughly discussed by this Society. 

DISCUSSION. 

L. A. Williams: How do you apply bones to your grape vines? 

Alex. Wood: I get steamed bones, and put a shovelful opposite 
each vine; by cultivation the bones get distributed. 

Silas Wilson: I would like to ask Mr. Wood what profit he real- 
izes per year per acre, from his vineyard. 

Alex. Wood: My vineyard produces about 6,000 pounds per acre 
per year. 

Silas Wilson: I have been giving special attention for some time 
to grape growing, and am trying to find out the cost and profit. In 



324 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



western New York they have nearly as much land in grapes as we 
have in corn. They ship to the northwest for 1,300 miles and over, 
and pay freight. They pay more for help than we do, and their soil 
is no better adapted to grape -growing than ours. We can raise these 
grapes at home and keep the money at home. Concord grapes at one 
and a half to two cents per pound will produce $100 to $200 per acre, 
and will pay at even such a low price. Some persons say that vine- 
yards will not pay here on account of winter protection. In the 
east, where land is high, the difference will fully offset our expense 
in covering. We can make more money at two cents per pound than 
in anything else. If we begin with the earliest varieties and select 
so as to have a succession, we can prolong the season; and with cold 
storage we can shut off foreign shipments, and we certainly have the 
right to do it. There were two hundred cars of grapes shipped from 
Chautauqua county, New York, alone, last fall, to western cities, 
principally to Omaha, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Sioux City and Kansas 
City. 

L. O. Williams: Mr. Murphy says he uses a box that holds three- 
fourths of a quart. I used a box that held fifty cubic inches; it 
should, to be a wine measure quart hold fifty- seven inches. Those 
who use the large size box, have no preference or advantage on the 
markets, over those who use the small size boxes, and in consequence, 
we have got to using the small boxes. 

L. A. Williams: I heard some one say last night that he put his 
apples directly in the barrel from the orchard, and left them in the 
barrels without re-sorting for market; even if delayed four or five 
weeks. I have found that in handling apples, that in assorting we 
always find some rotten apples. The question of assorting and mar- 
keting apples, is a very important one. If they are fresh sorted 
before shipment, we know whether the commission man is deceiving 
us when he claims that they are in poor condition. On the other 
hand if we do not re-sort, it is a considerable saving of labor. 

Prof. Budd: I can give what I think is a better way, but nobody 
will follow it. In Europe where they grow apples extensively, they 
have large sheds in which they store them. They pile them in these 
. sheds, according to maturity, picking at a time we would call early. 
They put in a layer of straw then a layer of apples, and again a layer 
of straw until all are in. I believe that the correct method of hand- 
ling winter apples. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



W. K. Follett: As to sweat, do you consider it detrimental for 
apples to sweat. 

Prof. Budd: I do not think there is anything in that. You can 
have sweat at any time, by admitting warm air, and when it strikes 
the cooler fruit it will cause moisture. 

John Wragg: I know for years that it has been a prevailing opin- 
ion among farmers, that apples must sweat. I have very much 
doubted. Only a short time ago I saw the opinion of Prof. Yoemans 
that fruit never did sweat, it being only the conditions under which 
the fruits happened to be, that caused an appearance of sweat. If 
fruit is to be shipped sood, it can be barreled in the orchard as 
gathered. 

W. K. Follett: I asked the question for information. I sell my 
appless all by retail; and each person has his own theory. I am 
generally asked by purchasers whether the apples have gone through 
a sweat. They generally seem to think it necessary that apples 
should go through a sweat in the orchard. I gather and pile and 
cover with slough grass, as slough grass is the cleanest covering I 
can get. Apples piled this way are always wet. If they should 
sweat in barrels I should think it would do them damage. Wheat, 
oats and corn, sweat and will sweat without air. 

John Wragg: Can fruit sweat? An apple put in water will not 
absorb water; it has a tight skin, and will not admit moisture, and 
can only give it off slowly. 

J. W. Templeton: I have not had much experience in America, 
but have had experience in northern Europe; apples would not be 
good for market until piled as Prof. Budd says; but for keeping over 
winter they must be kept perfectly dry. The sweating is given them 
to prepare them for market. 

J. W. Murphy: It depends on conditions of apples whether or not 
they can be barreled from the orchard. Janet and Ben Davis, put up 
in the barrels in the orchard, kept over winter and were nearly all 
good. Some barrels hardly paid us for sorting over, there were so 
few rotten apples. At time of picking, people are generally too 
busy, to pack in barrels at once, and if left in piles, can be done bet- 
ter later. I never put apples in cellar until danger of freezing. 

Silas Wilson: If you go back to the Ohio River Valley, you will 
find plenty of men, who pick and barrel at once. I now have Grimes' 
Golden in good condition, and expect to have Jonathan until March. 



326 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The apples wore picked and barreled, and put on the north side of 
the trees, until we had to put them in the cellar to keep them from 
freezing. Keep them as cold as possible without freezing. In this 
way Grimes' Golden or Jonathan can be kept until March or later. 

L. A. Williams: I want to remind Mr. Wilson that if he is ship- 
ping apples from the orchard, the consignee may write saying, three- 
fourths are rotten, then what are you going to do about it? 

Silas Wilson: Apples should be examined before being shipped. 

J. W. Templeton: I have sold a great many American apples in 
Glasgow, and they came, some in open barrels, and some in tight bar- 
rels. The tight barrels sell $1.00 to $2.00 higher than the ventilated 
barrels. 

Report of Director of Pottawattamie county, was read by A. B. 
Mair. 

S. E. Fields sent a report Page county, which was read by Secre- 
tary. 



DIRECTOR'S REPORT OF POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY. 



BY. A. B. MAIR, COUNCIL BLUFFS. 



Mr. President and members of the Western Iowa Horticultural Society: 

The report of Pottawattamie county will this year be very brief. The 
only reason I have to offer for this state of affairs is that my time has been 
so fully occupied that I have been unable to gather as much information as 
I desired. 

Strawberries have proved a failure generally throughout the county, al- 
though there were a few patches of exceptionally fine yield, notably, one 
belonging to Mr. L. O. Williams. We had a large bed of Crescent which 
bloomed very full in the spring, but I believe onaccouDt of lack of fertiliza- 
tion, failed to mature any good berries. From an acre I only sold sixty- five 
quarts, and these were of so poor quality that I had to sell them much below 
the regular market price. I also had one row of Bubach No. 5, which acted 
about the same as Crescent. The leaf roller attacked the plants badly, and 
finally destroyed them entirely. I would like to know if there is any way of 
getting rid of this pest. 

Raspberries were a light crop generally, not near up to an average. 



WESTEEN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



327 



Blackberries about the same. Some plants of Snyder setting on our 
grounds bore very full, while plants of Stone's Hardy of same age and fully 
as thrifty, bore little or nothing. The Snyder passed through the winter in 
good order, but the Stone's hardy was considerably winter-killed. 

Cherries were a total failure. 

Currants were about an average crop. 

Gooseberries are not cultivated to any extent, therefore I will not attempt 
to make any report regarding them. 

The grape crop was generally about one-half a crop, although an occa- 
sional vineyard gladdened the heart of the owner by bearing a full crop. The 
prices for grapes, Concords, was from 2i cents per pound to 4 cents; Worden 
from 4 to 8 cents. The vines have made a good growth, and are looking 
well for season of 1889, the wood being well ripened and firm. 

Apples were with most growers a poor crop and of inferior quality, and 
hard to sell on our market. Occasionally, however, an orchard bore heavily. 
The best bearing varieties on our grounds this year were Iowa Blush and 
Jonathan. Ben Davis on young trees did well, but the old trees are almost 
all dead. We have grubbed out a large orchard of this variety, and now 
what shall we plant in its place? Oar old varieties seem to be all leaving 
us, and what of the new Russians. They are as yet only an experiment, 
but we must try them, and keep on trying. 

Plums were a complete failure, owing to late frosts at time of blooming. 



REPORT FROM PAGE COUJSTYT. 



BY S. E. FIELD. 



Fruit is not as it was a few years ago, a rarity in the farm houses of this 
county, though many of our orchards are still young. Still a close observer 
must own that " eternal vigilance is the price of good fruit," even here* 
Our hardiest varieties are not entirely proof against onr hot, dry summers 
and changeable winters, and many of our older orchards show signs that 
their days are numbered. 

The apple crop is fair in most parts of the county, and very plentiful in 
some parts. The quality is inferior, both in size and keeping qualities. 
There is an increased proportion damaged by the codling moth. Orchards 
seeded to grass and pastured are freest from its ravages. 

Blackberries and raspberries came through the changeable winter alive, 
and that was all. They set a fair crop of fruit, but had not vitality to ma- 
ture—much of it. Some young plantations did quite well, but old ones 
seem to be damaged past recovery. Some growers injure the young canes 



328 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



by a second clipping in the summer, causing the buds on the laterals to 
make a feeble growth that is killed by the first severe weather. 

There are favorable reports of the dewberry wherever planted. 

Strawberries were a light crop, caused by late frosts and other unfavora- 
ble conditions. 

Grapes were not one-third of a crop, and cherries a failure. 

Currants and gooseberries have never done well on the Missouri slope. 

Wet, cold weather when the plums were in bloom caused most of the fruit 
to drop off. The Wildgoose, which blooms early, made a good crop. They 
are mostly grafted on peach roots, and many of the trees are dead. The 
Red Sloe is a great bearer, and one of the best plums for cooking. 

All kinds of fruit trees and vines have matured well, but raspberries are 
damaged by the snowy tree cricket, and many will think the canes are 
winter-killed next spring. 

discussion. 

L. A. Williams: There seems to be a great diversity in the re- 
ports as to the fruit crop of the past season. 

T. P. Moon: I have an orchard in the southern part of Mills 
county. My fruit was good. 

Prof. Budd: There is one thought as the difference of reports, 
especially in the strawberry crop. It may have been caused by the 
lack of fertilization. Where one row was planted to fertilize four, 
the interior or distant rows did not bear much. I think that where 
a variety is planted that is defective in pollen, one row to two is 
better. The opinion is growing, that even raspberries should be in- 
termingled. The Willow Twig apple tree, where planted in blocks, 
fails to bear. 

W. H. Bomberger: We hear, in one of these reports, favorable 
mention of Lucretia dewberry. I would like to hear if others have 
fruited it this year? It made a growth of ten feet with me this 
year. 

L A. Williams: I would also like to know, as I am interested. I 
like the appearance of the Windom, and am more favorably im- 
pressed with it than with Lucretia. 

Prof. Budd: I have found the Windom among the Mennonites, 
in Minnesota. It throws up strong canes, and for that reason is bet- 
ter Lucretia cannot be kept up off from the ground. 

J. W. Templeton: Sixteen years ago I bought my first trees of 
Mr. Raymond, who said Early Margaret would not live ten years. 
It is ten days earlier than Red Astraehan. I cut one off and made 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



it branch low. It is alive to day, while all that were trimmed up 
are dead. The low headed trees have done better. 

A. B. Mair: I would like to say a word about low pruning. Mr. 
Raymond pruned low, and his trees are the reverse; and they 
are so low a snake can hardly get under them. 

I would like to know something of the leaf roller, and its work on 
the strawberry. 

Prof. Budd: We have had them, but they never come the first 
year, but some the second year. London purple, even very weak, 
will kill them. They are the easiest killed of all insects. 

L. A. Williams: I have been bothered with grub worms. They 
can be dug out when found first year, but the best way to fight them 
is to destroy the May bug, the parent of the white grub. 

J. W. Murphy: I was never bothered with them until this year. 
Manure not thoroughly rotted will induce them. 

L. A. Williams : If you wait two or three years you will see grub- 
worms from the beetles you saw this year. 

Prof. Budd read a paper on Russians for Southern Iowa. 



RUSSIAN'S FOR SOUTH IOWA. 



BY PROF. BUDD, AMES. 



Mr. President and fellow members: 

The topic assigned me in your programme is " Russians for South Iowa." 
Those inclined to the belief that the East European orchard fruits should 
be confined to the north half of our noble State, should not forget that 
Russia includes about one seventh of the dry land of the earth, and that 
upon the southern border varieties of the cherry, plum, apricot, peach, 
prune, grape, pear, apple, etc., are grown profitably, which will not endure 
the test winters of the most favored spot in Iowa. It should also be re- 
membered that the parts of Russia known as the Black Soil Section, north 
of the Black Sea and the Caspian, is due east of Belgium, one of the specially 
favorable sections of the earth for most of the orchard fruits of the tem- 
perate zones. 

Again, it should be kept in mind that over large areas of the South 
District, east of the divide, varieties are needed nearly or quite as hardy as 
the Duchess apple, while on the best bluff and loess soils east and west of 
42 



330 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the divide, varieties with good foliage of the grade of hardiness of Roman 
Stem and Willow, or Early Richmond Cherry, succeed perfectly. 

Hence it is difficult to suggest a list of varieties likely to do equally well 
on the varied soils, aspects and altitudes of the large area known to our 
members as the South District. Keeping this in mind, the varieties which 
have proven no hardier in wood than the Willow Twig apple or Early Rich- 
mond Cherry— but better in foliage— will be suggested for trial on the best 
ridge and loess soils, and much hardier sorts for the drift prairie soils. 

Oherries— On the loess soils, the warm, sandy loams, and timber lands 
with porous subsoil, some of the Red Dukes and sweet cherries of East Po- 
land, North Silesia and South Russia will be apt to do well. The following 
have proven as hardy in wood as the Early Richmond, and better in foliage, 
viz,: Abbesse, Red Oranien, Red Muscateller, Aarelle Bunt, Double Glass, 
Duchesse de Angouleme, Yilne Sweet, Orel Black and Heart Shaped 
Weichsel. 

For less favorable soils the following will be very promising, some of 
which have passed beyond the experimental stage, viz.: Spate Amarelle, 
Shadow Amarelle, Large long late, Brusseler Braune, Tutovka, Lithaur 
Weichel,24 Orel, Greotte die JSord, and others noted in Bulletin, for more* 
northern culture. 

Plums— Of the south Russian sorts the following will be promising for 
trial on any good corn soil; Moldavka, Hungarian, Varonesh Yellow, Yel- 
low Aubert, Red Aubert, Black Prune, White Nicholas, Early Red and 
Richland. The main drawback to the profitable culture of these varieties 
will probably be their liability to attack of the curculio. But so far as 
they have fruited, as yet they have not been injured to greater extent than 
the Wolf or De Soto. 

Apricots— Some of the named varieties introduced by the Mennonites of 
Nebraska, I believe prove valuable, and the Shense of Russia in Asia, will, 
I believe, prove profitable in the South District for commercial planting. 

Peaches— Some of the east Russian peaches I now believe will prove valua- 
ble on dry land in the South District. Our Bokara Nos. 1 and 2 have 
proven nearly hardy at Ames, and our North China No. 2 has borne very 
fine free stone fruit where Hill's Chile has killed down like a weed. 

Pears— In all countries, so far as I know, pears do best on the higher dry 
land, with air drainage and free air circulation. Even in California, pears 
cannot be grown profitably on the sheltered and richer bottom lands of the 
valleys. In accordance with this general principle we have the most favor- 
able reports upon the new varieties we have sent out from those who have 
planted on dry ridge prairie or timber soil, where the air had free circula- 
tion from all points. Of the varieties on trial in the South District, per- 
haps the most promising are Bessemianka, Toukavettea, Autunen, Berga- 
mot, Summer Bergamot, Sugar, Waxey, Vinograd and Gakovsgy. The 
Sapiegauka of Poland will also prove valuable on the higher loess bluffs of 
the divide. 

Apples— It is often said that our old list of summer apples for the south 
half of the State is perfectly satisfactory, and that there is no profit in them 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 33^ 



at best, except for home use. But we will suppose that without further 
trial we substitute for general use and market the following list: Blushed 
Colville, Breskovka, Beautiful Arcad, Arabian Duchess and Anisette. This 
will give a regular succession for home use and market, from the season of 
the Yellow Transparent to the 1st of September. The trees are as hardy as 
Duchess, regular and constant bearers, and the fruit is of good size, hand- 
some and free from scab, ani good in quality for any use. If shipped in 
half-bushel crates, as fine summer apples should be, such varieties can be 
grown largely for shipping north and west. In like manner we may, without 
further trial, name a list of fall apples that furnish a succession of hand- 
some and good fruit with more certainty than any one of the old fall list, 
and all of them have, so far, been free from scab: German Colville, Sport 
Orient, Eepka Aport, Longfleld, Good Peasant and Varonesh Rosy. As 
some in the list are more valuable for culinary use or market than for home 
dessert use, the amateur planter can add as many tender- fleshed eastern 
varieties, sweet or sour, as he pleases, for September use. The winter 
varieties for south Iowa will not be found among the varieties first imported 
from north Russia, and the varieties selected in the corn-growing sections 
of south Russia and east Poland and Silesia as promising fruits, are yet in 
the first stages of trial. But our recent hard winters and summers have 
aided in selecting those with best wood and foliage, and the few specimens 
of first fruits are promising. 

Of the grade of hardiness of Duchess, the following are very valuable, if 
they prove good bearers: Striped Winter, Bogdanoff, Sklauka {Bog.) and 
Golden Reinette. Of the grade of hardiness of Fameuse I name as very 
promising: Boiken, Scharlock Reinette, Buschels Reinette, Bauman's 
Eeinette, Grosser Bohn, Dautziger Kaut and Erdbeer Spriped. For top- 
working south, the Battulen should also be given trial. It is not a good 
grower in nursery, but it is one of the finest and best winter apples we 
found in Europe. It belongs to a distinct race of the apple found in Tran- 
sylvania. 1 will only add that this list of orchard fruits for trial is only sug- 
gestive, and by no means exhaustive, and that the limits of profitable 
planting of the east Europe fruits are as yet not well defined. Some of them 
are doing well in Florida and Texas, and among the osage groves in south 
California the healthiest apple trees are found, with the cleanest foliage, 
most perfect upright growth, and the most perfect natural flavored fruit, 
were of such Russian varieties as Duchess, Alexander and Winter Aport. 
The thicker foliage and more perfect epidermis of bark and fruit enable 
them to endure a degree of heat and dry air that shrivels foliage and fruit 
of the common southwest European sorts and their American seedlings. 
The great success of the few Eussian varieties they have on the Pacific 
coast has created a constant demand for scions or plants from the same 
source for trial. 

The horticulture of the great Mississippi valley is yet in the formative 
stage. We have much to do in the way of selection, and the exact adapta- 
tion of varieties to our varied soils, altitudes and latitudes, but that we will 
conquer the situation I sincerely believe. 



332 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



DISCUSSION. 

J. W. Templeton: Have you fruited the Bergamot? 

Prof. Budd: We have fruited the summer and autumn Bergamot, 
but they are not the same as the west Europe variety of that name. 

C. L. Watrous: How do you propagate cherries? 

Prof. Budd: We get roots from Europe, side graft in winter, wax 
the grafts, and keep them in a cold cave until spring. We planted 
over forty varieties this spring, and over 90 per cent of them grew. 

C. L. Watrous: The reason I asked is, that most bud on the Ma- 
haleb. I had substantially the same list/but they injured on the south 
side. All in all, they were not as hardy as Early Richmond or English 
Morrello. I offer this so that if any one seeks to propagate them he 
may know of my experience. I tried also, this list, most of them, but 
most of them of apples, but most of them were not hardy. J. V. 
Cotta, of Illinoisj had same experience. He is a native across the 
water, and got them because he knew them to be good. We should 
look at them a little carefully, as a disinterested party can hardly 
share in the enthusiasm of some of the friends of the Russian apples. 
I noticed Duchess of Oldenberg among the new list. Now I do not 
understand that the Duchess is a Russian, as nobody there has ever 
found it. Parties there have tried to find it, but have failed. It 
was taken to Belgium, and then taken west, but if they were ever 
in Russia they are all gone, and no trace of it can now be found. 
Ellanger & Barry had it at an early day. I went to Mr. Barry, he 
said it was the Borovitka, and so far as he knew, it had been brought 
about sixty years ago from St. Petersburg. I do not understand, that 
it was ever found in Russia outside of experiment stations. It was 
not in the government list; Mr. Tuttle did not get it in his importa- 
tion; the State Horticultural Society did not get it in their importa- 
tions; Leo Welsh did not get it; Charles Gibb did not find it. It is 
known that apples very closely resembling it are found in the Duchess 
of Voltenberg. I think it is wrong to use the Duchess as one of the 
Russians. I do not know of any one that ever found it outside of the 
experiment stations in Russia. 

Prof. Budd: Two or three years ago, at the time of the Exposition 
at New Orleans, I took a trip down in the lower part of Louisiana, I 
saw some colored gentlemen there that they ealled Ethiopians. I 
called them Africans. Now in Russia, the Arabka and other varie- 
ties look so muoh like the Duchess that if you mix the scions you can- 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



not pick them out; you cannot pick out the trees; and if you mix the 
apples you cannot pick them out until you taste them. They are bet- 
ter, much better than Duchess. There are thousands of varieties in 
Russia that we did not find, but I never heard it questioned there but 
what the Duchess was Russian. The old varieties of cherries are all 
killed out at Ames, while the newer cherries are doing well. Some 
are as early as Early Richmond, while some are later than English 
Morrello; many of them are promising. 

John Wragg: I have had experience with several varieties of 
cherries, and have had no difficulty, except in carrying the buds 
through the winter, especially when the scions are wet. The Weishel 
is one of the hardiest I have ever had in every respect. I have not 
had the slightest trouble of any kind with it. 

C. L. Watrous: I have not had trouble in keeping the buds, but 
yearling trees have the tops killed. Yellow Transparent is hardy, 
but blighted some. Longfield has proven tender, and I have had to 
throw away a large part of them. Now as to the origin of Duchess. 
I think it due to the people of Iowa that they should have proof that 
it came from Russia; especially as so many have been introduced as 
having come from central Russia, the reported home of the Duchess, 
and that they ought to be good because they came from there. 

H. A. Terry: I would like to hear from Mr. Rice as to the new 
cherries. 

J. R. Rice: I have only fruited the Ostheim, and it is perfectly 
hardy, and gives satisfaction. I have found the Russian cherries 
good growers. 

D. L. Royer was called upon for a paper on plums. 

D. L. Royer: I did not prepare a paper, but will give you a little 
of my experience. I have tried a great many varieties of plums. 
Twenty years ago I knew nothing about plums, and knew nothing of 
the theory of grouping together for fertilization. I found wild plums 
that fruited well, and transplanted them with Miner, Quaker, Forest 
Garden and others, and have had plums every year until last year. 
I have raised 140 bushels of plums from one-fourth of an acre. Have 
named one wild plum Baldwin. I have found out about the fertiliza- 
tion of plums by reading; so I mixed all kinds together; all kinds 
bear; the Baldwin especially well, and a good market plum, averag- 
ing about $2.00 per bushel. I think as much money can be made out 
of plums as can be made by raising grapes. 



334 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



L. O. Williams: I want to hear as to the best varieties; I think 
Mr. Royer told me that he got best results from wild plums. 

D. L. Royer: Yes, I conclude I got best results from wild trees. I 
planted pits from Miner, fertilized with other varieties; some were 
small and worthless, and some were good. One named Royer is one- 
third larger than Miner, but the tree is not good. It blights or is 
troubled with something like blight. The Quaker is sometimes af- 
fected in the same way. The Baldwin is a good kind for fertilizing, 
and bears every year unless killed by frost. 

J. W. Templeton: I think that if varieties are mingled they will 
be all right. I have Forest, Garden and Baldwin. ' Quaker bore a 
full crop even this year. I think they are as good as any wild plum, 
and superior. 

H. A. Terry read a paper on " Experimental Horticulture." 



EXPERIMENTAL HORTICULTURE. 



BY H. A. TERRY, CRESCENT CITY. 



Experimental horticulture! I am tempted to assert that every member 
of this Society is engaged more or less in experimental horticulture. What 
do those two words mean? I infer that every person who plants an orchard, 
a garden or a vineyard, is really a practical experimental horticulturist. 

I apprehend that it is expected that I shall write a practical essay on this 
subject, and give as far as possible facts, instead of theory. For thirty 
years past I have given a good deal of attention to horticulture in all its 
branches, but more particularly to the raising and fruting of seedlings and 
new varieties. During this time I have raised from seed of apples, crabs 
and hybrids, or crosses, over fifteen hundred varieties. Of plums, I have 
fruited perhaps one thousand or more seedlings, also a few grapes and cher- 
ries; some raspberries, etc. Now, one would suppose that out of all this 
lot of seedlings I would certainly get quite a number of varieties that would 
be worth growing and propagating; but I must say, with few exceptions, I 
have met with disappointment. I have often selected from among my 
seedlings some trees of remarkably clean and thrifty growth, and of which 
I had high hopes; but when thty came into fruiting, they would prove to be 
entirely worthless. This is more particularly the case with plums, but 
other fruits are subject more or less to the same disappointing habits. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



I have also experimented with a good many varieties of fruits that I did 
not grow from seed, several of which have proved worthless with me, such 
as German prune, Lombard plum, Smith's Orleans plum, Spanish King 
plum and Prunn's Simoni; Yellow Belleflower and Rambo apples will not 
grow and bear fruit for me. Perhaps, to make my paper more practical, I 
should give a list of those varieties that have proved a success with me, 
which would be about as follows: Of apples, Ben Davis, Jonathan, Wine- 
sap, Iowa Blush, Rawle's Janet, Red June, Duchess, Haas, Red Warrior, 
Autumn Strawberry, Fameuse, Hagloe, Wealthy, Fall Winesap, Fall Orange, 
Summer Pearmain, Thaler, Yellow Transparent, Wolf River, Roman Stem, 
Pioneer, St. Lawrence, August Sweet, Grimes' Golden, Plumb's Cider, 
White Pippin, and others. Of plums, Miner, Forest Garden, Wild Goose, 
Newman, De Soto, Wolf, Winnebago, Harrison's Peach, Van Buren, Ma- 
quoketa, Hawkeye, Charles Downing, James Tick, Milton, Esther, Crescent 
City, and others of more or less value. It may not be out of place here to 
say that I have found the Hawkeye to be the most valuable plum for mar- 
ket of any that I have experimented with. 

Of grapes I have grown a good many varieties; but for some cause, possi- 
bly neglect, I have been successful with but few varieties, such as Concord, 
Worden, Moore's Early, Elvira, Telegraph, etc. I have a good many kinds 
in my experimental grounds, but have not fruited them sufficiently to give 
an opinion as to their merits. Some of the varieties that are very promis- 
ing, so far as my experience has gone, are Cottage, Woodruff's Red, Excel- 
sior, Mary, Moore's Diamond and Niagara 

I might go on indefinitely naming varieties with which I have experi- 
mented; but I fear I should be occupying too much space, so I forbear. 

DISCUSSION. 

J. W. Templeton: I would like to have Mr. Terry tell us some- 
thing more about the Hawkeye plum. 

H. A. Terry: The Hawkeye is a very large plum, light red, rather 
attractive appearance, and very profitable. There is no plum that 
sells with them here; larger than Miner and sells better. Bore every 
year for the last six, until the last. It is worthy of trial. 

L. O. Williams: What good does Hagloe do you? 

H. A. Terry: Sells well, bears not quite as many apples as Duchess, 
but twice as large. Walbridge bears well, the quality is a little bet- 
ter than Ben Davis, does not bear as well, is hardier, and sells well. 

Motion that we adjourn sine die at twelve o'clock to-morrow. Mo- 
tion prevailed. 

The committee on Secretary's report and President's address re- 
ported as follows: 



336 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Mr President— Your committee to whom was referred the President's ad- 
dress and Secretary's report, beg leave to submit the following: In regard 
to the President's recommendation of paying cash premiums on fruit dis- 
play; that the Executive Committee of this Society, the President, Vice- 
President and Secretary, be the committee on premiums, and that they pre- 
pare said list and publish the same in the next programme for this Society. 
It is also the opinion and recommendation of your committee, that no 
county premiums be paid, but that all premiums shall be of an individual 
character. 

Your committee does not coincide with the views of the Secretary, as ex- 
pressed in his report, relative to paying traveling and hotel expenses of the 
President, believing the time has not yet come to comply with such a rec- 
ommendation. 

J. L. Budd, 
Silas Wilson, 
L. A. Williams, 

Committee. 

On motion, the report was adopted. 
Adjourned to meet at seven p. m. 



EVENING SESSION — SECOND DAY. 

A letter from J. C. Ferris, Secretary of the Northern Iowa Horti- 
cultural Society, was read, asking that a delegate be sent to the North- 
ern Iowa Horticultural Meeting, to be held at Nora Springs. 

On motion of L. O. Williams, Geo. Van Houten was elected as del- 
egate to the Northern Iowa Horticultural Society. 

Motion by L. A. Williams, that article three of the constitution 
and article one of the by-laws, be so changed that the Directors 
shall be elected by the Executive Committee, consisting of President, 
Vice President and Secretary. 

Carried. 

Motion by Geo. Van HouteD, that the clause "Board of Directors" 
be stricken out of article four of by-laws. 
Carried. 

A paper entitled the Tree Peddler, was read by G. W. Franklin. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



THE TREE PEDDLER. 



BY GEO. W. FRANKLIN. 



Great complaints are semi-annually (fall and spring) made against the 
"tree peddlers," and many warnings are given to avoid them. They do 
some little good, and a great deal of harm, and it may be worth while to 
consider how they should be treated, and why, that in spite of much popu- 
lar odium, they live and flourish. The tree peddler belongs to the same 
genus of workers as those who take "agencies" for subscription books, 
miscellaneous implements, Indian doctor medicines, and lightning rods, 
and we may add Bohemian oats swindlers. They differ somewhat from a 
class known as "drummers" or "commercial agents," in that they do a 
retail business, while the drummers do a wholesale business and confine 
their labors to the cities and large villages. But all are alike in one respect, 
which is in the abundance of " cheek " possessed. No doubt some of these 
people are worthy men, but if so it is in the earlier stages of their experience. 
It does not (to the uninitiated, at least) seem absolutely necessary that they 
should prefer immense, though pausible stories, to true ones, but from some 
cause they glide into the habit at a rather precocious age, or are born to it. 
It is competition which brings this about, and the transient nature of the 
vocation. Nobody expects to continue in it any great length of time, and 
the fact that u we three " may never meet again undoubtedly impels to en- 
ergetic work while it lasts. 

The tree agent is the outgrowth of the nursery business, before public 
means of communication were as abundant as now; and when farmers 
knew much less about trees and fruits and the mode of procuring them 
direct from the nursery. Then, if honest, and acquainted with fruit cul- 
ture, he did good, being a sort of house-to-house missionary for propagat- 
ing a sort of gospel which was slow to be disseminated. Now we don't 
need him. Enterprising fruit growers and tree planters take the papers, 
read the articles and the advertisements, and are also generally well sup- 
plied with catalogues. They know (vaguely, at least) who stand well as 
nurserymen, and have but to consult the catalogues to be able to order in- 
telligently. It is much better than to order of an agent after keeping him 



43 



338 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



over night, or listening to his astonishing eloquence for several hours when 
you are in a hurry, and after one has engaged in bewildered admiration of 
the preserved specimens which he always carries in magnifying jars. The 
nurseryman generally feels it not entirely safe to swindle a man intelligent 
enough to send him a written order with the cash in advance. He wants to 
sell him a bill another year, while the peddler rarely operates twice in the 
same neighborhood. He prefers fresh fields and pastures new. 

But how is it that tree agents continue to ply a trade which stands in such 
bad odor? We fail to notice that many nurseries take the pains to adver- 
tise that 41 this house employes no agents," while on the contrary there are 
occasional advertisements offering great inducements to agents to call and 
buy. The fact is that every nurseryman has a lot of stock each year left on 
his hands, which he has failed to work off, and which he convinces himself 
is good for something, though not much to him. It is his business to sell, 
not necessarily to cheat somebody, but to sell to some person who wants it. 
He is not responsible for the use made of it after he sells, and so it goes to 
an agent, if one presents himself, without any guarantee, except perhaps as 
to names. But even that amounts to little to the agent. It is not impor- 
tant to him that every bundle be truthfully labeled— in fact it is more im- 
portant sometimes, particularly when popular varieties run low, that the 
label be untruthful. He wishes to sell also in accordance with the showy 
pictures and the alcoholed specimens which he carries, and so he labels to 
suit himself. His field is in the recesses of the rural districts, or with any- 
body whose gullibility makes him an easy prey. One feels pity for the vic- 
tims at times, and then again he doesn't. They are not generally very en- 
terprising or very well read people. They dislike to hear too much said on 
improved farming, and especially to be criticised for not taking agricultural 
papers. They are apt to think that hens can catch curculio; that no thunder 
showers occur on moonlight nights because the moon scatters the clouds, 
and that the "hollow horn" and "wolf in the tail" are veritable cattle 
diseases. Sometimes, then, a purchase of the oily-tongued tree agent does 
them good, as it awakens thought and curbs conceit. On the whole, we 
think the use of the tree agent is mainly in this direction. 

These unsavory nomads who laud the especial virtues of the " Greenland 
gooseberry bush," "Alaska grapes," or the beautiful " Fever plant," should 
be dealt with in a manner kin to that of the burglar and the confidence fakir. 
The frnit interests have enough to contend with in this severe climate with- 
out succoring these parasites. The farmers of Iowa cannot afford to harbor 
such peddlers. Life is too short, and time too valuable to devote to several 
years waiting upon a young orchard to find it worthless by reason of its be- 
ing tender, not true to name or a worthless seedling. 

We can not do better than to imitate our neighboring States by agitating 
this matter until we get relief by some wholesome legislation. 

There is the Kansas law, chapter 100, session la^ws 1886: " Any person or 
persons who shall misrepresent, deceive or defraud any person or persons in 
the sale of any fruit, shade or ornamental tree or trees, or any vine, shrub, 
plant, bulb or root, by substituting inferior or different varieties, or who 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



339 



shall falsely represent the name, age or class of any such fruit, shade or or- 
namental tree or trees, or any vine, shrub, plant, bulb or root, shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and on conviction be fined not less than ten dollars nor 
more than two hundred, or by imprisonment in the county jail not less than 
thirty days nor more than six months, or both such fine and imprisonment, 
and shall be liable to the party or parties damaged or injured thereby in 
treble the amount of all damages sustained, to be recovered in any court 
having jurisdiction thereof." 

MINNESOTA. TREE PEDDLERS' ACT. APPROVED IN MARCH, 1887. 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any person, corporation or associa- 
tion to sell or offer for sale any tree, plant, shrub or vine not grown in the 
State of Minnesota without first filing with the Secretary of State an aflida- 
vit setting forth his name, age, occupation and residence, and, if an agent, 
the name, occupation and residence of his principal, and a statement as to 
where the nursery stock aforesaid to be sold is to be grown, together with a 
bond to the State of Minnesota in the penal sum of two thousand dollars 
($2,000), conditional to save harmless any citizen of this State who shall be 
defrauded by any false or fraudulent representation as to place where such 
stock sold him by such person, corporation or association was grown, or as 
to its hardiness for this climate; provided, that the bond aforesaid shall, 
where the principal is a resident of this State, be given by such principal 
and not by the agent. 

Sec. 2. The Secretary of State shall, in the full compliance with the fore- 
going provisions, give to the applicant aforesaid a certificate under his offi- 
cial seal, setting forth in detail the facts showing a full compliance by said 
applicant with the provisions of this act, and said applicant shall exhibit 
the same or a certified copy thereof to any person to whom stock is offered 
for sale. 

Sec. 3. Any person, whether in the capacity of principal or agent, who 
shall sell or offer for sale any foreign grown nursery stock within this State, 
shall furnish to the purchaser of such stock a duplicate order, with a con- 
tract specifying that such stock is true to name and as represented. 

Sec. 4. Any person, whether in the capacity of principal or agent, who 
shall sell or offer for sale any foreign grown nursery stock within this State, 
without complying with the requirements of this act, or shall refuse to ex- 
hibit the certificate mentioned in section two (2) of this act, whenever de- 
manded, or shall by means of any advertisement, circular, notice or state- 
ment, printed or written, published or posted or circulated by the agency of 
an officer, agent or other person, or by any other means shall falsely repre- 
sent to any person or to the public that said nursery stock is grown in this 
State and is hardy and adapted to this climate shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof by any court of competent juris- 
diction shall be punished by fine of not less than twenty-five (25) dollars nor 
exceeding one hundred (100) dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail 
for a term not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days, in the discre- 



340 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



tion of the court, and shall be liabje to the party injured in a civil action for 
treble the amount of damages sustained, and such party in such civil action 
may sue in his own name on said bond for the amount of such damages. 

Mr. Bomberger endorses the Kansas and Minnesota laws in the following 
letter, published recently, in which he says: 

" I venture to assert that if Iowa had the above laws in her code, that 
both thousands of dollars would be saved and nourishing orchards, vine- 
yards and fruit gardens would shortly spring up where now the budded 
tree, untried novelties, etc., are planted year after year only to die and dis- 
courage the planter, who loses faith in not only planting anything, but 
anybody that offers anything to plant, and remains content] to diet himself 
three hundred and sixty-five days in the year with wheat-bread and salt 
meats, krout and a few vegetables, when he could not only have these but 
fresh fruits from plant, bush, vine and tree two hundred days in the year, 
and have them canned the other 165 days if he can't have apples in the cel- 
lar, which he could have in many parts of the State if he would turn a deaf 
ear to the peddler or turn him out of the State with a law." 

To get relief, then, we must do something besides passing resolutions. 
We must agitate this matter constantly, until the Iowa legislature acts 
upon our appeals and comes to the rescue by the enactment of laws similar 
to the Kansas or the Minnesota laws. Appeal to Iowa first for protection, 
the bull dog second, and third to the shotgun as an exterminator of this 
growing nuisance. 

DISCUSSION. 

D. K. Carpenter: The far-famed Minnesota tree law is a dead let- 
ter, as the supreme court has declared it unconstitutional. Texas re- 
cently tried to get a law against drummers, but the supreme court of 
the United States reversed it, and this killed the Minnesota law. 
Many of the trees sold by the tree peddlers are a blessing. Not one 
fourth of the people take an agricultural paper or a nursery cata- 
logue. Many people live within twenty miles of a nursery, and yet 
have never visited a nursery in their lives. A great many men are 
dishonest, and there are a great many dishonest nurserymen, and 
there are more that are honest. Some have adopted the dealer sys- 
tem, but they are as dishonest as the agent. The Kansas law may 
do a bad thing, and cause an innocent man to suffer. For example, 
suppose a helper set a stake over a few trees farther than it be- 
longs; the law would come in in such a case and punish a man for 
something he knew nothing about and could not help. 

G. W. Franklin: This dishonest tree peddler that I was talking 
about lives away up in the northern part of the State, or out in Da- 
kota. Of course there is no man here who would do such tricks. It 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



reminds me of a little circumstance. Father Clarkson, in the Reg- 
ister, recommended harrowing corn. A man who had corn planted, 
in stalks, after reading the article, harrowed his corn while the 
ground was wet, and of course ruined it. He wrote to Father Clark- 
son, abusing him for giving such advice, and would not take his 
paper any longer. Of course, in my paper I did not mean any of 
you; I meant the tree peddler, the man who is swindling the peo- 
ple. 

Prof. Budd: We have a duty to perform, and we should put our 
views on record. There has been a tendency among eastern nursery- 
men to send out their agents, and if the stock is true, and many of 
them do not care whether it is true to name or not, they are not the 
varieties we want. Our home nurseries are doing the best they can, 
and are trying to raise varieties adapted to our needs; but the ten- 
dency is to do business by agents, and people will not go thirty to 
forty miles to get trees. ^ If some plan could be adopted by which 
the rascals could be driven out of the business, the tree business 
would be much more satisfactory to all concerned. It has been sug- 
gested that if every agent sent out should have a statement from 
some county officer or other reliable person, so that the party buying 
could know that the agent was authorized to sell for some established 
nursery, it would be better. A good share of the trouble comes in, 
not so much because of unreliable agents, but because unprincipled 
men, claiming to be agents of established nurseries, are not agents 
at all, but simply buy any stock that they can get cheap, and sell it 
at high prices, recommending it to be good stock and of desirable 
varieties. 

D. K. Carpenter: In some localities we have no need for agents. 
Some have adopted the system of certificates by notary public, but 
the Ohio fellows have the same, and seem to adopt any method that 
promises to effect sales. 

John Wragg: Whenever people know the difference between tree 
peddlers and nurserymen, and hear intelligently these discussions, 
they are not going to be imposed upon. We know very well that 
Mr. Wilson, Mr. Watrous, or other reputable nurserymen, could not 
sell as well by agent as some Ohio, New York or other eastern nur- 
sery could. Some people seem to think that trees are better because 
they come from a long distance, and that because these older coun- 
tries grow fruit easier than we can, that their trees are better. Peo- 
ple forget that the trees that do well in the east are not adapted to 



342 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



our climate, and that it would be better to buy trees grown espe- 
cially for our climate and suited to our conditions . 

B. Harcourt: If some law could be adopted so that before a man 
coald sell he should have a commission and a certificate of standing, 
and with the requirement that distant nurseries should have a license 
or pay a tax, it would afford means of educating the people so that 
they could determine the difference between the tree peddler and the 
man regularly engaged in the business. 

C. L. Watrous: It is all very well to talk, but the supreme court 
has passed, declaring such laws illegal. It is true that it is a burden, 
but don't believe that any legislation is going to benefit us or the 
people. If you can sharpen the ideas of the people, it will be all 
right. Take an eloquent man, with kid gloves and a plug hat, and 
by the time he has done with an ordinary man, generally has him 
convinced. It may be that the victim has not always bright ideas, 
but it is hard to withstand their blandishments. It is the old ques- 
tion of how are you going to help it and keep the emissaries of the 
black man from imposing upon the innocent people. The only way 
that I know, is to put ideas into their heads, so that they can see for 
themselves. Like a few years ago, with the lightning-rod peddlers. 
I asked'one of them how about Prof. Macomber, of the Agricultural 
College, who denounced them and their system of rodding. They 
sued him for $50,000, but that was all it ever amounted to. These 
fellows, when they run out of business in one State, go to another 
and take their wits with them and leave their conscience, if they ever 
have any. 

R. W. Carson, Jr. There are reliable nurseries east as there are 
west, and some of them have reliable agents. The tendency of the 
times is to do business by the agents. The country is overrun by 
bummers to an extent entirely unnecessary, but it seems as though 
we cannot help it. 

Geo. Van Houten: The trouble is not with the agents of either 
eastern or western nurseries, as a rule, but with men who claim to 
be agents who are not. There is another class of men who claim 
to be agents of reliable nurseries, and who really have agencies, 
with certificates, order books, plate books, and, in fact, a full outfit. 
They manage in this way to get their agencies: They begin by send- 
ing in a good recommendation — and most anyone can get a recom- 
mendation if he is shrewd and smart — and they get an occasional 
order, just enough to hold their agency and books, and then buy of 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the surplus stock or other undesirable stock that can always be 
bought at a very low price, and fill the bulk of their orders in this 
way, thus making enormous profits. The only way to be safe is to 
deal directly with nurserymen. 

D. J. Carpenter: A way to get out of it is to introduce algebra 
and horticulture in our schools, and it will take twenty years to do it 
in this way. 

S. H. Redman: I have had considerable experience in small fruit. 
Five years ago I started in small fruits, but could not get the varie- 
ties I wanted, so I sent to New York for them. We had winters 
with cold at thirty degrees below zero, and many varieties failed. I 
spent $1,500 and tried twenty-two varieties. I got five varieties and 
about $75 worth from the whole lot, that was of value. Every agent 
should have a catalogue, and the buyer should buy by name of 
variety. One-half of the tree peddlers are swindlers, and they give 
any instruction as to how to plant, or care for them. There is too 
much at fault with planting, which is the fault of the planter, as 
much as it is the fault of the tree peddler. 

Superintendent Evans of the Electric Motor Line, invited the 
Society to an excursion to Omaha and return at 2:30 to-morrow after- 
noon. 

On motion the invitation was accepted, with thanks. 
L. O. Williams read a paper on the Intensive vs. Extensive Horti- 
cultural Work. 

A paper on Blackberries and Raspberries, by A, C. SabiD, was read 
by the Secretary. 



INTENSIVE VS. EXTENSIVE WORK. 



BY L. O. WILLIAMS. 



The true horticulturist should be both extensive and intensive— extensive 
in his knowledge of the subject and intensive in its application. The field 
of horticulture, in all its varied branches, is a broad one, and requires an 
extensive knowledge to comprehend it, but it requires all the intensity of a 
man's nature to work out to perfection a small portion of the field. It 
would be just as consistent for a man to sit down to a table loaded with 



344 



STATE HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



fruit sufficient for a dozen persons and attempt to eat it all, as it would be 
for him to attempt to master all of the various branches of fruit growing at 
one and the same time. While I believe in diversified fruit raising, as well 
as farming, I also believe in specialties. The man who has but one idea and 
is all of the time harping on it, is considered a 44 crank " by most of us, 
while the man of many minds is called a 4 4 jack at all trades and master of 
none." We want men of more than one idea, but we want them to develop 
one idea at a time. The men who have taken an idea at a time and masteted 
it, are the ones who have left their marks. No great invention or discovery 
was ever made by men who tried to do two or more things at once. In hor- 
ticultural science the greatest advance has been made by men who have 
devoted their time and energy to one line of work. For the still further 
advancement of this work we need more specialists. We need more Presi- 
dent Pattens to develop the apple seedling, more Professor Budds to infuse 
Russian blood into our native fruits. We want more Wilsons to propagate 
the grape vine; more McGeehons to specialize with the strawberry (and 
more Franklins to raise fine sheep). We need something, too, which we 
have not. Particularly do we need a State Entomologist to look after the 
interests of the State in the warfare against our insect enemies. There is 
room for plenty of specialists, too, in this line of work. So much for ideas, 
and I trust, as Professor Budd used to say to his classes in horticulture at 
the Agricultural College, that you have all got 44 the idea involved. 11 

In practical husbandry the question arises, how much ground ought a 
person devote to the culture of fruit? There are numerous limitations in 
answering this question; the age, ambition, and ability of the person 
engaged in fruit growing must be considered, as well as the experience, 
capital, and the nature of the market. It is always safe to begin on a small 
scale. I have arrived at this conclusion from dear experience. Most of my 
life has been spent on an extensive fruit farm of seventy- five acres. I have 
now settled down to the intensive plan of a 44 ten acre farm." For small 
fruit, I think ten acres is enough for any ordinary mortal, and half that 
amount is sufficient for many persons to obtain a good living from. For 
orcharding, forty acres is a liberal allowance, and for a general fruit farm 
of large and small fruits, twenty-five acres is none too small. It is a well- 
established principle that whatever is worth doing, is worth doing well, and 
from that I would deduce the corollary that one acre well tilled is worth two 
acres but half tilled, and from this we draw the conclusion, never attempt 
to do more than can be done well. If you have but one talent use it for all 
it is worth; if you have five talents or acres, work it with all your might and 
mind; and if you have talents for ten acres (and this is the Bible limit), use 
them so that you may hear from your friends and neighbors the welcome 
plaudit of "well done;" and when you have entered into that rest which God 
has prepared for those that love him, men will rise up and call you blessed. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



345 



RASPBERRIES AND BLACKBERRIES. 



BY A. C. SABIN. 



Our Secretary advises me that I am on for a paper with the above caption; 
but any one who takes the last half dozen volumes of the reports will find 
the subject treated exhaustively, so much so in fact that there does not seem 
to be anything left to say. However, if any of my experience will do you 
any good, you are welcome to it. 

My experience with raspberries dates back to the time when I was twelve 
years old. My father got some wild ones out of the timber, and some of the 
old Yellow-cap. They were supported on a frame, and the vines grew from 
ten to twenty feet in length and were never shortened in, and consequently 
never had half as many on as they should have had. My part of the busi- 
ness was to pick the berries and keep away the birds, who were just as par- 
tial to them then as they are now. Then the berries were made into 
preserves, and a few dried in the sunshine to put in with dried apples when 
winter came. 

I remember well the first improved berries I ever saw; they were the Doo- 
little, and I thought they were immense. I was then sixteen, and they 
started me looking after something better than we had, and I have been 
looking ever since; but during that time I have never, it seems to me, seen 
anything that surpassed that garden of Doolittle Improved. 

My first blackberry experience was in the pine lands of northern Wiscon- 
sin. After the timber had been cut off and the fire had run through, the 
blackberries came in a perfect jungle, and never have I seen their equal for 
size and luscious sweetness. Blackberries and milk were a staple dish with 
me then; whilst now hardly one of us would care to risk his life by such an 
act of temerity as to eat a lot of Snyders (as our pickers gather them) in a 
a bowl of milk. We never cultivated them, for father said they would 
spread all over the farm, and he would not have them on the place; so that 
my experience with the cultivated blackberry only dates back ten years. 

In raspberries of the cap varieties, the Gregg is still the standard; all 
others are measured by it. Given a good stand, a mild winter and a favor- 
able spring and there is nothing can surpass it; but the conditions required 



44 



346 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



are so seldom obtained that there are several other varieties that success- 
fully dispute with it the palm of most profitable berry, amongst them I 
would mention Souhegan, Tyler, Hopkins and Ohio. I have never been 
able to discover any difference in the first two, and think they should be 
called Tyler or Souhegan. Shaffer, when it does its best, will equal the 
Gregg; but for long shipments it is rather soft, although we send them a 
couple of hundred miles in pints and have them reach destination in fair 
condition. I really think as much of Shaffer as any berry we have. We 
have had the Earhart Everbearing for two years; got it direct from Hale 
Bros.; but so far it does not seem adapted to our climate and soil, although 
in a more favorable season it might do well, but the last two seasons have 
been very trying on all berries. 

We are also trying Carmen, Nemaha, and half dozen more of the candi- 
dates for public favor; but are not prepared to report on them yet In reds 
we have nothing better than Turner and Cuthbert, but the snow cricket has 
destroyed the canes very badly, and unless he leaves us we shall have to be 
contented with the Shaffer. We have one disease which seems peculiar to 
the Gregg; it never troubles the young canes but when the fruit j sets 
(after the bushes have been set two years) and gets to be a quarter grown, 
then the blight or mildew takes hold, and looking over the patch you would 
say that they had been burnt; but the spots spread, the leaves begin to drop 
and the fruit to shrivel, and by the time the berries are ripe half of the fruit 
is not worth picking. Other varieties do not seem affected by it, and it may 
be that the disease is peculiar to our location. Three years ago one planta- 
tion was attacked with rust, but we cut everything down and burned it on 
the ground and thoroughly stamped it out, planted the ground to straw- 
berries, and sent east and got raspberry plants and have seen no further 
indication of it. 

In blackberries there is nothing I would recommend besides Snyder and 
Taylor; Erie and Ancient Briton promise well, but have not been sufficiently 
tested by me yet. They went through last winter in good shape, and have 
made a healthy growth this summer, with no indications of rust, whilst the 
Early Harvest was a complete failure by reason of rust. 

We want a better blackberry than the Snyder; it colors up before ripe and 
parts easily from the stem, and then turns red in the boxes, making a poor 
impression both on the sight and palate. The Taylor is preferable, in my 
opinion, both as a table and canning berry. It is, however, bad about pick- 
ing, as it is protected from assault the most effectually of any variety 
known. 

We can only say, in conclusion, that we are thankful for what we have; 
that without Snyder and Taylor we should practically have nothing, and we 
are looking for something better. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



347 



DISCUSSION. 

Thos. Bonham: I would like to ask if any one has had experience 
with Taylor blackberry? We got the plants from Mr. Sabin, but af- 
ter three or four years had to root them out. 

S. H. Redman: I have had the Taylor three or four years. They 
are too tender. After three or four years, some varieties seem to 
stand better than at first, but they do not. Stone's hardy is hardier 
and better. 

W. M. Bomberger: I am very unfavorable impressed with Taylor. 

L. A. Williams: I have Souhegan and Tyler raspberries, they are 
quite distinct as I have them. I prefer the Tyler. 

F. W. Taylor: This Souhegan and Tyler question comes up every 
year. Mr. Raymond once said he thought there was about fifteen 
minutes difference in the time of ripening, but I have seen them in 
many places, but could see no difference. It is like the Cluster and 
Houghton gooseberry; they are so near alike that if there is a differ- 
ence that it cannot be distinguished. 

Prof. Budd: They are quite distinct, the appearance of the canes 
is different, and even in winter they can be readily distinguished. In 
the eastern part of the State I know several men who raise black- 
berries, who have men go through and pull off the first suckers, as 
they claim that the ones that come later and lower, are better. 

S. H. Redman: The Souhegan is entirely different from Tyler, and 
Ohio and Tyler are different. Tyler is larger and better, and bears 
more fruit. Souhegan throws suckers from the top of the old roots, 
and they are liable to break off, while others start lower down and 
are not liable to break. The leaf of Souhegan is smaller and 
crumpled, while the leaf of the Ohio are larger and smoother, but 
the canes of Tyler are larger. The fruit of the Souhegan is prettiest, 
the seeds being smaller, and fruit very firm and fine; not as large as 
some, and sparse bearer on account of limbs breaking off. 

W. M. Bomberger: With me Ohio is better berry for local mar- 
ket; has a long season of ripening, lasting three weeks. It began 
ripening when the Doolittle were at their best and continued until 
the time of the Gregg. It will sometimes do wonders, and then 
again will do nothing. 

L. O. Williams: I think Ohio is at the head of the list of black 
caps. It is sweeter and better than most other varieties. 



348 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



D. J. Carpenter: Mr. Barry, who is the best authority in the 
United States, says Souhegan and Tyler are the same. We have got 
Ohio for Tyler sometimes. The Ohio is the best variety we have in 
Nebraska. 

F. W. Taylor: I don't like to give aaray secrets, but was once 
working for a large nursery firm, and we had orders to dig Souhegan 
and Tyler from the same row. They considered them one and the 
same thing. 

G. W. Franklin: I have Tyler and Souhegan, and they are en- 
tirely different. 

S. H. Redman: I would like to know if any one has had experience 
with the Nemaha. 

L. O. Williams: I planted it but it has low vitality. 

H. A. Terry: I have had Nemaha three or four years; got it from 
Chas. A. Green, of New York, and later got Nemaha from him again. 
But they were different, and when I called his attention to it, he 
wrote me that the second lot he got were spurious. The genuine 
Nemaha is more like Gregg than any other variety I ever grew, but 
is hardier and never winter-kills. They are strong growers, and they 
resemble Gregg so much that Prof. Budd took them for Gregg on 
my grounds. The fruit is good — not quite as good as Tyler, but 
larger and sells better. 

S. H. Redman: I have five or six hundred Nemahas; they are a 
shy bearer. I think I have them correct, for I got them from Gov. 
Furnas myself. The Nemaha is much like Gregg, but a stronger 
grower than Gregg and a little larger; neither winter-kill with me. 

H. A. Terry: Of the Gregg canes only about one out of five live 
with me through the winter. 

S. H. Redman: If not cultivated too late, I think they will not 
winterkill. 

Motion to adjourn to 8:30 to-morrow. 

Carried. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



THIRD DAY— MORNING SESSION. 
The following papers were read: 

Report from Monona county, by Christian Steinman, read by Sec- 
retary. 

Report from Guthrie county, by Richard Hopkins, read by Secre- 
tary. 

L. A. Williams read a paper on Strawberries. 

J. B. Black read his report as Director of Shelby county. 

Mapleton, Monona County, Iowa, Dec. 7, 1888. 

Mr. Geo. Van Hotjten, Secretary of Western Iowa Horticultural Society: 

I received the invitation to the meeting at Council Bluffs, Iowa. As this 
county is in the western part of Iowa, I will state a few items: The ground 
is very dry; we had not any falling weather for over three months, to settle 
all the dust, but fruit trees matured all the wood perfectly; the same did 
grapes, raspberries and blackberries. Strawberries, I do not know what 
they will be next spring; some are nearly killed out by moles, grubworms 
and the green strawberry worm; we had here a small crop. Baspberries did 
fairly well; so did blackberries; we had a good rain just in time to save 
most of the crop. Grapes did well on proper land and with proper treat- 
ment. I tasted many varieties of strawberries, but of the older sorts none 
better than Crescent or Glendale; of raspberries, the Tyler, Gregg; and of 
the new, Shaffer's Colossal. Here we have, somewhat, plum on the brain; 
the Forest Garden is the most reliable; Wolf, not well tested yet; I think 
the Pottawattamie will be too tender here, like Wild Goose; of the last I 
ought to have got bushels where I did not even get samples. I have some 
seedlings which bear better than many of the gaf ted sorts— of good size ; 
the De Soto bears well, but the curculio goes in partnership with the culti- 
vator. 

We had some apples here this year, but there is hardly a sound tree among 
them, of the older sorts; many of the new Kussians do well. Mr. S. Wil- 
son's Yellow Transparent apple trees are a model of health, and had some 
samples of apples. The Longfield, it seems to me, is going to be a blessing; 
is of fair size, and ought to be top grafted on other hardy, suitable stock. 



350 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Many of my new Russians bloomed, but failed to fruit. The most of the 
old sorts I culled out, or they culled themselves out. 

Cherries have not done well for a number of years; the Dyehouse is the 
hardiest. The English Morello is injured in trunk. The new Russians of 
Prof. Budd seem to be hardier; time will tell. I hope some of my own 
seedlings will bring me some good sorts, to pay me for the trouble. 

I have a lot of hardy apple seedling trees, but so far they turned out to be 
more crabs than apples. 

This country ought to be the home of the grape, under good treat- 
ment. With me are the Concord, Worden, Moore's Early and Janesville. 
This week we had the last of Virginus, a splendid grape. 

About the Russian mulberry I had an article in the State Register. If 
we will keep on a few years we will have more fruit than we use. 

I almost forgot pears. I had no success with the old sorts, like everybody 
else here. I have some of the new Russians, of which the Bessemoanke is 
in the lead. They are Jiot free of blight, but half as much damaged as the 
old sorts, and have as perfect trees of those as I have seen in any land. 

I have to stop or you will get weary; hope you will have a profitable time. 

One dollar for membership. 

Christian Steinman. 



REPORT OF GUTHRIE COUNTY. 



BY R. HOPKINS, BEAR GROVE. 



The early spring of 1888 gave great promise of an abundant fruit crop in 
Guthrie county, but while the trees were glowing with a mantle of white 
blossoms a cold wave struck them and blasted our blooming hopes. 

The apple crop was almost a total failure. No varieties withstood the 
biting frost, and we have to depend upon counties further south for home 
use. 

Plums, like apples, were a failure, both the cultivated and wild varieties. 

Cherries were a shade better. The Richmonds are dying out fast, on all 
kinds of stocks. This county appears to excel in the rapid growth and de- 
composition of all vegetable structures. 

Strawberries were a medium crop, rather poor quality. The varieties 
most popular are the Orescent and Finch's Prolific. Other kinds are grown, 
but the above are considered the standards. 

The Gregg and Turner raspberries matured a good crop of very fine fruit. 

There was not quite an average crop of currants. The quality was good. 
The varieties most cultivated are the White Grape and Red Dutch. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 35 ^ 



About one half of an ordinary crop of gooseberries was raised. Not 
much mildew, and quality fine. The varieties that do best are the Hough- 
ton Seedling and Downing. 

Grapes were a light crop of inferior quality. The Concord is about the 
only variety cultivated with success. 

Some fruit growers of this county have great hopes of the apricot. It 
has been grown here three seasons and is very healthy and hardy up to date, 
and the growers look for fruit next year. 

Many people are still planting trees and shrubbery every year, expecting 
to strike something to their advantage by and by. We have some home 
nurseries that are coming to the front. 

Guthrie county has been extensively worked by a Davenport firm intro- 
ducing budded trees at three times the price of grafted. They have seen 
considerable grief in replacing the trees that did not grow of the first de- 
livery. 

Evergreens have made but little growth during the past two seasons, ow- 
ing to continued dry weather. 



THE STRAWBERRY. 



BY L. A. WILLIAMS. 



Mr. President and fellow members of the Western Iowa Horticultural Society: 

Your committee appointed me to prepare a paper on " The Strawberry." 
Now I do not wish to shirk duty, but the question is, what can I write that 
has not already been written on this subject by many more able writers be- 
fore me? 

In my experience with the growing and marketing of strawberries during 
the past twenty- five years, I have both read and experimented to a consid- 
erable degree, and from each source derived, by turns, profit and suffered 
loss. So I would advise the tyro in this branch of horticulture to read the 
essays of the old soldiers, but, as you go on the battle field, "pick your 
flint and keep your powder dry." The enemies are in ambush, and will be 
likely to capture the over-confident. 

I call to mind the cases of more than one who, having read glowing ac- 
counts of how to "strike it rich" on a few acres of strawberries, entered 
the combat with the zeal of an old Nero, but in two or three years retired, 
not full fledged but thoroughly fleeced, and disgusted with this pursuit as 
an easy and sure road to competence. 

I will not deny that strawberries may be grown with profit. This luscious 



352 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



and life-giving fruit is always In demand and should be produced in abun- 
dance, so that rich and poor may partake freely of it. 

I may briefly repeat the oft-given directions for planting and cultivating 
this berry. Rich, well drained and nearly level ground is desirable. Fall 
plowing for spring planting, with top dressing of well decomposed stable 
manure or wood ashes; pulverize with harrow and smoother; plant in April 
or May, in rows 3£ feet apart; set good healthy plants, two feet apart in the 
row, and cultivate with Planet Junior (or similar tool) and hoe frequently, 
keeping the soil loose and free from weeds at all times. As the runners ap- 
pear, keep them in the line of the row and allow them to root, so as to form 
what is termed a matted row. After the ground freezes in the early part of 
winter, the beds should be mulched with prairie hay or clean straw to the 
depth of about two inches, flay or straw as it has been thrown from the 
stables, mixed with manure, makes good mulching, provided it is not mixed 
with weeds or hay seed that will greatly increase the labor of keeping the 
plants clear of weeds. 

In the spring, about the time the bloom begins to appear, remove so much 
of the mulching as may interfere with the growth of the plants, leaving 
enough at their base to prevent the fruit from coming in contact with the 
soil. At this time, if the plants have made a favorable growth, you will 
have a matted row of closely-set plants from fifteen to twenty inches wide, 
and, the season being favorable, a good crop of berries may be expected. 

Sharp frosts, in this locality, are much to be feared after the bloom has 
made its appearance, as its effects are fatal to the vitality of the tender 
fruit germs. This calamity, so far as I know, is unavoidable, and, should 
it occur, the grower has no resource other than to work and wait twelve 
months longer, at least, for his reward. <■ 

As the best results may be expected by fruiting from plants but one year 
old, the matted row should be cut down to a very narrow strip by a small 
Diamond plow, leaving only enough plants to fill the row again by their in- 
crease of plants. This should be attended to immediately after the fruiting 
season, in order that the new plants may have time to make a vigorous 
growth. The old beds should be plowed up and a new plot of ground 
planted as soon as the grub or other insects become troublesome. 

As to what varieties we should plant, I will only say that this must be 
determined only after repeated trials. Starting with some of the well- 
known sorts that have proved valuable in Western Iowa as well as else- 
where, such as the Crescent Seedling, Charles Downing, Capt. Jack, Mt. 
Vernon, Bid well. 

A few months hence I may be able to report favorably on the Burbach 
No. 5, Warfield No. 2, Jessie, and some others whose fame has been widely 
heralded by the press in other localities than our own, which is no assurance 
of their success with us. Let us not be over. anxious to stock up with some 
new berry whose dimensions are said to be five or six inches in diameter, 
but labor to produce the best results from those we know to be good. 

No one who attempts to grow strawberries should be ignorant of the fact 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 353 



that certain otherwise valuable varieties are worthless and sterile unless 
planted near staminate or pollen-bearing plants. 

Every family who has control of a garden spot should procure of some 
reliable grower a few plants of a fruitful sort, and then, caring for them as 
he ought, he may, at a trifling cost, partake bountifully of this delightful 
fruit. 



REPORT OF SHELBY COUNTY. 



BY J. B BLACK. 



Strawberries— Crescent Seedling and Captain Jack did fairly well; Mt. 
Vernon, Glendale and Windsor Chief a full crop. Ten of the newer varie- 
ties planted, but not fruited yet. Jessie considered good, with high culti- 
vation. Bubach is one of the best of the new varieties; has fine foliage. 

Baspberries— All varieties of black caps that had winter protection bore a 
full crop. Ohio, Hopkins and Tyler were the most satisfactory. Red rasp- 
berries, without winter protection, one- third crop. Shafer's Collossal, a full 
crop, with protection. 

Plums— A failure, except Desoto, and a very few Forest Garden. 

Blackberries— Snyder blackberries, with protection, a full crop, and with- 
out about one- quarter or one -third crop. 

Grapes— Concord blossomed full, but were not well fertilized. Crop light. 
Fruit ripened slowly on account of cool weather; quality poor; first picking 
September 25. Worden set nearly full crop; ripe September 15. The Wor- 
den is becoming a favorite black grape, and is gaining in popularity each 
year. Moore's Early and Cottage began to ripen September 5 to 10. The 
most satisfactory of all the varieties fruited this year. Pocklington showed 
fine bunches of fruit. Delaware a good crop, and should be more generally 
planted in the county. Several new varieties planted but not fruited. The 
foliage of the Empire State stood the unfavorable weather better than the 
others. Niagara made a vigorous growth. 

Currants— A full crop. 

Gooseberries— Downing Seedling a full crop. 

Cherries— A failure, except a few English Morello. 

Apples— Winter Sweet, Paradise, Roman Stem, Early Joe, Willow Twig, 
Genitan, Wealthy and Walbridge seem to be in a healthy condition. 

Evergreens— White spruce, Northern Red cedar, White pine, Scotch Pine, 
are all doing well. Farmers who have planted cheap seedling evergreens 
pulled from the forests report from 75 to 97 per cent of a loss. There is a 
demand for transplanted evergreens to plant for windbreaks. 

45 



354 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



DISCUSSION. 

Thomas Bonham : I would like to ask Mr. Williams if he is troubled 
with small worms destroying the foliage of strawberry plants. We 
were bothered with them at Malvern. The worms are about one-half 
inch long; they curlup and fall to the ground when disturbed. 

Prof. Budd: We have never had very much trouble, because we 
watch for such things. For ten years we have used London purple, 
and consider it better than arsenic and safer, because arsenic does not 
always behave in the same way. Arsenic is sometimes all right, and 
then sometimes it burns the foliage. Experiments have been tried 
by several parties, for a number of years by sowing salt; some have 
sowed as much as eight bushels of salt per acre. Where cheap salt 
can be had from packing houses and other places, it will pay, but we 
are too far from the ocean, to make a general use of salt as a fertil- 
izer. Chlorine is the principal lack in our soil. Salt holds moisture, 
* and is beneficial in that way as well as being a fertilizer. 

D. J. Carpenter: Insect enemies are easily overcome with London 
purple. Arsenic and Paris green are likely to be adulterated. I have 
used Paris green, one pound to the hundred gallon of water. That 
would injure the leaves, while some times one pound to fifty gal- 
lons would not hurt the leaves. It is the same way with arsenic. 
London purple is not so dangerous to stock, but will kill the webb 
worm and all other insects. Salt is now becoming very cheap, and is 
very beneficial. We put on three barrels to the acre. 

L. A. Williams: One trouble I have found in the use of Paris 
green and London purple is that it clogs the rose, while arsenic does 
not. How do you use London purple to keep it from clogging the 
.sprinkler? 

D. J. Carpenter: We use the Daisy, and it does not clog. 

John Wragg: Another reason in favor of London purple is the 
danger of having arsenic about the house. Arsenic looks very much 
like the things used in cooking, and we get careless and are liable to 
use it by mistake. I heard Prof. Cook at Wisconsin Horticultural 
meeting warn people not to use it for this reason. I endorse this 
view of the subject. We should not use arsenic or any thing else 
that endangers the life of our people. I use the Lewis force pump, 
with flat mouth piece, and find no difficulty in clogging. It costs 
about six dollars. 

Prof. Budd: We use a little old fashioned pump like we used to 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



use in a pail for washing windows. We put in a cyclone nozzle, and 
the whole thing does not cost more than $2.75. It is true that it is a 
light thing, but that makes no difference so that it does not clog. 

L. A. Williams: In using this on the strawberries I would want a 
wagon, as it would be quite a job to carry as much water as would 
be necessary in spraying for insects. 

Prof. Budd: The better way is to mount a barrel on a sled and 
draw that along the row. 

L. A. Williams- We ought not to neglect tools and appliances; for 
example, we ought to know what are the best pumps, and the best 
kinds of nozzels, and where we can get them. They asked me twenty- 
five cents a pound for London purple, when we ought to get a hundred 
pounds for two or three dollars. We hear a great deal of talk in our 
agricultural papers about Short-Horn cattle, Percheron horses and 
other fine stock, and very little about the tools and appliances that 
we need about our farms and orchards. We should have a tool some- 
thing like the Acme harrow, for one horse, or an implement made so 
that we could run it under the rows of shrubbery. Our present tools 
cut too deep and leave the ground too rough. If we had something 
that would run under the branches, loosen the soil and leave the 
ground level, it would be very much better. 

John Wragg: I suggest something better than a sled for spraying 
strawberries. I have a sandwich cart, which I can back up to a barrel 
and hook on, and can take the barrel full of water right along. It is 
a combination cart, for it has a nice box, and is very convenient on 
the farm. 

D. J. Carpenter: We have two of these carts, but still we use a 
sled for spraying the strawberries. A pipe runs to a tub, and the 
pump works in the tub. The sled is wide enough to straddle two 
rows. 

Prof. Budd: The man who uses a sled will never use a cart for 
spraying strawberries. 

W. M. Bomberger: I saw a plow at the State Fair that I will use 
in my vineyard. It was set on a swivel, and hitched with a device, 
po that the horse can walk away from the row, and if required will 
throw dirt under the row. 

H. A. Terry read a paper on " Crabs and Hybrids." 



356 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



CRAB APPLES AND HYBRIDS— THEIR VALUE. 



BY H. A. TERRY, CRESCENT CITY. 



It is doubtless well known to most of the members of this Society that I 
have made a kind of specialty of growing crabs and hybrids from seed for the 
last twenty years, and this is perhaps the reason that the committee 
assigned this subject to me for the present paper. 

About the year 1866 1 planted out about one thousand seedling crabs that 
were grown from crab seed saved from several varieties, such as Hybrid, 
Transcendant and Hugh's Virginia. Several of these seedlings bore fruit 
when four years old, but a large proportion of them did not bear untU six, 
seven and even eight years old. Those which first came into bearing were 
mostly crabs, in every sense of the word, but the later ones, many of them, 
were hybrids, and genuine apples to all appearances. One of these trees 
produces fruit so similar to the Sweet June or High-top Sweet that if it 
matured at the same season, one could scarcely distinguish them. The 
peculiarity of these seedlings was, the great number of sweet ones, fully one- 
fourth of the number being sweet. In planting out this lot of trees for 
fruiting, the largest trees were selected and planted first, and the small 
trees were left and planted last; and when they came into fruiting these 
large trees all proved to be real crabs or hybrids, with a large per cent of 
crab blood in them; and the small trees planted in the last rows were nearly 
all apples; of course, they were hybrids, but many of them showed no mix- 
ture of crab blood in their composition. These trees all proved to be hardy, 
not one of them, to my best recollection, ever suffering by winter- killing. 
Many of them suffered very severely by the blight, for which cause I rooted 
out hundreds of them, some of the very finest fruit being produced on trees 
that blighted so badly that they were grubbed out. Out of this thousand 
trees there were probably eight hundred that lived to bear fruit, and of that 
eight hundred there were several fine varieties, and some of these 1 will now 
attempt to describe, viz.: 

Alpha— Large, oblong, nearly all red; very fine flavor; ripe, August 1st. 

Lemon— Extra large, deep yellow, lemon shape, and sharp acid; fine for 
cider or cooking; ripe, September 5th. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 357 



Maiket— Medium to large, light yellow, with bright red cheek; good flavor; 
Tipe, August 5th. 

Coral Beauty— Large, deep red, fine and very productive; ripe in Septem- 
ber. 

Custard— Large, yellow, rich; fine for cider or cooking; ripe, August 20th. 
Jerry's Golden— Large, bright yellow; fine flavor; ripe, September 10th. 
Champagne— Large, wonderfully productive and of excellent quality; ripe, 
September 1st. 

Charles Downing— Large, bright red, oblong; fine quality; very productive; 
ripe, September 20th. 

Jerry's Cider— Very large; yellow, with red cheek; immensely productive; 
fine flavor; very juicy, and one of the finest cider apples in cultivation; ripe, 
September 25th. 

Perfection— Very large; pinkish red, with deep red cheek; very handsome, 
and of excellent quality; ripe, October 10th. 

The supposition is that these are all what are termed hybrids or crosses 
between the crab and common apple, though in tree they partake largely of 
the crab, both in hardiness and early bearing. 

In addition to those above described I have some thirty other varieties of 
nearly equal value, from this same lot of seedlings, and am also growing a 
good many hybrids that originated in other parts of our country. These 
liave been selected on account of their freedom from blight, healthf ulness of 
tree, great productiveness, etc. The fruit, though smaller than apples, is 
particularly rich and fine for all culinary uses, though it will not keep in a 
fresh state through the winter. For making apple butter, jelly, preserves 
and cider, these hybrids are particularly valuable; and also on account of 
the perfect hardiness of the tree, they are worthy of extended cultivation in 
the far north, where the common apple does not succeed. These varieties, 
on account of their thrifty and healthy growth and straight, handsome 
stems, are fine for top-working the more tender varieties of apples. One 
tree of Grimes' Golden or Jonathan on one of these stocks is worth more 
than ten of the much lauded budded trees on French crabs. I am of the 
opinion that a few trees of these hybrids would be of value on each and 
«very farm in Iowa. 

The committee on resolutions reported as follows: 

Resolved, That our thanks are due, and are hereby tendered, to the super- 
visors of Pottawattamie county, for the generous tender of the commodious 
rooms of the court-house for our meeting. 

To the local committee, for their untiring energy, in leaving nothing un- 
done that tended to the pleasure and profitableness of this meeting. 

" Mine Host" of the New Ogden Hotel, for well directed efforts toward 
the pleasure and comfort of the members of this Society, while guests of 
said hotel. 

To L. A. Casper, for his generous invitation to the members of this 
Society, to visit his beautiful conservatories, and to partake of the hospital- 



358 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ities of his home, and for the princely manner in which the invitation was 
carried out. 

To Superintendent Evans, of the Electric Motor line, for the senerous 
tender to the members of this Society, of the use of the Motor line to visit 
the city of Omaha and return. 
To the press, for the kind and extended notice of our Society. 

J. Wragg, 
J. B. Black, 
B. Harcourt, 

Committee. 

On motion, the report of the committee was adopted. 

Prof. Budd: If there is time I would like to hear some talk on 
the propagation of some of the new and desirable varieties of trees. 
Mr. Carpenter, how do you propagate the cut leaved birch? 

D. J. Carpenter: We tried budding them on the canoe birch and 
the European White birch, but without suceess. We budded on the 
White birch we got from Scotland, and got ninety per cent of the 
buds to grow. Also we have found some of the elms that are par- 
ticularly desirable. The Camperdown elm is a desirable kind. We 
use the common Red elm for stock. 

Prof. Budd: A number here have asked how to propagate salix 
Napliones — called the Volga willow. It will bud on several of our 
willows. The salix Amie makes a straight upright growth, has a 
yellow stock and contrasts nicely with the blue of the Napliones. 
Spring budding will succeed with the weeping willows and mulber- 
ries. If you cut off the top you get too much sap; but if you bend 
the top and tie it down they will about all grow. 

D. J. Carpenter: We have had best success in propagating weep- 
ing mulberry, in grafting in the spring. We split the stock and put 
in the graft, and wax them, and have no trouble to get them to 
grow. 

J. R. Rice read a paper, entitled, What Have We Learned New in 
the Nursery. 



WESTEKN IOWA HO HT1CULTU KA L SOCIETY. 



359 



WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED NEW IN THE NURSERY. 



BY J. R. RICE. 



The mechanic after mastering his trade, can by following given rules ob- 
tain the necessary result. But wherever there is life there is danger of 
death, and at all times adverse circumstances are liable to thwart the best 
laid plans. The beginner starts out confident of mastering his profession 
in a few months, but as months becomes years, he feels that he knows but 
little and is sure of nothing. The past five years have tried our theories 
and exploded our knowledge. We look with disappointment at some of our 
iron- clad apple trees and blight proof pear and hardy small fruits. That 
apple tree has root killed, this one is half dead with blight, while another 
has its branches ruined by winter- killing. The pear tree died in mid-sum- 
mer and the small fruits are almost a failure owing to drought, severe cold 
weather, etc. 

What varieties shall we grow and how shall we propagate them, are im- 
portant questions for the nurseryman and planter to decide. Oar customers 
must have new varieties, which means more expense and failures, as but 
very few prove valuable here. Shall we bud or graft, and what kinds of 
stocks shall we use for different varieties, are matters to be decided very 
often, for what we are pleased with one year we may be disappointed in the 
next, as soils, climate, insects, etc., are always affecting the growth of tree 
and fruit. 

The time has been when any kind of fruit would sell, but in the near 
future quality will be positively necessary, or fruits will be shipped to our 
markets that will satisfy the requirements and ours will rot on our hands. 
The manner of cultivation we do not agree on. Some believe in thorough 
cultivation the entire season of growth that the largest possible growth 
may be obtained. We believe that it is necessary that all wood should be- 
come thoroughly ripened before cold weather, and for this reason do not 
cultivate after the middle of August, but there are times when the reverse 
might have been better foi the safety of our nursery stock and more fruit 
have been obtained from plantations. 

We have learned that we cannot succeed without proper locations and 
soils. That if we grow more than one crop on the same ground it should 



360 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



be of a different kind. That thorough cultivation in early summer cannot 
injure the growth. That skill, hard work, and close attention are necessi- 
ties, but that the pleasure of success goes as far to repay us, as in any pur- 
suit that we may have followed, and we feel confident that time will surely 
prove to us, that there are varieties that we may all grow, but to be suc- 
cessful will require as much diligence in our work as ever, and every nur- 
seryman may learn new facts each day, which are applicable only to that 
day and surroundings. 

On motion the fruit list was taken up for revision. 

L. O. Williams moved to add Rome Beauty to the list. 

Motion lost. 

J. W. Murphy moved to add Iowa Blush to the list. 

Geo. Van Houten: The tree is hardy, but the fruit is small, and 
the fruit becomes more imperfect and smaller as the tree acquires 
age. I doubt the advisability of adding it to the list. 

Thomas Bonham: I cannot agree with our Secretary as to the 
Iowa Blush. Mr. J. F. Record has had it for eighteen years, and says 
the Iowa Blush is most profitable of any variety except Ben Davis. 

Ezra Bradford : I have lived near the parent tree, or trees, thirty- 
two years old, and until last year has not paid. They are not a good 
market apple, but this year they did better than common, and will 
stand with other apples, because other varieties are so poor. They 
are too small; it shows abuse; a poor apple in color and second grade 
in quality. 

J. W. Murphy: I have trees of the Iowa Blush, and they are the 
best and nicest of any variety. They have not failed for several 
years; they are hardy and bear good crops, and in addition to yield- 
ing well, will keep well. There is not a better cooking apple. I 
expect to set a lot more in the spring, as no variety shows better 
health. 

W. K. Eollett: Is not the Iowa Blush as long a keeper and as 
profitable as Wine Sap? 

J. W. Murphy: They yield as well, but as we are in a good place 
for Wine Sap, and they are not as large as Wine Sap, but they are of 
average size." 

L. A. Williams: I have not a tree in my orchard that bears better 
than Iowa Blush. I generally count on it more than any other 
variety to the number of trees. I used to think it originated as a 
seedliDg in Cooley's orchard. Now the orchard is dilapidated, except 
Iowa Blush. This year they sold apples from that orchard at twenty- 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



five cents per bushel, but the trees had been neglected. I sold at 
thirty five to forty cents, while our best apples sold at fifty cents. 
Samples here on exhibition are are not inferior to some other varie- 
ties. 

Silas Wilson: The original tree was grown by Mr. Strohm, at 
Iowa City. Farmers and fruit growers who know it will plant it, 
whether it is on the list or not. I do not believe in casting it out on 
account of its small size. It is as large as the Roman Stem, not as 
good, but a meritorious variety. 

Motion carried, and Iowa Blush added to the list. 

A. S. Bonham moved to add Hagloe to the list. 

A. S. Bonham: Although a few days later than Red June, we have 
it here on our tables. 

H A. Terry: I would like to say a good word for the Hagloe. It 
is larger than the Duchess, does not bear quite as many apples, and 
is two or three weeks later than the Duchess. It is a bad spreading 
grower. 

L. A. Williams: I do not want it on the list. I planted about 
thirty of the trees; it is a fine, showy apple, but not productive; it 
is a straggling, spreading grower, and not profitable. I have them 
on high and low ground, and wish they were somewhere else. 

Wm. H. Kuhn: They have been profitable with me. 

Motion lost. 

Motion by L. A. Williams, to strike Soulard from the list. 

Geo. Van Houten: I am not a friend to the crab apples on general 
principles, but would rather have the Soulard than all the balance. 
Where we can raise apples as easy as we can in southern Iowa, we 
have little use for crab apples, and they are in no sense a proper sub- 
stitute for apples. For preserves and jellies the Soulard has no 
equal. It has a quince like flavor that none of the others possess. 
The tree is hardy, grows in good shape; the blossoms are high col- 
ored and fragrant; the fruit is of good size; nearly always sound and 
perfect, and keeps equal to the wild crab apple. In fact, it has more 
of the desirable crab apple characteristics than any other variety that 
I have grown. Its high colored and fragrant blossoms renders it a 
desirable substitute for the wild crab as an ornamental tree. 

W. K. Follett: I agree with our Secretary. It is the best of the 
whole list for jelly, and when properly cooked it makes the very best 
of preserves. 



46 



362 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Motion lost. 

Motion was made to strike the Early Richmond and Late Rich- 
mond from the list. 

Geo. Van Houten: It may be that the Richmond cherries are not 
what we want, but the fact remains that they are two of a list of 
three varieties of the old list that comes nearest meeting our wants. 
We have strong hope of the Wragg cherry, but there are almost no 
trees of that cherry in the market. So with the Russian and north 
German varieties that promise to be hardy and productive; but trees 
of these varieties cannot be had. For the present and near future I 
do not see how we can do better than to plant the Richmonds and 
English Morello. 

L. A. Williams: It is said that a drowning man will catch at a 
straw, but shall we throw straws to a drowning man? I have had 
thousands of the Richmond cherries, but none are left. 

E. Bradford: My trees are on the high land, and are living and 
bearing. We want something better, but I do not know of anything 
better now. I say put your cherry trees on the highest ground, and 
they will do better and live longer. Mr. Williams' trees were in a 
valley, and are all dead. Some varieties of trees will do well on low 
ground, but cherry trees will not. I want to retain Early Richmond 
and English Morello until we can get something better. 

Motion lost. 

On motion of L. O. Williams the Wragg was added to the general 
list. 

On motion of L. O. Williams the Hawkeye plum was put on the 
trial list. 

On motion of L. A. Williams the Pottamattamie was put on the 
trial list. 

Prof. Budd moved to place the Wyant on the trial list. 
Prof. Budd: It is the best native plum I know of. It is nice to 
place on the table as you would peaches. 
Motion prevailed. 

Motion by Col. Sapp, that the Baldwin be put on the trial list. 
Col. W. F. Sapp: Mr. Royer had the trees for several years, and 
they paid him well. 

J. W. Templeton: It paid me best of any; it sells well. 
Silas Wilson: Can you tell me of its origin? 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 353 

# 

Col. W. F. Sapp: Mr. Royer selected it from the thieket and 
named it after Judge Baldwin. 
Added to the list. 

On motion of L. A. Williams the Wilson strawberry was stricken 
from the list. 

On motion of L. O. Williams the Bubach No. 5 was added to the 
trial list. 

On motion of L. A. Williams Warfield No. 2 was added to the trial 
list. 

L. O. Williams moved to add James Vick to the general list. 

B. L. Harcourt: James Vick is one of the best canning berries; 
but the stem is too short, and costs twice as much to pick it as any 
other variety, and I have discarded it. 

Silas Wilson: There are instances where Capt. Jack is taken for 
James Vick. So far as I have seen it, it has been a failure. It is 
much like Capt. Jack, of which it is a seedling but it is not near as 
good as Capt. Jack. 

B. Harcourt: I will fully endorse all that Mr. Wilson says. They 
are not worth half as much as Chas. Downing. 

Motion lost. 

John Wragg: I move to add James Vick to the trial list. It 
does well with James Lewis in Madison county, and Prof. Budd has 
had fine crops with it. 

L. A. Williams: It is too old to add to the trial list. 

Motion lost. 

Prof. Budd: I think you did just right in not recommending it 
for general planting. But for family nse, where quality is a high 
recommendation, it is the very best for home use, and I believe in 
having the best for the home, whether we sell or not. 

H. A. Terry moved to add the Windom dewberry to the list for 
trial. 

D. J. Carpenter: Where can it be had? 

B. Harcourt: Mr. McGeehon advertised it last year. 

Prof. Budd: The Windom can be had and rapidly propagated. 
But I do not believe in % retaining the Lucretia. It may do here when 
it will winter, but it is hard to get it up out of the dirt. 

A. B. Mair: The Lucretia winter-kills with us. Windom added 
for trial. 

The list as revised is as follows: 



364 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



APPLES. 

Summer— Duchess. For home use, Whitney, Red June, Early Joe. For 
trial, Grand Sultan, Thaler, Yellow Transparent. 

Fall— Lowell, Coles' Quince, Wealthy, Fameuse, Fall Orange. For trial, 
Longfleld. 

Winter— Jonathan, Grimes' Golden, Winesap, Janet, Roman Stem, Ben 
Davis, Iowa Blush. For trial, Antonovka. 
Orab Apples— Alaska, Hyslop, Soulard. 

Cherries— Early Richmond, late Richmond, English Morello. For trial, 
Wragg. 

Plums— Wild Goose, Forest Garden, Miner, De Soto, Wolf. For trial, 
Hawkeye, Pottawattamie, Wyant, Baldwin. 

Currants— Cherry, White Grape, Fay, Victoria, Red Dutch. 

Grapes— Moore's Early, Worden, Concord, Lady. For trial, Niagara. 

Baspberries— Turner, Cuthbert, Gregg, Shaffer, Ohio, Tyler. 

Strawberries— Crescent, Chas. Downing. To fertilize Crescent, Capt. 
Jack. For trial, Bubach No. 5, Warfleld No. 2. 

Blackberry— Snyder. 

Dewberries— For trial, Lucretia, Windom. 



Report of Adams county, by Jacob Smith, read by Secretary. 



REPORT FROM ADAMS COUNTY. 



BY JACOB SMITH. 



As I have been chosen to give a report from this county I shall be very 
brief, as I did not have time to go around and gather up items to swell our 
report, but come right down to facts. 

The apple crop in this county was almost a failure, enough for home con- 
sumption, and a poor quality; so many wormy apples. Jonathan was fair, 
Ben Davis poor, and all other winter varieties shared the same fate. The 
summer and fall were pretty fair, and of good quality— the Fameuse the 
best. The apple trees have made a good growth, and ripening up their 
wood will go into winter quarters in good shape, plenty of buds for 1889. 
Most all the trees that were set in 1888 done well; being a good growing 
season all the youDg orchards are doing well; all the old ones are on the 
decline. 



WESTERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 355 



Cherries were an entire failure; there wasn't a bloom in the county; trees 
looked as though dead last spring, but they leafed out; they do not look as 
though they would not fruit again. 

Blackberries were a fair crop, the Snyder being in the lead, as this is the 
only one that will stand the winters here. 

The currant was a light crop, and gooseberries a failure. 

Strawberries were a good crop where they were taken care of. 

Grapes were a light crop, the Concord being the only kind that is profita- 
ble here. 

The committee on fruit exhibits reported, awarding premiums, 
which, on motion, was accepted and approved. (The report was not 
probably delivered to the Secretary, as it could not be found.) 

L. O. Williams: I brought some apples, but they were not entered 
for premiums; I desire to donate them to the Society. Several other 
exhibitors also donated their fruit to the Society, which on motion of 
L. O. Williams was donated to the Home of the Friendless of Coun- 
cil Bluffs. 

On motion of B. Harcourt it was decided to pay the same premium 
on plates of potatoes as on plates of apples. 

The fruit was placed in charge of L. O. Williams to be conveyed 
to the Home of the Friendless, in accordance of the above motion. 

L. A. Williams: I hope you will prepare fruit for the Glenwood 
meeting next winter. 

The hour having arrived that the Society had voted to go to Mr. 
Casper's, it was decided, on motion, to select a captain to direct the 
movement ofCthe members during the visit to Mr. Casper's and the 
excursion to Omaha. 

On motion John Wragg was duly elected as captain. 

On motion the Society adjourned to meet at Glenwood, December 
10th, 11th and 12th, 1889. 

Geo. Van Houten, Secretary. 



After the formal adjournment the Society went through the green- 
houses of Mr. L. A. Casper, did full justice to the splendid dinner 
furnished; after which toasts and responses, which space will not per- 
mit us to produce; after which the members went to the Electric 
Motor Line, the use of which had been tendered by the superintend- 
ent, who personally took charge of the excursion to Omaha; and 



366 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



after a pleasant visit the return trip was made, the afternoon having 
been spent very pleasantly. 

The members of the Society passed resolutions expressing their 
gratitude to Mr. and Mrs. Casper and Superintendent Evans for the 
courtesies extended, after which the members separated, going to 
their separate homes. 

Geo. Van Houten, Secretary, 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



LISO? OF OFFICERS FOR 1888. 

PRESIDENT. 

Hon. R. P. Speer Cedar Falls. 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 

B. F. Ferris Hampton. 

SECRETARY. 

Elmer M, Reeve Waverly. 

TREASURER. 

Jno. C. Ferris Hampton. 

LIST OF MEMBERS FOR 1888. 

Prof. J. L. Budd Ames. 

C. H. True Edgewood. 

Wm. Ward Algona. 

H. W. Ash ... West Union. 

N. A. Reeve Waverly. 

Geo. Van Houten Lenox. 

Geo. Rombach Cedar Falls. 

J. H. Johnson Inwood. 

C. Rowse Independence. 

Ed. Connors Humboldt. 

H. W. Lathrop Iowa City. 

D. M. Van Aukin Mason City. 

Edson Gay lord Nora Springs. 

Peter Wimberton Rora Springs. 

D. Haines Nora Springs. 

L. L. Dowds Nora Springs. 

W. C. Haviland Fort. Dodge. 

Dr. J. W. Smith Charles City. 

Mrs. Julia M. Higley Spencer. 



368 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



J. B. Mitchell Cresco. 

C. Gr. Patten Charles City. 

J. S. B. Thompson Grundy Center. 

James Knapp Nora Springs. 

John Gaylord Nora Springs. 

M. H. Nickerson Nora Springs. 

J. S. Wyatt Nora Springs. 

Earl M. Cutler Nora Springs. 

E. R. Heisz Nora Springs. 

H. W. Bushnell Clear Lake. 

Ambrose Smith Marble Rock. 

Rev. J. W. Clinton. .Hampton. 

Phillip Salsbury Hampton. 

A. Branson West Branch. 

Owen Shaw Nora Springs . 

John Haroon Portland. 

J. Wells Steamboat Rock. 

Wm. Dean Nora Springs. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

A. W. Sias Rochester, Minnesota. 

E. H. S. Dart Owatonna, Minnesota. 

J. Y. Cutler Nursey, Illinois. 

Mrs. Mary A. Bowen Nora Springs. 

Mrs. Joseph Quimley Nora Springs. 

Mrs. Britton Nora Springs. 

Mrs. Blythe Nora Springs. 

Mrs. Stone Nora Springs. 

A. Branson West Branch 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The Northern Iowa Horticultural Society met in annual session at 
the Opera House in Nora Springs, December 19, 1888, Vice-President 
R. P. Speer in the chair; J. C. Ferris, Secretary; E. M. Reeve, 
Recording Secretary. 

Meeting opened with prayer by Rev. Post of Nora Springs. 

Renewal of membership declared to be in order. 

The Treasurer, J. C. Ferris, reported as follows: 

Northern Iowa Horticultural Society in account with John C. Ferris: 

Credit. 



By balance on hand December, 1887 $ 5.70 

By cash from State Society 100.00 

By membership , 1888 40.00 

Total $ 155 70 

Debit. 

To Secretary's salary — $ 50.00 

To printing 8.00 

To stationery 2.95 

To stamps . 4.65 

To Edson Gay lord for stamps 1.00 

To Trescott for hall 8.00 

To premiums 22 50 

To E. Gay lord, for broken plates l.oo 

To newspapers for members 2.00' 

To balance on hand .. . 55.60 

Total $ 155.70 

By balance on hand $ 55.60 



John O. Ferris, Ireaturer. 



47 



370 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Premiums paid by Northern Iowa Horticultural Society, December 25, 1888: 



A. Branson, best collection of fruit % 10.00 

C. G. Patten, best collection of crabs and apples 5.00 

J. G. Mitchell, best collection of Russian apples 2.00 

J. S. B. Thompson, best collection of seedling apples 2.00 

C. H. True, best collection plums 1.00 

Edson Gay lord, best peck seed corn 1.00 

G. Rombach, best peck seed potatoes 1.00 

Judson Gaylord, best sample celery 50 

Total $ 22.50 



On motion of Elmer Reeve, the report was referred to a commit- 
tee of three, to be appointed by the chair. 

The chair appointed E. M. Reeve, H. W. Lathrop and William 
Ward as said committee. 

Prof. Budd: My experience warrants me in saying that we should 
not pay much attention to the programme in conducting our horticul- 
tural meetings. It is well enough to print a programme as an adver- 
tisement, but when we get together I think it best to take up such 
things as we have before us. 

C. G. Patten: I was going to suggest that there might be some- 
thing not in the programme that might properly be considered. 

The following named delegates presented credentials to the North- 
ern Iowa Horticultural Society: 

George Van Houten from Western Iowa Horticultural Society. 

A. Branson from Eastern Iowa Horticultural Society. 

A. W. Sias from Minnesota Horticultural Society. 

C. G. Patten nominated E. R. Heisz, H. W. Lathrop and J. V. Cotta 
as committee on nomenclature, and moved their appointment. 

Motion prevailed. 

C. G. Patten was called upon for a paper on small fruits. 

C. G. Patten: Mr. President, I made no written report, but will 
make a short talk on small fruit growing. I will commence by say- 
ing that my experience for the last five years leads me to believe that 
small fruit growing may be a profitable industry in this latitude. I 
began five years ago to lay down blackberries and cover with earth, 
and my success was such that I have kept it up, and have increased 
the amount from year to year. I commenced with Snyder blackberry, 
and having nothing to guide me but the experience of those in Wis- 
consin, made imperfect work; but after giving further thought, found 
the work could be done rapidly and with little expense, and have al« 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ways had a good crop. With proper culture it matters not what the 
season may be, or at least if not dryer than we have had, which is as 
dry as we are ever liable to have, we can secure a good crop. Those 
bushes not protected have failed to give satisfactory crops. Take any 
good rolling corn land, and have it thoroughly prepared, set plants 
three and one half feet apart, in rows seven feet apart. First year 
cultivate well and keep weeds down, and the second year the canes 
will come up with a strong growth. When plants get two feet high 
cut the tops off, which will make them branch, and furnish bearing 
wood without growing so tall. In the fall, before the ground freezes, 
have two men to work together, provided with strong gloves and 
coarse blouses. One man takes a spade of earth from the side of the 
hill, the other man takes the bushes from the top and bends them 
over. Managed this way the roots rarely break; but with very large 
hills it might be necessary to remove more of the earth, and eight or 
ten inches from the root. Canes six feet in length can thus be bent 
down, without breaking them. Lay them down in the row, and put 
enough earth on the tops to hold them down; then take a strong 
horse, running about a foot away from the row, throwing earth to- 
ward the plants, and then other furrows, until the middle is plowed 
out. The idea is to run as near as possible to the row without in- 
juring the plants. We use a common sized plow, and throw the fur- 
rows as near on the row as possible, and if any plants remain uncov- 
ered a man with a spade can soon finish the covering. It is not nec- 
essary to cover very deeply, as a light covering is found sufficient for 
all ordinary purposes. In the spring, with plow, turn as much of the 
earth away without injuring the plants as possible, then with a fork 
uncover and take up. When the plants are first taken up they lean 
considerable, but will soon begin to raise up, and will generally be 
self-supporting. It might be well to do what I have not done, that is 
stretch a wire on the side towards which the plants lean. Having 
laid the plants across the rows, the wires to be supported by short 
posts two feet high and rods apart; this will keep the fruit from get- 
ting dirty. In Wisconsin, I believe the fruit growers recommend two 
wires, one on each side, but I can see no use in this, as one wire will 
be found to be sufficient. I cultivate with the common or five tooth 
cultivator, sufficient to keep weeds down in the row. In dry seasons 
blackberries need more cultivation than in wet seasons. Tear before 
last I got a good crop by frequent stirring of the soil. Had I known 



372 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the immense advantage as I now do, could have had still better re- 
sult?, by more thorough cultivation. 

I would like to emphasize this part of my talk, and would like to 
impress upon fruit growers the necessity of frequent and thorough 
cultivation. I have seen an entire failure, because proper cultivation 
was not given at the proper time. 

As to raspberries, I would give them the same thorough cultivation 
that I would give the blackberries. I tried an experiment some years 
ago, having three-fourths of an acre of Doolittle raspberries; the 
ground was as clear of weeds as the house floor. The weather was 
extremely dry, and the ground cracked open, and knowing something 
what mulch would do, I had my man go through and rake dry dust 
from between the rows to fill up the cracks, and thus carried them 
through a further drought" of ten days, after which rains came, and I 
had an excellent crop. By laying down, raspberries can be made a 
very great success, but do not think that laying down is an absolute 
necessity, but thorough cultivation or mulch is a necessity, and with 
such treatment can succeed with blackberries as well as black rasp- 
berries, and can also succeed with red raspberries, especially Turner 
or Philadelphia. With such treatment as I have here recommended, 
I can guarantee good returns from money and time invested in berry 
growing. 

H. W. Lathrop: I would like to ask Mr. Patten if raising berries 
in the method described, on a large scale, would be a success? 

C. G. Patten: Yes, sir; I do believe that they can be grown exten- 
sively and successfully; some of my neighbors are preparing to go 
into the business, and I think they will be successful. I have had 
experience with Ancient Briton, and think they will do well; and so 
will Stone's hardy. They are of different season, and I think that by 
prolonging the season, much better results can be obtained. The new 
blackberry introduced by Mr. C. C. Bernard of "Waukon, Barnard 
Improved, will do well. 

Mr. Patten was asked how deep he would cover raspberries when 
laid down. 

C. G. Patten: I would only cover deep enough to get them out of 
sight. There is no danger of getting ground too rioh for blackber- 
ries or raspberries. Go over and spread manure any time in winter, 
and cultivate it in the spring. 

The director of Lyon county reported. 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 373 

Reports were also made from Wright county, Chickasaw county 
and Cherokee county. 



REPORT OF WRIGHT COUNTY. 



BY GEORGE PACKMAN. 



The season of 1888 was very encouraging to the faithful fruit grower of 
Wright county. They were blessed with an abundance of small fruits of 
most kinds. The strawberry crop never was better. Crescent, Wilson, Cap- 
tian Jack, on our grounds were a sight to behold. Raspberries were a heavy 
crop; Cuthbert and Turner for red, Gregg, Mammoth Cluster and Doolittle 
for black. We find the Yellow Carolina a good bearer, and think it one of 
the most profitable market berries. 

Grapes were also a heavy crop, principally Concord. Worden is grown 
here by several parties, and is gaining great favor for its earliness. 

Currants were a good crop, Victoria and White Grape taking the lead. 

The Snyder blackberry is the only one of the kind we have found worthy of 
cultivation. It was laden with fruit, while the weather was most favorable 
to ripen it. 

Plums were a light crop, owing to the long continuance of cold rains in 
the month of May. We were awarded first premitm on Forest Garden by 
the Eagle Grove District Agricultural Society, it being fully twenty days 
earlier than De Soto and Miner. 

The apple crop was fairly good. Duchess gave a good yield. Some young 
Wealthy trees bore splendid crops, which attracted the attention of 
every one. The Haas gave a fair crop, and is thought to be one of our 
hardiest trees. Many varieties of crabs were exhibited at our fair. From 
inquiry I find the following to be the most successful: Whitney's No. 20. 
Minnesota, Martha, B. Sweet, Beacher, Sweet Hystone. 



CHEROKEE COUNTY NOTES. 



BY M. E. HINCKLEY. 



The past season was for our fruit growers only a poor one. Crabs and 
apples bore lightly, but trees show less of blight than for some years before 



374 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Plums were a total failure. Currants and gooseberries, touched by a late 
frost, gave a partial crop. 

Tbe strawberry yield was lowered fully one-fourth by excessive rains in 
the blooming season. 

In grapes, only, did our fruit crop reach high water mark. 

So far as I have observed young orchards of wisely selected trees, and 
favored with proper care are doing well. Those located on eastern or 
northeastern slopes, are noticeably promising. Duchess and Wealthy of 
proper age are giving very acceptable fruit. The latter is destined to be 
more largely planted. No. 20, while hardy and vigorous, is a comparatively 
late and shy bearer. Is our soil too rich for it? Hyslop is found to be about 
the best general purpose crab. Minnesota is a success where tried, and is a 
nutty, solid little apple too valuable to be neglected. Briar Sweet is disap- 
pointing its friends. It seems inclined to fail after the first crop. Some 
farmers in the eastern part of the county find it profitable to grow the 
Soulard. We shall have to drop the McMahon. At three years old, it is as 
black-hearted as the man who pronounced it the apple for the northwest. 

Among the Russians, six or eight varieties, including Yellow Transpar- 
ent, promise very well.. My Russian pears four years old, have neither 
winter killed or blighted. The Wragg cherry is the most vigorous and 
hardy of anything in that line yet tested here. 

The Fay currant does not measure up to promise. I had more and better 
fruit from the cherry alongside. The Triumph gooseberry gives enormous 
fruit. The Coe for an early prolific grape pleases me much. 

Mr. H. Roddis, one of the most enterprising fruit growers of the county, 
makes a pet of the Brighton. Those who are looking for a new ornamental 
shrub should try the Tamarisk, it is hard with me. 



REPORT FROM CHICKASAW COUNTY. 



BY J. M. DUNLAP. 



There is generally a good supply of small fruit raised near the towns, and 
although the past summer was very dry, yet there was sufficient produced 
to average the price below ten cents per quart. There are many varieties 
of the strawberry cultivated, among which the Crescent and Green Prolific 
take the preference for general planting. 

Of the Blackcap raspberry almost every variety of note that is raised in 
the east is also produced here in some parts of our county. We have a new 
variety of the Blackcap that originated in our county, that I think is, from 
my limited observation, superior to any of the old kinds ever brought into 



* 

NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 375 



the county; it is called the Pitt's Seedling, and was first discovered by Nur- 
seryman Pitts, growiDg on his place near Nashua. On my place I have tried 
about a half dozen of the imported kinds, but never succeeded well with 
any variety but the Pitt's Seedling, and I now cultivate that to the exclu- 
sion of all other varieties. It is very hardy, producing heavy crops of large 
berries, after our most severe winters. It is being considerably dissem- 
inated by Mr. E. M. Sherman of the Sherman Nursery Company of Charles 
City. There are but few red raspberries raised, the Turner being consid- 
ered the most suitable for this climate. A few years ago I obtained from 
Purdy of Palmyra, New York, a plant of the Crimson Pocanty, and after 
testing it quite thoroughly I find it on my place, and also on a neighbor's 
farm, quite superior to the Turner, the berry being of better flavor, much 
larger, and much more prolific; and what is very desirable, it picks freely 
from the bushes. 

Of grapes I cannot speak with any certainty; several varieties are raised, 
but to what extent I cannot say. The Concord probably leads the list. I 
had about six bushels of the Concord this season, but owing to the late 
spring and early fall frost they failed to fully mature. 

Plums, nearly a total failure. 

The currant crop was bountiful, the best for many years. 

There are no cherries raised in my part of the county (the southeast part), 
and I think they are a failure in the county generally. 

Our apple crop consisted mainly of Duchess and Transcendant crabs, of 
which there was a good supply during the season. Since the wreck of our 
orchards by the late unfavorable seasons, there has been but little inclina- 
tion on the part of farmers to plant trees, the impression being that it will 
only be a waste of money and time. Some varieties of Russian trees have 
been tried to a limited extent, but I believe with not very good success. I 
obtained about one hundred and fifty of them a few years ago, and planted 
most of them in my orchard, and let a neighbor have some. Some of mine 
winter- killed, but the greater part of them were scorched to death during 
hot summer spells. A very few are left, and have borne some fruit, most of 
which proved rather short lived, and of a quality that I cannot speak very 
highly of. 

DISCUSSION. 

R. P. Speer: Some years ago I raised Lawton blackberry by 
covering. If we are going to cover why not raise Wilson or some 
of our best berries, or better still, dewberries as they are already on 
the ground. 

H. W. Lathrop: Do dewberries bear? They do not appear to 
with us. 

R P. Speer: The wild ones do not bear with us, but the Lucretia 
do bear with us in some places. 



376 



STATE [HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Prof. Budd:XCapt. Speer says there is no trouble in laying the 
Lueretia dewberry J down, which is true, as they grow very close to 
the ground, [but:; there is trouble to get them up, as they are ten- 
der and hard to manage. The Windom is better, and while it runs 
along the ground the first year, after that it is stronger, and the 
bow of the plant stands considerably above the ground. A word 
about covering blackberries: I believe it will be successful in all 
parts of the west. Mr. Root of Hopkinton, in this district, grows 
blackberries and raspberries, and makes an immense success of it. 
He lays the vines across the row, and on side toward the sides where 
he lays down the vines he sets short posts or stakes and fasten one 
wire toward these posts. In the fall when he goes to lay down his 
vines, with anlinstrument made for the purpose, it is very easy to 
draw the staples and lay the wire down. He also succeeds with that 
plan 'with Cuthbert and other Red raspberries. Mr. Bombergerand 
others of the Western Iowa Horticultural Society pays the vines to 
the north and across the row. This at first would seem immaterial, 
but in taking up, the canes will lean to the north, and the young 
shoots will grow up right, and will afford a shade for the fruit; which, 
under this management, is found to grow larger and better. 

Edson Qaylord : I think that a good plan, but if not for the shade 
of the young plants would turn them the other way. 

C. H. True: I can substantiate what Mr. Patten has said in some 
things, and especially as to benefits of cultivation in dry season. I 
have had good crops notwithstanding the drought. In laying down 
to cover I lay to the south, and in the row instead of across the row. 
If laid across the row they lean so as to be in the way of the pick- 
ers. I begin at the south end of the row, and bend down and cover 
sufficiently with earth to hold down. Those that are laid to the south 
when taken up in the spring, the winds help to raise them up. My 
canes do not grow very rank, many of them not over three or two 
feet high. If I should manure as much as some do on bandy soil, I 
would expect to get lots of wood and but little fruit. A neighbor 
who manures Snyder Raspberry had canes eight to eleven feet high, 
but little or no fruit. I would cultivate thoroughly the first season, 
but would cultivate shallow, and would not cultivate after the first 
season, but would mulch. An objection to plowing or bending over 
the canes is that you cannot avoid cutting the roots, which causes a 
great many sprouts to come up, which saps the bearing canes. If we 
cover blackberries after two or three years old, it takes a great deal 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



of dirt to hold canes down. I use sod cut with a spade. One sod 
will hold a whole hill down. It is not necessary to cover the canes, 
as if they are on the ground so they can get moisture they will not 
winter kill. Ancient Briton are easier to put down than the Snyder, 
and think fruit is preferable, and also think that with proper pruning 
it outyields them. The Barnard is not as profitable or as hardy as 
Snyder. The Stone's Hardy is about as hardy as Snyder. The Wil- 
son killed with me. If I was only to have one variety I would pre- 
serve the Snyder, although I have great hopes of the Ancient Briton. 

Wni, Ward made partial report for Kossuth county. Ben Davis a 
complete failure, Fameuse nearly so; Duchess good. Haas hardy and 
liable to heart rot. Wealthy bears too young; does not grow so good 
on that account. Walbridge tough and hardy, but no fruit. The 
greatest trouble is from sun-scald. Perry Russet died young; the 
orchard from which facts above were given was seeded. Concord 
grapes do splendidly. The canes of Snyder blackberries are broken 
down by [the snow. By the way, about dewberries, a tree peddler 
from a nursery from Traer, was selling them and I got a few, and I 
am glad to hear how they are doing. 

J. C. Ferris: Some of our county directors may have something 
to report. As to dewberries we should hear more from them. Mr. 
Frost raises Lucretia and Windom dew berry successfully. People 
desire to raise them to keep from laying down blackberries. I have 
heard the objection to the Lucretia dewberry before this, that it lays 
too close to the ground. If Windom is stronger and better, we want 
it. 

J. V. Cotta: If you want to have more light on the Lucretia dew- 
berry, I can give you a little of my experience. I procured Lucretia 
dewberry from Central Illinois; planted them and layered them and 
got a nice lot of plants, and samples of fruit, some of which were 
actually as big as the tip of my little finger, but the berries were few 
and far between. These berries however proved not to be Lucretia, 
but we have a few at Freeport, that are bearing and the fruit is very 
fine, but they do not yield as well as Snyder blackberry. We 
should be careful as to tree peddlers, for many of them will deceive, 
and, " we should watch a little out." 

Edison Gaylord: As Prof. Budd says the Lucretia lays too close to 
the ground. I think, however, we can find dewberries that will be 
profitable. When I was a boy we used to have plenty of dewberries 



48 



378 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



and we must try other kinds. The Windom grows up better, and yet 
I think can be covered up without trouble, and if carefully done, they 
can be taken up without breaking. I enter my protest about putting 
tarred paper around fruit trees, it will hurt them. It is said that pine 
tar will not hurt fruit trees, but I know that coal tar will hurt them; 
it is death to a tree wherever it touches them. Tarred paper would 
be a nice thing if it did not hurt the trees. It protects from sun, 
rabbits and borers. Wherever tarred paper touches the trees it makes 
them look like sun-scald. 

A. Branson: I have had Lucretia and Maryanna, a sister of Lu- 
cretia. I think we should be a little cautious in planting them. 

B. F. Ferris: The difficulty of getting dewberries up, may be 
avoided by covering with something else besides dirt. In protecting 
trees with building paper, it is not necessary that it should be tarred 
paper. I visited Mr. Stone's ground of Sioux City, last summer, he 
had a row of dewberries fifty feet long, and got twenty four quarts 
of berries. He had another variety along with Lucretia; I would 
like to know if it is necessary to fertilize Lucretia? I have another 
variety along with the Lucretia, and cover with hay, and put only 
enough earth on to hold the hay in place. I think this better than 
covering with earth. Those not covered did not do as well as those 
covered. 

E. M. Reeve: Covering is not the main objection to raising dew- 
berries: We cannot get them up and keep them up out of the dirt, 
and I think blackberries best to grow, as they can be got up and 
kept up. I have two kinds of dew berries, and find that they both 
run along the ground. 

R. P. Speer: I would like to have discussions as to whether it is 
possible to attempt to grow berries without covering. Dewberries 
near Cedar Falls covered with corn stalks and sorghum begasse seem 
to do well. It is useless I think to attempt to grow berries north of 
the Illinois Central Railroad without covering. 

J. C. Ferris: I would like to know if canes of dewberries kill back 
like blackberries and sprout again from the roots. 

Prof. Budd: I think they only sprout about the crown of the 
plants. When canes run along on the ground they may root and 
throw up sprouts. Dewberry canes kill back after bearing same as 
blackberries. 

Some one asked as to whether the dewberry has perfect flowers. 



NORTHERN IOWA. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 379 



Some years ago the Missouri Mammoth blackberry induced consid- 
erable discussioD, and the general experience was, that when the Mis- 
souri Mammoth was planted alone it would bear no fruit, set along- 
side of Kittininy it would do well. 

B. F. Ferris: There must be a difference in dewberries; those on 
my grounds are perhaps natives, but they sprout. 

A. W. Sias: I did not intend to say anything on the blackberry 
question myself, because I have not had extended experience. For 
some years I have been looking over the State of Minnesota for dew- 
berries. Mr. Harris and myself went to see Mr. Cook at his place, 
about fourteen miles west of Windom, and we found that he had dew- 
berries in heavy bearing. I have a great many of native dewberries 
on my place, but they do not bear well, and I was surprised to see 
them doing so well with Mr. Cook. It is no trouble to keep the Win- 
dom dewberries out of the dirt, and on Mr. Cook's place the bushes 
were entirely covered with fruit. I asked Mr. Cook if he originated 
the Windom, but he said he did not, and that he thought it origi- 
nated in northern Iowa. He got it of a neighbor, and as it had done 
well, he went on propagating it, and it went by the name of Cook 
dewberry, but he prefers to call it Windom. I visited a blackberry 
patch of two acres, mostly Ancient Briton and Snyder, with a few 
Stone's hardy, that was said to have produced nine thousand quarts 
of fruit to the acre. I think he did cover, but mulched thoroughly 
and cultivated thoroughly. I think he said he would cultivate once 
or twice a week or mulch heavily. I visited a place where the ground 
was covered two or three inches deep with Sorghum Begasse. The 
canes were not covered, yet all varieties were bearing heavily. I 
believe that will work here, but still am not positive. I inquired if 
they covered at Windom, and they said no. The next year Mr. Cook 
asked me to come up and see them again, as they were bearing 
heavier than before, but I did not think it possible. They grow them 
in rows and cultivate thoroughly. The plants grow up about two 
feet, but as they fruit they settle down. They propagate from tips. 

R. P. Speer: In speaking of covering I will tell of Prof. Budd's 
grapes; for four or five years they have grown heavy crops of grapes 
at the Agricultural College. He only covers the crown of the plant 
and the ends. When I prune my vines there is a leakage of sap, 
and when I pruned my trees there was a blaek heart. If pruned 
vines are covered they are all right. 



380 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



A. W. Sias: Where vines are standing up and waving in the wind 
they will dry out, when if laid down on the ground they will not dry 
out. 

A. Branson: List year, at our Eastern Iowa horticultural meeting 
at Davenport, it was said that wherever raspberries had tipped and 
the tips allowed to remain until spring, the canes would winter well 
and bear. 

The President's address was read by the Secretary, as follows: 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



W C. HAVIL.A.ND, FORT DODGE. 

Members of the Northern Horticultural Society: 

Our young Society has been established in a very trying period of severe 
winters and seasons of drought, and it behooves us to work with vigor to 
place it among the first of societies. Our field is in that part of the State 
in which much discouragement is met with, but we are demonstrating the 
fact that it is a good fruit growing district, and in the near future hope to 
have the co-operation of the people in our work Never has Iowa placed 
her fruits on the tables at the great expositions but she has received the first 
awards in whatever class the fruit was entered, and many fine samples were 
taken from the northern district. This should give an amateur encourage- 
ment. Eacouragement and enlightenment from our Society is needed in 
nearly every home in our comparatively treeless district as a guide and 
teacher of what and how to plant. 

I here suggest that we give in connection with our lists of fruit recom- 
mended, explicit directions for the best methods of planting, location best 
adapted, best soil for, and care before and after planting; also instructions 
to purchase direct from reliable nurseries, or in all cases where stock is pur- 
chased from agents, have the agent show a certificate from a reliable nur- 
seiy that he is their qualified agent. And recommend that we instruct our 
Secretary to send a copy of the instructions to an official paper in each 
county of our district, and ask them to insert it as a protection to their pat- 
rons and to the interest of horticulture and welfare of the northwest. 
Second, I recommend that we divide our fruit lists into eastern and west- 
ern, as by previous discussion we find many varieties that may do compara- 
tively well in eastern location will not stand the more dry portion of our 
district. Third, and now that the disappointments of the past are fading 
away, which gave us lessons of untold value and placed us on a more firm 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY. 



381 



foundation as to grade of hardihood with our many seedlings and Russians 
that have stood our trying dry and cold winters of the past, we can but 
be thankful that we are favored with the few, and the advantage to be 
to be gained by the past sad experience. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



BY J. C. FERRIS. 



Mr. President and fellcw members: 

It is a pleasure to report a more hopeful feeling among fruit growers in 
the northern district The intelligent reading farmers realize that they 
must grow their own small fruits and early apples or do without them. This 
class is also learning to rely upon our recommendations rather than the 
marvelous specialties of transient men. We have much to contend with in 
natural obstacles, but when victory shall be ours it will be more permanent 
for the trials we have passed through. Easy conquest brings slight glory. 
When the hard struggle with the elements shall give us victory the best 
people will rejoice with us. But we must not forget that we have a human 
enemy quite as subversive of success as the most destructive winter or the 
most blighting summer. 

The irrepressible croaker like a dog in the manger will not eat hay or per- 
mit the more noble animals to partake. He desparages our work and denies 
the possibility of success. He is as much our enemy as the most unprinci- 
pled humbug that ever deceived a confiding public. The progress of our 
Society is such as to make its friends glad, yet a more efficient application 
of forces and a greater unity of action is necessary to permanent success. 
One man should not be asked to do the work of the Society. The programme 
should be virtually determined before the close of these meetings and sub- 
jects congenial to the several members assigned them, giving ample time 
for thought and preparation. The premium list should also be made that 
specimens may be prepared and preserved for exhibition. 

If any experimental work is to be done the Society must determine what 
and where and how. The election of officers should include the election of 
directors for the forty- two counties in the district, and competent men 
should be chosen, and encouraged to inform themselves of the progress 
being made and report the same through their local papers. 

I would respectfully suggest that the directors be made ex-officio mem- 
bers of the Society, and that some means be devised by which the people 
may have access to the volume of transactions sent these directors; that 
they be requested to secure the publication of the district fruit list in every 



382 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



paper published in their county, and also a summary of or extracts from 
the methods of planting and cultivation recommended by the District 
Society. Many of the papers read here would be read with interest by those 
who never see a volume of our transactions and the result would be: 

1st. A greater interest in our work. 

2d. Protection against swindlers. 

3d. Confident advance along safe lines. 

Our work is educational and to be effective we must reach the people 
through the local press, since the masses do not read the leading agricul- 
tural journals. Let us see to it that every man in our district has the means 
provided whereby he can learn the result of our deliberations. 

On motion of H. W. Lathrop the address of President and report 
of Secretary was referred to a committee to be appointed by the 
chair. 

Acting President Speer appointed as said committee, B. F. Ferris, N. 
A. Reeve and Prof. Budd. 

DISCUSSION. 

C. H. True: Forest Garden* plum is about twenty days earlier 
than Dakota. I would like to ask the season of the Weir plum. 

C. G. Patten: Its season is about the 8th to the 20th of September, 
or about the same as the De Soto. I wish to add a word as to dew- 
berry and blackberry culture. My soil is sandy and they root deep; 
cutting the roots with a spade is no damage, but in rich soil rather a 
benefit than a detriment. Nine thousand quarts is not a greater 
yield than I have produced to the acre, and it can be done with good 
care. The public generally had better plant of the dewberry rather 
cautiously, and plant Snyder and Ancient Briton or other blackber- 
ries. From the experience we have had would recommend to cover 
three fourths of the row, and leave one fourth of the row unprotected, 
and then the grower will have a chance to determine the value of 
winter protection. My experience is that they will damage if left 
unprotected. 

Edson Gay lord: I had Miner plums here at an early date, and got 
De Soto at the same time. I got De Soto plum trees from the orig- 
inal trees. There is four or five weeks difference in the time of ri- 
pening. I have about twenty varieties of wild plums. 

N. A. Reeve was called upon for a paper on forestry. 

N. A. Reeve: I am sorry to say that I have no paper written on 
this subject. If I should write I could only write up my own expe- 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



rience. I think I have the finest grove that I have seen, and if mem- 
bers want to hear I will tell them something about it. 

My grove consists of about thirteen acres, on high prairie soil. I 
have about forty varieties; a considerable number of European Larch, 
which variety should be planted very early in the spring, handled 
with care, and the roots must not be exposed to the air. I planted 
four acres to larch, 3,000 to the acre, and there are over 2,000 trees 
to the acre now, four to eight or ten inches in diameter, and forty 
feet high, and as straight as fish poles. I used the thinnings for fence 
posts, and those not fit for posts for wood. If they stand in the tree 
and dry out, the wood is light and not very good; if cut and set 
green they are not good, but if cut green and dried they are durable, 
there is a little resin in the larch, and I suppose that helps to give 
heat. I have five acres planted three or four years after, and did not 
sustain a loss of two per cent. These trees were one foot high and 
grew even for several years, when there came a time that they began 
to di6 out, and on line near other groves they are half dead. I have 
thought that this loss was caused by white grub, the trees dying in 
patches, in some places all being dead. If all my larches had been 
affected like part of them I would not advocate planting the larch, but 
have thought that it was the grub worms that did the damage, but it 
may be something else. One year we had very fine weather, and 
could pick green corn, and next day it was so cold that we had to 
break the ice in the water tanks; this occurred early in October. My 
land has a clay sub-soil for ten feet, and all my land on which my 
groves are planted is underlaid with the same subsoil. Larch will 
not do well on wet land. 

Black walnut in blocks alone have not given satisfaction. If 
planted with other trees does not straggle so much, and is better. 
The larch should be set alone. 

The White pine is a good and a rapid grower, When on the 
grounds of Robert Douglass, of Waukegan, Illinois, I asked a man 
how long the White pines had been planted, and he said they were 
native, but the foreman told me that they had been planted thirty-five 
years before. They were straight and elegant, just as good as if 
grown in the forest. White pine is one of the best. If you want 
timber or wind-breaks plant White pine. 

I have heard of agents selling White pine and delivering them in 
the fall, and recommend that they be planted in the fall. In some in- 



384 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



stances the trees were dead when delivered, and those planted in the 
fall are generally a failure. It is necessary to plant in the spring, and 
it is better to buy of nurserymen than of these traveling tree ped- 
dlers. 

I have ash; Grey ash, I think about one thousand of them, and any 
thing we want for timber we can go and get it. They are good for 
fuel; the seed ripens in October. I set my trees when they were one 
year old and cultivated well for two or three years. 

Prof. Budd: Botanists call it Green ash, but I call it Western 
White ash. 

N. A Reeve: I do not think the White willow have been properly 
appreciated; in a row it makes a lot of timber, but it takes up too 
much room. 

When I bought up my larch trees they were one year old, and I 
paid $3.00 per thousand for them; I grew them one year and then put 
them in grove, so that the cost was $12.00 per acre. 

I have had posts set five years. The small trees dry out and are 
brittle, but the larger trees are stronger and last well. So far there 
is no rot to amount to anything. 

H. W. Lathrop: I suppose the difference with Mr. Rgeve's larch 
was caused by the white grub. I put out larch, and at the same time 
spruce and pines, alternating with the larch, and the larch all died 
but one, the bark being eaten by the white grub. The spruce and 
pines did well. 

Prof. Budd: I wish to say one thing as to the larch. If any one 
returns by Garner, and will visit the grove, perhaps not not superior 
to Mr. Reeve, on grounds of Mr. Elder, he will see a successful larch 
plantation. There poles may be seen thirty to forty and fifty feet in 
length, and straight and nice. The larch is the hardiest, and yet the 
easiest of trees to handle right. If started early nearly all will grow, 
but if started late nearly all will die. 

C. G. Patten: Now the wholesale price of white pine is about 
double the price Mr. Reeve paid. The white pine are scarce and 
higher than the strictly commercial trees. 

On motion the Society adjourned to meet at 1:30 p. m. 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 335 



AFTERNOON SESSION— FIRST DAY. 



Called to order at 1 :30 p. m. On motion of J. C. Ferris E. M. Reeve 
was appointed to superintend to entry of fruits and to assist the com- 
mittee on fruits. 

On motion a committee on award of premiums was appointed as 
follows: H. W. Lathrop, E. R. Hiesz and H. W. Ash. 

J. M. Elder: Mr. President, you call upon me to read a paper on 
evergreen, but am not prepared to read a paper on that subject, I 
was asked to write a paper on varieties of fruit trees, and supposed 
that was what was expected of me, and did not know different until 
I saw this programme. I am not qualified to write a paper on this 
topic, but have a paper on notes I have taken, and will read it. My 
article consists of detached papers, written on different occasions, and 
I have not had time to rewrite anything. 

G. V. Cotta read a paper on Apple Culture in the Northwest. 



APPLE CULTURE IN THE NORTHWEST. 



BY J. V. COTTA, NURSERY, ILLINOIS. 

Mr. President and Members of the Northern Horticultural Society: 

The growing of apple trees would seem to be such a simple matter, that 
almost any intelligent school boy of a dozen or fifteen years might be ex- 
pected to succeed well enough. Yet, when we contemplate the fact, that 
already more than fifty years have passed away since the early pioneers of 
the Anglo-Saxon race planted their first orchards west of lake Michigan, to 
make their cheerless little log-hut homes a little more home-like than " hog 
and hominy " would permit— and again when we remember that during the 
last twenty years many millions of apple trees have been propagated in our 
nurseries and millions of hard earned dollars have been expended therefor 
by the people of the west and north; and, as we pcuder over t&e result of 
49 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



this enormous outlay in brains, muscle and money, and witness the barren 
wrecks of so many of our orchards— even as far south as central Illinois and 
Indiana and northern Missouri, it seems that we could hardly have accom- 
plished less than we have done during so long a time and at so great a cost; 
and to-day, as we are assembled here in convention, we fully realize that ap- 
ple culture, to be successful in the west means something more than child's 
play. 

There is perhaps not another nation on the globe that possesses such a 
comprehensive literature on horticultural topics— certainly none with as 
good an agricultural press, nor as wide-awake and enterprising a class of 
nurserymen, fruit growers and farmers as the northern states of America, 
nor have horticultural societies of other lands done a tythe of the work our 
societies have done; yet, with all these auxiliaries at our command, we have 
as yet barely learned the A, B, C of apple culture, and any man who attempts 
to start either a commercial or family orchard any where west or northwest 
of Lake Michigan, unless he has a good stock of personal experience, 
although he might avail himself of all the literary lore written upon this 
subject— must expect to make a good many mistakes. Nor are our nursery- 
men and orchardists— mostly practical men of long experience— prepared, 
just at the present time, to give such advice to intending planters, or make 
such selections of varieties, as would fully meet their wants. 

We must not lose sight of the fact that orchard culture in the northwest 
has been thrown into a transition state by the wholesale destruction of trees 
during the late severe test- winters; and for years to come, the labors of the 
orchardist must necessarily be in a great measure experimental. 

We find at the present time three distinct lines of action advocated by 
our leading horticulturists, namely: The planting of Russians, the plant- 
ing of seedlings and the planting of the hardiest American sorts, top-worked 
on " iron-clad " stocks; and while some parties may have run their prefer- 
ences into a sort of a hobby, if planters will carefully weigh the merits and 
demerits of each of these ideas, and " proving all things will hold fast to 
that which is good," I shall feel amply repaid for writing this paper. 

The problem which the introduction of Russian apples has placed before 
us has developed some curious facts. Here we have some five hundred va- 
rieties, a large proportion of which have been on trial in different localities 
of the northwest for about seventeen years; and while some decided acqui- 
sitions have been found among them, and while, as a race, they have been 
found to possess much greater hardiness than our old native assortment; 
yet, such is their general character, that not a single horticultural society 
in the northwest would even now be willing to recommend any considerable 
number of them for any purpose, except for further tiial It appears that 
many of these foreigners have proved to be exceedingly shy bearers, others 
are lacking in hardiness; many of them are very much pre-disposed to 
blight, and some are of notoriously poor quality, while most of them are 
only summer and fall apples in this climate. True, we hope to find a goodly 
number of satisfactory winter apples among the later importations, but as 
these have not had time to fruit in this country, we are compelled to await 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



further developments. Any attempt therefore to indiscriminately plant 
such Russians as one might be able to procure in our nurseries would be 
sure to result in greater or less disappointment to the planter. 

The next problem before us is the laudable endeavor to produce from seed 
new varieties that shall be " to the manor born." And here also we should 
not expect unmixed success, as the long list of chance seedlings that have 
been brought out during the past twenty years or more, and which have 
been grown to a greater or less extent both in nurseries and orchards have 
not proven one whit hardier than the parent trees from which their seeds 
were taken. Even in cases where careful cross-fertilization is attended to, 
the result is not always satisfactory, as will be seen in the rather tender 
Pewaukee apple, a product of the hard Duchess, fertilized by pollen of the 
Northern Spy. Nevertheless we may reasonably expect excellent success 
from the numerous trials at cross breeding between the hardy Russians 
and the best of our old sorts. Already several promising seedlings have 
been produced by this plan, which seem to combine the desirable features 
of both races in a marked degree. 

But before this new, hardy, productive race of good quality-apples that 
shall be thoroughly adapted to all the vicissitudes of our peculiar climate 
shall have been produced, and a sufficient stock shall have been grown to 
satisfy the heavy popular demand that must necessarily spring up for them, 
many years must yet elapse. Meanwhile our people must have apples; they 
cannot wait another fifteen, twenty or twenty-five years for the consumma- 
tion of these experiments; and here let me call your attention to the prac- 
ticability of speedily meeting this popular demand by the third problem 
above alluded to, namely, by growing the hardiest and most desirable of our 
American sorts by top-grafting them on perfectly hardy stocks, such as 
Whitney No. 20, Milton, Shields, Virginia and others of the hybrid Sibe- 
rians or Duchess, Arabian, Charlamoff, Green Streaked, Hibernal, Silken 
Leaf and others, free-going sorts of the Russians. That by this process 
such varieties as Roman Stem, Black Annette, Northwestern Greening, 
Wolf River, Wythe, Willow Twig, Talman Sweet, Home's Winter Wine, 
Wealthy, Fameuse, St. Lawrence, Shiawassee Beauty, Utter's Red, Gar- 
field, Plumb's Cider and a number of other natives may be successfully 
grown in northern Iowa, southern Minnesota and southern Wisconsin, 
admits hardly of a doubt. 

But to place before you tangible proofs of the truth of my assertion I 
shall cite a few cases in point. A. R. Whitney of Franklin Grove, Illinois, 
has for a period of twenty years produced on an average ten times as much 
fruit from top- grafted trees as he has been able to get from root-grafted 
trees of the same age and variety. He has repeatedly realized $30.00 for the 
fruit of top-worked Red Astrachans when his root-grafted trees of same 
age and sort have not produced fruit enough to pay for the use of the 
ground occupied. He has a number of Willow Twig trees top grafted, now 
forty-three years old, which have been very productive these many years, 
while he has lost already two plantations of the same variety that had been 
planted subsequently. If you will turn to the volume of transactions of 



388 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



your own State Society for 1879, you will find a report by Prof. Matthews of 
Knoxville, of an orchard then owned by the late Drury Overton. In this 
orchard were a large number of varieties, both root and top grafted; and in 
every instance the top -worked trees have been healthier, more productive 
and longer lived than the root-grafted ones. If you will take the trouble to 
vist J. C. Plumb at Milton, Wisconsin, he will show you a Ben Davis tree, 
top- worked on a Cherry crab. This tree is still apparently sound, and has 
been very productive for many years, while root- grafted there is not a Ben 
Davis tree alive in all Wisconsin, outside of the lake belt. Even as far 
south as Champaign, Illinois, Ben Davis trees have nearly all vanished, yet 
there are several top worked Ben Davis at Champaign, which have borne 
excellent crops right along, and are now as sound as any trees need be. J. 
H. Fluke of Davenport, has been very successful with top-worked trees of 
even such notoriously tender sorts as Stark and Chenango strawberry. The 
late severe winters (1882 to 1* 85), destroyed about 40,000 root-grafted trees 
in my nursery, yet, in the same blocks, under the same general treatment 
and cultivation, not one of my top- worked trees of the same varieties as the 
others (of which I had then several thousand), was materially hurt. Such 
an experience ought to be enough to produce pretty radical views in the 
mind of any man. And as year by year adds its measure of information I 
am getting more and more convinced that top-working any variety less 
hardy than the Duchess, upon " iron clad " stock is the correct thing to do 
in the north. 

That failures by this mode of propagation have occurred cannot be 
denied; these, however, can in every instance, be traced back either to in- 
congeDiality between the varieties used, or to too great a tenderness in the 
variety used for the scion, or to faulty workmanship, and not to the princi- 
ple involved. 

It is contended by some that top- working, to be successful, must be done 
in the branches. Well, if any orchardist or amateur prefers this mode for 
his own use, I have not the slightest objection; but if this work is to be 
done in nurseries, so as to benefit the tree-planting public at large, branch- 
grafting is entirely out of the question on account of its great expense; and 
as the setting of one scion upon the main stem, about four feet above the 
ground, answers every purpose as well as branch-grafting, why should so 
much extra time and labor be spent for nothiDg? The object being to 
secure to the tree a perfectly hardy trunk, that is not liable to sun-scald or 
bark- rupture, and that will retain its soundness during our severest win- 
ters. The beneficial effect of such a trunk upon the head of a tree is the 
same, whether such head has been started with one scion or a dozen. 

The question of affinity between different varieties is still in a large meas- 
ure an unsolved problem, which our experiment stations might solve by 
thorough and systematic trial in a much shorter time than could be done 
by private experiments. 

Other essentials for successful orcharding in the cold north may be briefly 
summed up as follows: An elevated location, thorough drainage, natural 
or otherwise; soil deeply plowed and well fertilized preparatory to planting 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



389 



and in good condition for a corn crop. Careful planting, in rows 33 to 36 
feet apart, so as to admit of eight rows of corn between rows of trees; rows 
to run north and south, with trees 16 to 18 feet in the row, set with heaviest 
branches and strongest roots toward the southwest and with tops leaned 
about 15° toward 1:30 o'clock sun. 

If on open prairie every orchard needs a good wind-break of evergreens on 
south and west sides, nowhere else. It will protect trees against the killing 
" wire edge " of blizzards, and prevent the blowing off of fruit. 

Cultivation of young orchards in corn or other hoed crops for five or six 
years, afterward seeding to clover, which should be mown and left on the 
ground as a mulch and fertilizer. Light pasturing with pigs, sheep or young 
calves in early part of summer is no disadvantage to a bearing orchard. 

Never permit the surface to be sapped by a dense grass sod; the grass roots 
would absorb all the moisture supplied by summer rains, and leaves nothing 
for the deeper lying tree roots, just at a time when nourishment is most 
needed to perfect a crop of fruit and to store up a requisite amount of plant 
food in the structure of the tree. A tough sod means starvation to the tree 
always. 

Maintain fertility in a bearing orehard by liberal top dressings of well 
rotted barn-yard manure or wood ashes scattered broad cast, in addition to 
the clover mulch 

If a light annual pruning out of all forked and inward- growing or stunted 
and dead branches and twigs from the center of the head, and a shortening 
in of such shoots as may have grown out of proportion is attended to the 
barbarous practice of cutting out large limbs will never be necessary. A 
hemispherical or an umbrella- shaped head, with one central leading stem is 
the best. A little foresight and judicious use of the knife as dictated will 
secure this. All pruning should be done in mild weather, when the wood is 
not frozen, during the latter part of February, March or early April at latest, 
and always in time to allow a thorough air drying of the cut surfaces before 
the sap becomes liquid. All cuts should be made clean and smooth. No 
stubs permitted. 

Protect stems of young orchard trees against rabbits and field mice In 
winter, and against the borer in summer with strips of wire cloth. 

In bearing orchards destroy curculio by the jaring process, and coddling 
moth, canker-worm,, leaf -roller and other noxious insects by spraying tops 
with London purple in proportion of one pound of the p9ison to not less 
than fifty gallons of water. Some prefer the use of white arsenic, dissolved 
by boiling one ounce in a quart of water, and then dilute this mixture in the 
proportion of one quart to fifteen gallons of water. These poisonous sub 
stances, it is needless to say, must Jbe handled with great care to prevent 
danger to the operator. Applications with these insecticides should be 
made soon after blooming, and before the young fruit has turned its chalix 
downward, if destruction to the coddling moth is intended. 

Now I have given you my candid views of what I believe to be a rational 
treatment for apple orchards in the cold north; yet, I have not even touched 
upon the greatest of all obstacles to successful orcharding, and as all the 



390 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



applications, remedies and " medicines " spoken of are of no practical use 
in combatting' this foe, I am not prepared to suggest any very promising 
treatment at the present time, and as you all know this creature I shall have 
to leave him in your hands to be dealt with according to your best judgment. 
It is the tree peddler, the irresponsible, swindling sharper that punishes 
northern planters with cheap trees and worthless varieties grown in the far 
south and east, and palms them off: under spurious names and false pre- 
tenses as " northern-grown iron-clads," etc., at fancy prices. As long as 
this creature is permitted to run at large fruit culture in the north can never 
prosper as it should. 

J. V. Cotta: I told you before that my paper was not finished. 
There could be a good deal said on planting, fertilizing, soil and 
other things, but perhaps it would be as well, to let these things come 
out in the discussion. 

A paper by E.R. Heisz, of Nora Springs, "Apple Culture in North- 
ern Iowa, was read as follows: 



APPLE CULTURE IN NORTHERN IOWA. 



BY EDWIN R. HEISZ, NORA SPRINGS. 



The subject assigned me was Apple Culture in the Northwest. I have 
changed it to apple culture in the prairie part of northern Iowa, which 
apple culture is mostly a failure, as we have no good and fruitful winter 
variety hardy enough to stand our climate— only two fall apples that are 
about three-fourths hardy enough, that are fruitful enough to justify us in 
planting them, the Wealthy and Fameuse, with three more fall apples that 
are about half hardy and are fruitful, the Utter's Red, Plumb's Cider and 
Sweet Pear; one summer apple, satisfactorily hardy, the Duchess of Olden- 
burg. After trying nearly every prominent variety grown in the northern 
States, these are the only ones that approach near enough to hardiness and 
fruitfulness to pay for growing. Other varieties there, are about as hardy 
as any of the above except the Duchess, and, perhaps, the Wealthy, that are 
to be condemned on account of their unfruitf ulness; such are the Astra- 
chan, St Lawrence, Wolf River, Talman Sweet, Walbridge, Perry and 
Golden Russet, and probably the Haas, should go in this list, and a few 
others. 

After forty years' experience in the cold northwest I would not plant any 
varieties except the Duchess, Wealthy, Fameuse, and for the sake of 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 39 \ 



variety, a few of Utter's; and for the sake of a sweet apple, a very few of 
the Sweet Pear. The Fameuse, an excellent apple, has never been seri- 
ously injured by our winters since its introduction in the northwest, fully 
forty years since, except in the winter of 1884. As we have a few varieties 
that I think it advisable for every farmer to grow, at least a few, I will tell 
the new beginner how I would cultivate them and manage the fruit. Select 
a dry piece of ground for an orchard site; the best wheat land is about the 
best for apple trees. Stake off your rows twenty-eight feet apart from east 
to west; plow deep, turn a back furrow where each row is to stand; this is 
all the ridging you need; plant your trees twenty or twenty-four feet apart 
in the rows. If you have your trees to buy, only purchase first-class three, 
next best four- year- olds, with good roots, stalky in growth, with a leading 
central shoot, suitable to trim up three feet from the ground when planted. 
Only purchase of extremely reliable parties; the fall is the best time to buy 
them, and after cutting off the ends of the roots with an upward slope, in 
some dry piece of ground bury them root and branch until spring; in bury- 
ing them work in fine dirt amongst their roots, and see that they are thor- 
oughly wet, one end of the hole need only be deep enough to let the tops 
below the level of the ground; after filling the end containing the roots 
level with the ground, place boards over the tops before throwing on the 
dirt; after the ground has froze a few inches put on some straw to hold the 
snow; before taking them up uncover the tops and shade them a few days 
if the sun shines bright. When you set out the trees, which should be as 
early as the ground gets in good order; if the ends of the roots have turned 
black, cut the black part off; if possible, when preparing your tree to set 
out, leave the lowest strong limbs and the heaviest roots on the same side, 
and place them toward the one o'clock sun, leaning your tree about fifteen 
degrees in that direction; remove all crossing and needless branches, and 
then cut off one- third or more, according to the amount of their roots, of 
the last year's growth, always cutting a little above a bud on the southwest 
side, keep the center shoot ahead; cut the limbs back some shorter on the 
northeast side than on the southwest. Set them so deep that all the princi- 
pal roots will be six to eight inches under ground, in light soil the deepest; 
have the hole somewhat crowning in the center; place your tree into it, 
straighten out the r«ots, hold it as still as convenient; fill in with fine soil; 
carefully fill all the crevices between the roots; firm the dirt on the roots 
until the last inch or two of the top, and that a little way around the stem 
to hold it firm. Cultivate shallow as long as you can with any benefit, up to 
August, then seed to clover. After your trees have borne a few crops 
manure them moderately late each fall, at least rather further than the 
limbs extend. In June look sharp for borers and destroy them by the use 
of a knife and wire; cut as much as possible with the grain of th<3 tree; de- 
stroy all insects as soon as they appear; dust with strong ashes two or three 
times when the dew is on, to kill plant lice. Prune but sparingly, but a 
little must be done, June is probably as good as any time -to do it. To keep 
mice from injuring trees, tramp the snow around them eighteen or twenty- 
four inches; if heavy snow falls and forms a stiff crust should better repeat 



392 



STATE ^HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the tramping once. Babbits are better kept off by winding with strips of 
cotton cloth; remove them about last part of April. It is somewhat risky 
to turn stock of any kind into a small orchard that is enclosed; if you do, 
let it be small cattle or hogs, rung in the nose, and always keep them well 
supplied with water, to prevent their barking the trees. 

Plant the Duchess in the south part of the orchard. If you have to buy 
your trees in the spring, you had better purchase of a home nurseryman 
that has had them buried, or send to a milder climate for them. Gather 
your apples with care; place them in a cool place to sweat for ten or twelve 
days; then sort them over— don't pile them too deep; when severe weather 
comes place them beyond the reach of frost; the best temperature to keep 
them is about four or five degrees above freezing; ordinarily, but varying 
some with the season, from the first to the middle of September, is the best 
time to gather the Wealthy, and from the 12th to the 25th of September, the 
Fameuse. Market early, most seasons you can, with a loss of ten per cent, 
keep of the Fameuse for home supply until March. 

The greatest object of the apple grower should be to procure at least a few 
profitable varieties that will cover the apple season— that are hardy enough 
to endure our trying seasons. 

This article pertains to our old varieties. I have hopes we may get some- 
thing of value from the Russian varieties of the apple, but my experience 
with them is too limited to make my opinion of them of any value. 

Probably a wind-break a few rods from and around your orchard heavy 
enough to break the force of the wind, but not exclude it too much, is bene- 
ficial. 

J. B. Mitchell, of Cresoo, was called upon for a paper on Oar Pros- 
pects for Orchards for Northern District. 

J. B. Mitchell: Mr. President, I did not know until recently that 
I was expected to read a paper, and so had no time to write as I 
should have desired, but yesterday prepared a few crude notes which 
I will read: 

From past experience and present line of procedure it would seem our 
prospect for orchards in northern district were quite limited, at least in the 
more northern part. I have no doubt but northern Iowa will yet grow fine 
orchards. But unless we nurserymen turn a new leaf I fear the time is to 
be unnecessarily postponed. The farmers who after long patience and 
much expense had seen their young orchards begin to fruit and then saw 
them swept away so suddenly by the cold of 1884 and 1885, and had become 
so disheartened that nearly with one accord fully resolved never to plant 
another. But the ever present desire of the American people to grow fruit 
is again asserting itself. The question what shall I plant is being heard 
from respectful members on every hand. In this is hope and the opportu- 
nity—and the tide if rightly managed at its flood will lead to succes. 

Planters should see to it that of the old varieties that so signally failed 
find a place in their soil, they should look about them and see what kinds 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 393 



the few trees are that passed through that destruction and are yet doing 
well and fruiting and plant them, and they will have made a long stride in 
the right direction. But the average planter's knowledge of kinds is so 
limited he will naturally look to the societies and to nurserymen for advice. 
(He will get the tree agent without looking for it.) Here lurks the danger. 
With the large surplies of half hardy American apple trees now in most 
nurseries and the persistence with which they are still being propagated to 
find a market somewhere, there is great danger of their seeking a market 
here, in which case history will repeat itself, and we again have the bitter 
experience of the past. Nurserymen will in a large measure be responsible 
for the success or failure of our orchards, and should be careful that preju- 
dice against the foreign kinds do not accomplish the latter. 

With the lessons of the past and our larger experience with the newer 
kinds of trees which have long been on trial and have stood Where others 
failed, and fruited year after year, after coming through our recent frigid 
winters and torrid summers, we are better prepared to direct the reconstruc- 
tions of the northern orchard. We ought to know the best kinds to plant, 
and do know what has failed. If we will advise planters as well as we now 
know, and follow up the same line in our work of propagating and growing 
for the northern planter only those kinds merrits for indurence in this cli- 
mate, we will have entered upon the high road to success in northern Iowa 
horticulture. 

In denouncing the American apples for northern planting 1 am not car- 
rying the war into Africa. If they are all right in the more congenial cli- 
mate of other parts of the country they should be planted there. If the Ben 
Davis does well at Des Moines let it be planted there. If Talman Sweet, 
Fameuse and others of that class in peculiarly favored location more north- 
ward I would commend their use there, but we have no want for that class 
of trees in a large part of the northern district. If there are places where 
only crab apples can be grown, let them have crab apples. Again, where 
the Duchess and other Russian apples and seedlings of equal standing can 
onlj be made a success, let them compose the orchard, that all may g*ow 
trees best adapted to their locality, and have fruit. 

At a former meeting I said we had the trees, and would soon have the 
fruit. Another year's trial and observation, and seeing more of their fruit- 
ing qualities only confirm that belief, and the prospect I think is good, that 
northern Iowa will ere long be a worthy rival to other parts of the State in 
her exhibit of apples. 

R. P. Speer was called upon for a paper on Russian Apples. 

R. P. Speer: I spent nearly three days in November taking notes 
as to the defects of Russian and American apples. I have examined 
about 175 Russian varieties, and have a record of my observation. 
This is a paper that I prepared for the experiment station, and I will 
only read the notes. 



50 



394 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF HARDY AND TENDER FRUIT TREES. 

BY R. P. SPEER. 



The winter of 1884 and '85, and the remarkable drought of 1887 destroyed 
all of the apple orchards in Iowa, except in a few localities, where natural 
drainage and a very porous condition of soils, favored constant growth dur- 
ing the summer seasons. All of our American apples, as well as all of the 
apples from western Europe, have proved much too tender on ordinary prai- 
rie soils. But the Duchess of Oldenburg, Tetof sky and a few other varieties 
of the apple from Russia, have endured the most trying tests in all parts of 
the State without being harmed. As Iowa farmers are anxious to plant new 
orchards again, as soon as they shall be assured that their late losses will 
not be repeated, I will give the results of my observations and experiments 
in Northern Iowa since 1866; which may be of much value to many who 
have given but little attention to the nature and wants of different kinds of 
trees. If apples had not been disseminated over many degrees of latitude 
and longitude in Europe, Asia and America, it is probable that there would 
have been but few varieties now. But they were scattered widely over the 
face of the earth, and as they were taken farther and farther north, they ac- 
quired new characteristics which enable them to endure more degrees of 
cold. And when they were moved to places where the climate was much 
dryer and hotter, or moister than the one to which they were adapted, 
changes were effected in them after several generations, which adapted them 
to the unfavorable conditions which surrounded them. That I may be 
clearly understood while describing the effects of unfavorable climatic con- 
ditions upon trees, I will explain the structure of trees and the principles of 
plant growth very briefly. All of the different parts of trees and herbaceous 
plants are composed of cells. A living cell is a very small, porous and elas- 
tic sack like a bladder; which contains a semi-fluid substance called proto- 
plasm and assimilated ©ell sap. After growing for a short time each cell is 
divided into two parts or two new cells, each of which again divides and 
thus growth proceeds, forming webs or cells, which are spread one upon 
another during the growing season. As the webs of cells become covered 
with webs of newer cells, their walls grow thicker; they lose their proto- 
plasm, their ends become perforated and unite, and they are converted into 



NORTHERN IOWA. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 395 



tubes. Of indefinite numbers of such tubes bundles are formed, causing 
ducts or air passages between them. Through such ducts in the sap wood 
of trees, the crude sap is taken from the roots to the leaves. The pith and 
medulary rays are used as store rooms for reserve food materials, from which 
new leaves will be formed during the following spring; or they may be used 
to support growth when the regular supplies of assimilated sap are cut off 
by drought or other causes. The wood cells of a tree which have been 
formed in a single season, constitute the sap-wood. The protoplasm not 
only constructs sap-wood during the growing season, but it forms a new 
inner bark, by a process similar to that which was used in the formation of 
sap-wood. At the same time, the old inner bark is converted into new green 
bark and the old green bark is changed into corky bark. The lives of cells 
are of very short duration. In fact, the only living cells in the limbs, body 
or roots of a tree, are those which contain protoplasm. Except at the ten- 
der terminal points of growth, they are formed only on the outside of the 
sap-wood and on the inside of the inner bark, and constitute what is called 
the cambium layer. Therefore, all the cells of a former season's growth are 
dead and worthless, for all purposes, except conducting fluids, and support- 
ing more elevated parts of the tree. Then it is not difficult to understand, 
that the seat of life is in the very thin cambium layer, between the sap- 
wood and bark of trees; that life is really in the semi-fluid protoplasm of 
the billions of working cells in this layer, and that all growth takes place 
here. When the atmosphere becomes sufficiently warm in the spring, the 
protoplasm becomes active at all points between the sap-wood and the inner 
bark of trees, and new leaves are formed from reserve food materials, which 
were stored up in the medulary rays and pith, near the close of the previous 
season's growth. As soon as the leaves become sufficiently developed a 
green substance called chlorophyll is formed in them by rays of light, which 
is always combined with particles of protoplasm. 

The leaves have myriads of breathing pores (called Stomata), which are 
situated principally on their undersides. They open when light, heat and 
moisture are favorable to growth, and close during the night or unfavorable 
weather. Through them respiration and exhalation take place. When they 
are open, carbonic acid gas is absorbed through them from the atmosphere, 
which with other crude food materials furnished through the roots, are de- 
composed by the chlorophyll in the leaves. As decomposition proceeds, 
oxygen and other waste materials which are not needed by the plant or tree, 
are exhaled or thrown off through the stomata. During the night and 
cloudy or wet weather, the leaves are inactive and do not digest crude sap; 
but the living cells in the cambium layer, work at night as well as during 
the day, building wood tissue from the reserve materials stored up pre- 
viously in the pith and medulary rays. The products of assimilation are 
carbon, the albuminous matter which is necessary to form chlorophyll, etc. 
The direction in which the assimilated substances move, is downwards 
through the inner bark, from which it is distributed to the growing cells in 
all parts of the tree; but when there is a surplus, it is stored in the pith and 
medulary rays for future use. All of the food materials which enter trees 



396 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



from the ground, are absorbed through the soft and delicate cells near the 
points of their young fibrous roots. No mineral or other crude food mate- 
rials can be absorbed by the rootlets of trees or herbaceous plants, unless 
they are in a state of solution. Three forces are used for propelling the 
crude sap from the roots to the leaves, and the assimilated sap from the 
leaves to the new and forming cells in the cambium layer, to-wit, capillary 
attraction; suction by the leaves, and osmose (the tendency of fluids to 
mix). If trees or herbaceous plants should be surrounded by very favorable 
conditions, they would complete a season's growth in a definite length of 
time eacn year, but the time of their ripening would be hastened or retarded 
by surrounding them with unfavorable conditions: Thus, when the lives 
of my youDg apple, trees were threatened by the remarkable drought of 
1887, many of them formed terminal buds, and shed their leaves much ear- 
lier than in favorable years; and in other instances, I have noticed that the 
growth and ripening of: corn and other plants was delated many days on 
account of cold rains and cloudy weather. When a tree is ripe and ready 
for winter, its pith and the medulary rays will be well supplied with starch; 
its leaves will have performed their task and ceased to work; all of its cells 
will have completed their growth, lost their protoplasm and died; then there 
will be no life in any part of: the tree, except in the cambium layer, where a 
new growth will start during the following spring, No crude sap is ab- 
sorbed by the fibrous roots of trees during the winter season, but all of 
their roots are continually absorbing moisture from the ground, to replace 
that which is lost from their limbs and bodies by evaporation. 

There are periods of time during the winter seasons, when it is almost 
impossible to excite growth in trees and herbaceous perennial plants by the 
most favorable conditions of heat, moisture and light; but from the analogy 
between them and hibernating animals, it is very evident that they use con- 
siderable quantities of starch while taking their winter rest. During the 
hibernating periods of the bear, the chip munk, and other animals; their 
breathing is indistinct; the action of their hearts is weak, and they have 
the appearance of being dead. Such characteristics have been wisely pro- 
vided, to prevent unnecessary consumption of the reserve food materials 
on hand. Bears go into winter quarters fat and always come out poor. 
During the hibernating periods, they live upon their fat and trees live upon 
their starch. The foregoing explanations of the structure of trees and 
plant growth, will enable us to explain more satisfactorily, the effects of 
unfavorable surrounding conditions upon fruit trees in Iowa, The wide- 
spread losses of apple orchards in the northwestern states within a few 
years, were caused by severe winters; very changeable spring seasons; ex- 
cessive summer heat, and continued droughts. Is it possible to breed, or to 
import varieties of the apple from foreign countries, which would prove 
well adapted to a climate, which has so many characteristics that are un- 
favorable to plant life? I would answer no promptly, if it was not for the 
fact, that the Duchess of Oldenburg, Tetofsky and a few other Russian ap- 
ples, have been grown in all parts of Iowa for many years, without suffer- 
ing from climatic injuries. A careful examination of the trees which I have 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



397 



named and others which have proved tender, would disclose the fact; that 
the former are very different from the latter in many respects. I will now 
point out such differences; beginning at blossoming time in the spring, and 
will follow them through the different seasons until blossoming time again. 
The petals of the flowers of varieties which have endured the climate of 
Iowa best, are larger and much thicker, than the petals of the flowers of 
tender trees. The former differ from the latter also, in having shorter and 
more stocky pistils and stamens and larger stigmas, anthers and pollen 
grains. In very moist climates like that of England, where there is much 
cloudy weather, trees have proved best which have thin leaves; that are cal- 
culated to expose the chlorophyll which they contain as much as possible to 
the rays of the sun. But where the summers are as hot, and the air as dry 
as in Iowa or Central Russia, thick leaves have proved best. Their unusual 
thickness prevents iD juries by heat or drought. For the same reason, the 
leaves of tropical trees are generally thicker, than the leaves of trees which 
belong to cooler and moister latitudes. 

Very frequently, spells of weather which have been favorable to plant 
growth, have been followed by others which were wet and cloudy for many 
days. At such times, there can be but little or no growth, as the leaves of 
trees can not assimilate plant food and their stomata do not open, except 
when the sun shines. When clear, warm days come after such spells of 
weather, the leaves of trees would regain their green color, if atmospheric 
air was not excluded from their roots by stagnant water. After protracted 
spells of wet weather in June, it is not uncommon for apple trees to drop 
their fruit. Generally, such losses have occurred, where the roots of trees 
were excluded from plant food by stagnant water, and after their reserve 
food materials were exhausted. Although clear days and severe droughts in 
the fall, have caused trees to ripen prematurely but perfectly; nevertheless 
it is very evident that such unfavorable conditions as those which I have 
referred to above, would retard their growth and might cause serious losses 
frequently, by preventing them from ripening at the proper time. The ri- 
peniDg of trees, consists in completing the growth of all of the cells in their 
cambium layers and In supplying their piths, medulary rays and seeds with 
sufficient supplies of starch and other reserve food materials for future use. 
As the average length of the growing seasons in Iowa is not more than 120 
days, it is not strange that nearly all of our orchards are dead; because we 
have been trying to grow varieties of the apple which belonged to Western 
Europe, and old eastern favorites, which require from 130 to 140 days of fa- 
vorable weather for the completion of a season's growth. It is but seldom 
that tender trees are injured severely by short spells of very cold weather; 
but when the ground was frozen deeply and there was a very low range of 
temperature for many days, I have known even moderately hardy trees to be 
ruined frequently by continued losses of moisture from their bodies and 
limbs by evaporation. But the Duchess of Oldenburg, the Whitney and 
other very hardy trees differ from tender trees, in having wood, bark and 
bud scales of much finer texture than the latter. They require much less 
water than trees of coarser texture, and generally, their main roots are ex- 



398 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



tended perpendicularly into the earth beyond the frost lines, where they 
have constant access to water; while the roots of trees which are spread out 
near the surface of the ground, are encased in frozen earth frequently for 
months during the winter seasons. But cold winters have troubled our or- 
chards much less than unfavorable spring seasons. The Siberian crab ap- 
ples are hardy in their native country, where there are only about eighty-five 
days in each year, which are favorable to plant growth; but they have proved 
tender in Iowa. The native trees of Siberia begin to grow at a much lower 
temperature than the trees of milder climates; but there the spring seasons 
grow warmer steadily and rapidly, while it is not unusual here to have sev- 
eral spells of summer weather followed by winter weather in April. Fre- 
quently the starch in tender American trees is dissolved by warm weather 
in March, and their cambium layers become gorged with liquid matter, 
which causes bark-bursting and other serious injuries, when the mercury 
falls much below the freezing point. The leaning of trees toward the north- 
east and bark-scalding on their southwest sides, are sure indications of un- 
adaptation to climate. This trouble is not caused by cold, summer heat, or 
southwest winds; but by excessive heat about the time that the buds are 
beginning to open in the spring. 

On the 20th day of April, 1879, 1 examined the trees in my nursery and 
orchard carefully, and found all of them in good condition. Eight days af- 
terwards the mercury ran up and stood at from 80° to 85° in the shade for 
several hours. On the 5th day of May I examined the trees in my orchard 
again, and found all of them severely injured on their southwest sides, ex- 
cept the Duchess of Oldenburg, Tetofsky, Whitney and Alexander. When 
such injuries were inflicted the cambium layers of American apple trees 
were flooded with liquid matter, and their buds were just beginning 
to open. As there were no leaves on the trees to cause an upward 
flow of cold crude sap from the sub-soil their southwest sides be- 
came sufficiently heated, to cause fermentation or coagulation of the 
albuminous matter in their cambium layers, and kill the bark to a 
greater orl ess extent. As it has already been settled by carefully 
conducted experiments, that crude sap rises in healthy trees of ordi- 
nary texture, at the rate of two and a half feet per hour; therefore, it is 
very clear, that such bark- scalding could not be caused by summer heat. 
On still clear days in June it is not uncommon to find atmospheric moisture 
condensed on the bodies of trees by the cold crude sap within them, until 
their bark is wet to the height of three or four feet from the ground. If it 
was only necessary that fruit trees should have certain characteristics, which 
would enable them to endure excessive heat or drought, or cold or very un- 
favorable spring seasons, it would not be difficult to select trees which 
would prove satisfactory. But it is absolutely necessary that apple trees 
should have characteristics which will enable them to pass through all of 
the climatic troubles which I have described unharmed, or it would be use- 
less to plant them. Our long continued experiments with American vari- 
eties of the apple, have been expensive, as nearly all of our orchards are 
dead. Shall we plant new orchards again, or depend upon the fruit-growers 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 399 



of New York and Michigan for apples in the future? I will give my expe- 
rience with many Russian varieties of the apple and let others answer the 
question. 

In the spring of 1874, 1 procured scions of seventy- six varieties of the 
apple, that had been imported by the Department of Agriculture from St. 
Petersburg in Russia, which I root-grafted and planted in my nursery at 
Cedar Falls. When they were four years old, I did not like the appearance 
of sixty-two of the varieties, and I threw them away. The other fourteen 
varieties were planted in my orchard, and all of them have proved as hardy 
as the Duchess of Oldenburg, except five, which I have discarded on account 
of blight or bark-scalding on their southwest sides. 

Three of the remaining nine varieties are valuable dessert apples; another 
is a choice cooking a pple, which will keep until the middle of winter, a n 
the other five are summer apples of medium size and quality. In 1881, 1 
procured scions of fourteen varieties of Russian apples from Mr. A. G. 
Tuttle of Baraboo, Wisconsin, which he considered hardy. Eight of them 
have proved hardy and valuable, while the other six varieties have not 
proved sufficiently hardy. In the fall of 1882, 1 procured scions of sixty 
Russian apples from Prof. Budd, which he had imported from central 
Russia. 

During the winter of 1883-4, Prof. Budd imported scions for me from 
central Russia, of forty carefully selected varieties of the apple. I also pro- 
cured from him fifteen promising Silesian apples. The winter cf 1884 5 was 
the coldest winter in Iowa since 1885-6, and the spring of 1885 was very 
changeable. In April of the latter year, I found that nearly all of the varie- 
ties of the apple which had been imported from central Russia were hardy, 
while many varieties from western Russia proved tender. I found also that 
the severe winter and unfavorable spring had killed more than 40,000 of my 
three year old trees of such varieties as Walbridge, Fameuse, Plumb's 
Cider, Tallman Sweet, St. Lawrence, Pewaukee and Wolf River. Further 
investigations showed that my bearing orchard of 1,500 trees, which con- 
sisted mainly of the varieties which I have named above, was ruined— in 
fact, it contained no sound trees, except the Whitney, Wealthy and varieties 
of trees which had been imported from Russia. 

I have never known fruit trees to suffer as much from blight in Iowa as 
they did h ft summer. I examined my three and four year old Russian 
apple trees on the fifth and sixth days of last month very carefully, and the 
results of my observations are as follows, to- wit: 

The varieties included in list No. 1 (below) have never shown any signs of 
blight on my grounds, and they appear to be as hardy as the Duchess of 
Oldenburg. 

List No. 1, to- wit: Hibernal, Noble Red Streak, Silken Leaf, Repka Kis- 
laja, Lead Apple, Arabka, Long Arcade, Barloff, Winter Pear, Cham- 
panska, Beautiful Arcade, Biel, Crimea, Rubets' Naliv, Juicy Rubets, 
Grand Mother, White Rambour, Plodovidka, Borovinka, Rievskoe, Cross, 
Romna, Anisette, Cinnamon, Red Raspberry, Juicy Burr, Red Duck, Sweet 
Stripe, Koursk Anis, Pine Apple, Cinnamon Pine, Voronesh Red, Recum- 



400 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



bent, Winter Stripe, White Vochin, Eevel Borsdorf, Red Repka, Pointed 
Pipka and Good Peasant. List No. 1 continued: From Voronesh, Nos. 
56, 38, 50, 44, 26, 131, 40, 109 and 51. Also from Moscow, Nos. 30, 12, 80, 21, 
28 and 18. Also from Orel, 4, 7 and 202. 

List No. 2, to- wit: Glass, Titus, Kardinal Celine, Peter the Great, Czar's 
Thorn, Stripe, Round Borsdorf, Juicy Transparent, Sweet Pipka, Charla- 
moff, Green Streaked, Moscow Pear, Kremer's Glass, Garden, Aport, 
Koursk, Ceinette, Royal Table, Kruder, Titovka (Dept.), Possarts and 
White Astracan. 

The following list (No. 3) were blighted some (here and there), but it was 
very evident that they had been infected by spores from badly blighted trees 
around them, List No. 3, to-wit: Antonovka, Bogdanoff, Zolotoreff, Basil, 
Yellow Transparent, Anis, Saunkernaty, Sweet Miron, Ukrain, Getman, 
Leipzig Borsdorf, Autumn Aport, Thaler, Champagne Pipka, Hare Pipka 
and Voronesh Marmalade. 

The following list (No. 4), are tender in Iowa, to-wit: Batullen, Black 
Wood, Serinka, Hassenkotf, Muscatel, Borsdorf, Citronat, Repka Malenka, 
Geinse, Eisser Apple, Himber Apple, Bother Eisser, Heren Apple, Alpris- 
ton, Red Stetine, Boiken, Winter Table, Zweibel Borsdorf and Rhenish 
Bohn. I have not tested any apples from northern Germany, which are suf- 
ficiently hardy for central and northern Iowa. As Russia is a very large 
country, where there is almost as great a diversity of climatic conditions as 
in the United States, it should not be expected that many of the Russian 
apples will prove hardy in Iowa. 

The apples which have proved hardy farthest north in Russia, would 
suffer from blight in Iowa, and be injured severely by our very changeable 
spring seasons. Others which are adapted to western Russia, near the Bal- 
tic sea, could not endure our dry atmosphere and hot summers. And if we 
should import apples from the vicinity of the Black sea in southern Russia, 
they would prove as tender here as Bailey's Sweet and Red June. All of 
our selections of varieties of the apple should be made from that part of the 
steppes or prairies east of Moscow, where the climate and soils resemble 
ours most. We have it from Drs. Begel and Shroeder of Russia, and many 
other reliable pomologists who have traveled over that country, that good 
apples and cherries have been grown on the prairies east of Moscow for 
hundreds of years, in such immense quantities that they are frequently of 
but little value. It is not probable that any of the hardy Russian apples 
will have the long- keeping and fine dessert qualities of the Janeton, when 
it is grown where the summers are long, warm and not too dry. If I am 
wrong in this belief, then why is it that Janeton apples have always been of 
much poorer quality, when grown in central or northern Iowa, than others 
that were grown in Missouri? In wet summers we have grown winter 
apples that would keep, but they were not fit for table use, and in hot and 
dry seasons we have grown winter apples of fair quality for dessert use, but 
they l acked keeping qualities. No State or country will ever be noted for 
the production of valuable, long keeping apples, where droughts are com- 
mon, or where the summers are cool and wet. The experience of the fruit- 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICRLTURA L SOCIETY. 



growers of all countries proves, that favorable surrounding conditions and 
growing seasons which are longer than Iowa summers, are absolutely nec- 
essary for the production of the best long-keeping apples. 

As this paper is already too long, I will present here only a few plain 
facts, which favor the proposition which I have offered above, to-wit: In 
1886, the Jonathan ripened on the trees, and rotted in the best cellars in 
November, while in more favorable years it has been kept without extra 
care until March. For several years the Fameuse has ripened and rotted in 
October, but it has been kept frequently after moister summers in good con- 
dition until February. The differences between the keeping qualities of 
other apples in different years has been as great as in the examples just 
given. 

Again, bearing trees have suffered more and of tener in Iowa from climatic 
injuries than non-bearing or young trees of the same varieties. In such in- 
stances, in unfavorable years the leaves of a tender winter apple tree would 
assimilate only enough or too little plant food to supply the wants of the 
tree; but much of it would be appropriated by the fruit, the seed, etc. 

In such cases, the scarcity of the food materials would delay the ripening 
of trees and prevent the full or natural development of their fruits. By 
heavy manuring and by tile drainage we could cause our fruit trees to make 
a more constant growth during the summer seasons and improve the keep- 
ing qualities of their fruits. I am confident that good winter apples from 
central Russia can be grown in Iowa as cheaply as potatoes, which will 
keep, with ordinary care, until April, but that very long-keeping varieties 
like the Janeton and Winesap will have to be shipped to us from Missouri 
or New York. 

DISCUSSION. 

H. W. Lathrop: I would like to ask Capt. Speer, if of the sixty- 
seven varieties, with good qualities, can you select twelve varieties 
suitable for northern Iowa? 

R. P. Speer: I think I can recommend that many varieties. We 
can recommend the sixty-seven varieties for the northern district, but 
they run in families and we do not want so many. We have got to 
take the word of some such men as Mr. Gibb and others. I have had 
fourteen years experience with some of these Russian apples. They 
came through the test of 1884, and five of them came through the 
droughts, test winters and changeable spring seasons that have fol- 
lowed. I cannot say that all will be free from blight or hardy; but 
we should sort out, and when we find the defects, we must come^to. 
these meetings and give our experience, and discard them as fast as 
we find them unworthy. 



51 



402 



STATE HOKT1CULTUEAL SOCIETY. 



H. W. Lathrop: I am aware that sixty seven is too long a list, but 
in selecting a list for northern Iowa which would you choose? 

R. P. Speer: I do not know just which ones I would choose in a 
list of twelve, but the Repka Malenka, Kislaya, Silken Leaf, Hy- 
bernal, Romna, 1277 and 1260, can be planted with confidence. 

Prof. Budd: As Capt. Speer has made a remark about 1277, I will 
tell something about it. It was sent to the College by Dr. Regel, 
under the name of Vernish Rosa. We found it in Russia where 
they raise melons and Dent corn. It has fruited as far south as Mr # 
Collman's, at Corning. It is larger and more beautiful than Rome 
Beauty, and better than Rome Beauty according to Mr. Collmans' 
judgment. It is fruited in twenty places in Iowa. At Mr. Malley's 
in a low wet bottom on the Missouri, near crabs it blighted some, but 
it is good as far north as the 44th parallel and south to the State of 
Missouri. We can find not only twelve but many more. I have a 
few varieties in my satchel, and we have handled over a hundred va- 
rieties of Russians this year. We are getting light rapidly, but I 
do not know that it would be desirable, to name other varieties? 

H. W. Lathrop: Would a motion to put Rosa Aport on the list be 
in order? I am glad to hear this report. 

Pres. Speer: A list was adopted last year, and I presume will be 
revised during this meeting. 

E. M. Reeve: I do not understand that - a general list for plant- 
ing was adopted last year. 

J. B. Mitchell: A list for general planting was adopted and also a 
list for trial. Romna, if I have it true to name, and Prof. Budd and 
others thought it true, is worthless with us. Hibernal and Recum- 
bant are one and the same apple, and there are others, 212 and 375, 
are one, and so with a number of others. The Bergamot and Ger- 
man Callville are the same. I have had some of these varieties six- 
teen years, and some have been fruiting for ten years. The Liebie, 
is probably one of the hardiest, this and 983 are perhaps at the top 
of the list for general planting. 

J. C. Ferris: I want to eay as to the list, in the report, that I think 
it is the same that was handed to me, and it is first for general plant- 
ing, then Russians for general planting, then for trial; then crabs 
and so on. I think some grave mistakes were made. The list should 
be revised and some varieties should be left out, and others should be 
put in. As Mr. Mitchell says, Liebie is perfect, not a sign of injury. 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 4Q3 



J. E. Mitchell: I have samples of over forty varieties of trees 
here on exhibition, which show the different degrees of hardiness. 

J. C. Ferris: The list as recommended last year is as follows: 
Russians for general planting, Thaler 342, Hibernal 378 Garden 214, 
Longfield 161, Little H 272, Borovinka 245, Yellow Transparent 334, 
Grandmother 469, Large Long White 979, Charlamoff 262, Lead 277, 
Antonovka 236, Riga Stripe 10, Arabka 155 or 257, Silken Leaf 327 
or 250, Cross 413. 

Russians for trial, Yellow Sweet 167, Smeling 264, Pear 267, Pear- 
sian 313, Lubosk Queen 444, Polumison 198, Aport 252, Sacharine 
268, Repa Kislya 466, Red Anis 985, Yellow Anis 987, White Rus 
sett 981. 

Now it appears that you want some gentleman that is competent 
to name a dozen for general planting. I think we have too many on 
the list already, I think it premature to name a long list of Russians 
at this time, but we do want all the light we can get. We should 
make a list even if it is longer than we want; but it seems as though 
it is hard to get it as small as we want it. I have a good many va- 
rieties of Russian apples, some are good and others are not. I would 
like to ask Mr. Reeve how they came to make up this list? And 
what means of information they had while making it up? 

N. A. Reeve: We made up this list at the last of the meeting, 
and did not do our duty as well as we should have done, or as well 
as we would have liked to have done. But we made it up from the 
best information at hand. In this list we recommend, it is true that 
some were still on trial, and these as I understood it, were the best 
or gave promise of being the best on the list. When we come to 
talk about those thoroughly tested of the Russians, we would have 
only the Duchess of Oldenburg, but there were other people who 
wanted to plant of other Russians, and we recommended this list, as 
the result of the combined experience we then had. As I understand 
it these were the most promising, and I paid no more attention to it, 
but I see in the report, that it does not carry the idea that I thought 
it did. If they are all right we want to show that fact. But if they 
are not what we want for the people of Iowa, they should be taken 
off the list. 

H. W. Lathrop: I am not an enemy of the Russian apples, and I 
am not a friend of the Russians, because I do not know enough about 
them. I am as blind as a bat on the Russian apple question, but I 
am going to stick a pin down on this Varonish Rosa, and if we have 



404 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



only this one for what we want we must keep it and add to it such 
varieties as will meet our requirements. You will remember at the 
State meeting at Des Moines for the Northern District, you only had 
Talman Sweet on the list, and some of you may remember what I 
said on that occasion. I feel now a good deal as I expressed myself 
on that occasion, and I would like to have a list of twelve of the best 
selected of the Russian apples, so when I go home and people ask me 
about the Russians I would know what to say. 

R. P. Speer: You remember that I opposed making a list at our 
last year's meeting, and the reasons were that there are not enough 
trees to go around, and besides all the agents, as soon as we recom- 
mend a list, will sell these varieties whether they have them or n >U 
There are perhaps fifty varieties, anfl maybe sixty, eighty or even 
ninety that are without serious defect. I think it best to select a 
committee and let them go to a room and deliberate carefully and re- 
port the result of their deliberations. 

Prof. Budd: I do not want to be on such a committee. Fifteen 
years ago Mr. Lathrop and others will remember that we were select- 
ing varieties that we supposed to be hardy, but most of them have 
proven undesirable. Even of the Russian apples selected at that 
time, many of them have proven undesirable, but of the varieties tlfat 
I personally selected in the corn growing regions of Russia, we may 
expect better results, but I am not prepared to pick out twelve that I 
can recommend without hesitation, as six years is too short a time 
to make up a verdict. I have been keeping ledger accounts with these 
varieties, but have not had time to sum up my notes. I could pick 
twelve out of the first list that would make this a fruit growing dis- 
trict. The Yellow Transparent is desirable for family use. The 
Blush Calville will do well, so will the Arabian, which belongs to the 
Duchess family. You can not pick it out when mixed with the 
Duchess. It is ten days earlier and a fine eating apple. Anisette No. 
185 is four weeks later. Repka Aport, that Mr. Haviland talks so 
much about, is also a desirable variety. Varonish Rosa and 4 M. 
(Sclanky) are early winter. 15 M.,24 M.,and a number of others, are 
desirable, and I could pick twelve out of the old list, but I do not 
wish to do so, as in two years I can pick out some from the new list 
of the desired season and of better quality. 

J. V. Cotta: Is Sclanky the same as the Sclanky Bogdanoff? 
Prof. Budd: No it is not the same. 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



405 



C. G. Patten: Four M. is Astrakoff. 
Prof. Budd: Yes, but not of the department list. 
Motion by Edson Gaylord that a committee be appointed to seleot 
a Russian list. 

C. G. Patten: As we have heard something on the one side, I 
would like to say something on the other side of this Russian apple 
question. Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, I hope you will bear 
with me if I appear to be tedious, in what I shall say. One that is 
as much interested in Northern Iowa and Minnesota as I am, and one 
who has tested as many varieties as I have, I think has a right to be 
heard. I wish I could say what I wish to say, without treading on 
other people's toes. I have had a long trial with many varieties of 
apples, and I think I can say tnat I have given a thorough test, and 
such attention as few others have. I have heard two papers read here 
that have cast reflection on others, and intimate that they are throw- 
ing cold water on these experiments. I say this with due deference 
to all parties, but it is certain that somebody is antagonizing, and pre- 
venting as much being done as might otherwise have been done. I 
think I have as much right to impugn the motives of others as well 
as others have to impugn my motives. If they can show that they 
have done more to further the fruit interests of Northern Iowa than 
I have done, I would like to have them show it. If any gentleman 
has fruited more varieties than I have I would like to visit his or- 
chard. If any one has fruited any more seedlings than I have I 
would like to visit him and examine his trees. I may have sent out 
some Russians or some seedlings that did not meet expectations, per- 
haps I have, but I have been as careful as any one could be in my 
recommendations. When some one says on this floor that sixty- seven 
varieties of Russian apples are hardy in Northern Iowa I do not 
believe it. I very much question making any list with the infor- 
mation we now have. 

In reference to the importations of Dr. Regel, and other importa- 
tions made lately, after a careful review, and the examination of the 
list sent out by Prof. Budd, and statements made by Charles Gibb, 
it appears that there are very few more varieties that we can have 
confidence in, than in the first list. The idea that two gentlemen in 
a journey of thousands of miles in a trip through an empire could 
gather more information than Dr. Regel possesses, who is at the head 
of the forestry and fruit interests of Russia, I very much question. 
I am not here to oppose the Russians, but to expose the extravagant 



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



expectations of some of their friends. Do you suppose that a man 
who had lost thousands of trees in one winter is willing to go on and 
keep testing these varieties simply because some one says they ought 
to be hardy because they are hardy in Russia. I have some here that 
I could recommend for trial, and some I could put on a list half-way 
from general list to trial. 4 M is not hardy, and I would throw it 
out of the list. I would only recommend for trial those varieties 
that have been tested, and I have shown some good qualities. The 
committee last winter was appointed to prepare a list of apples, but 
I think they did not devote very much time to the subject, and I do 
not think we can place much confidence in it. The Grandmother, 
.No. 469, I would not recommend my neighbors to plant; the same 
with Repke Milenka — it is not hardy enough, except in a favorable 
locality. 22 M is scarcely hardy enough for general planting. 

H. W. Lathrop: What do you think of the 161? 

C. G. Patten: I would have to throw it out of the list. 334 has 
been recommended three or four years longer than it should have 
been; it blights like fury. Some have sold 15 M and recommended 
it, but it blights, some places. 413, cross, I have discarded after thir- 
teen years trial. I threw Switzer out because it blights; it is a good 
apple, but blights so badly that it is not profitable. When some one 
comes up here and criticizes a man who has worked so hard and done 
so much to test the Russians, I have no patience with him. 

H. W. Lathrop: I want the names of those that are worthy of 
recommendation. 

C. G. Patten: I would place General Gregg on the list for plant- 
ing, as I am willing to recommend it. I have them root grafted and 
top-worked; this General Gregg is proving a good bearer; a medium- 
sized, or rather a smallish apple, keeps six weeks longer than 
Duchess; tree fully as good as Duchess; I have them scattered 
around in six to ten places; it is only of medium quality, and if I 
could grow Fameuse I would not want it. The Anasofka is not the 
Anasofka of Prof. Budd's list. This plate of Striped Anis shows what 
the fruit is; I would be willing to plant it generally; it may not come 
up to the Duchess in bearing, but it has never blighted. 185 is 
twenty per cent hardier than the Duchess; I have eleven years from 
graft. Pink Anis is fully as hardy as this variety, and fully as 
good as Striped Anis; these are better than Anisofka or General 
Gregg; they will keep about two weeks or a month longer than the 



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NNRTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



407 



Duchess. These are all as hardy as Duchess, and one, as I said, fif- 
teen per cent hardier. 

J. B. Mitchell: I would like to ask you as to 240? 

C. G. Patten: I have 240 and Hibernal; it has not blighted as 
much as Hibernal. 155 or Rabka, is worthless in this climate. 264 
blights to death before it comes into bearing. 230 also blights to 
death. Any nursery man knows how hard it is to get rid of worth- 
less trash. These importations of Russian apples cannot be relied 
upon. Russia is a big country, and making a selection of varieties 
there, is a big undertaking; and a man is liable to pick out many 
varieties not suited to our needs. 

Prof. Budd: Anisette is translation of Anisovka. 

C. G. Patten: I most heartily concur with the remarks made by 
President Speer, to stop experimenting with so many varieties; the 
people should leave this, and any other variety, to men who are 
engaged in experimenting, as success will not follow the planting of 
a great many varieties. A man at Ames, one hundred miles south of 
here, will not have the same success as here, as only a Concord or a 
Worden grape extends over a large portion of the country. I do not 
believe, and I tell you frankly, when I see one hundred varieties 
grown at the College farm, when I have grown fifty of them and 
found them mostly worthless, and I have little hope of their general 
success. Mr. Tuttle of Baraboo, Wisconsin, who reports having had 
success with Russian apples, has sometimes brought his best and put 
them on our tables, yet I am confident when I say that there are very 
few that will carry us beyond the first of December. I am confident 
that an examination at the College will not show as many seedlings as 
I now own. For nineteen years I have been growing seedlings, and I 
have several samples here on exhibition. These plates (showing 
them), are of my first planting. I for a long time called this Duchess 
No. 3, and this No. 1, being the first that I fruited. This little crab, 
as you see, is very small, and was never named;, this variety I call 
No. 2; this one, formerly known as No. 3, is now called Patten's 
Greening. I held several varieties back until last year, not because 
I did not have confidence in them, but because we had so many that 
were being pushed. But I now say to you, that so far as my observa- 
tion and experience goes, that it is more valuable, ten to one, than 
any tree I know of. Eight years, from grafts, they were loaded with 
fruit. No 2 and No. 3 were in a block of twenty varieties, such as 



408 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Wealthy, Canada Red and Russians, and eight years from the graft 
this No. 2 and No. 3 were about all that were left in this block. 
Three years ago this spring my foreman and myself found some of 
them so blackened by the cold that we decided it was best to grub 
them up, but we neglected it, and they grew as though no winter had 
ever passed over them. The Fameuse and the Haas, with the Rus- 
sians, went out, back in 1885. I have planted seeds of Duchess, 
Golden Russet and others, that were apparently as healthy at thir- 
teen years; and I have also planted seeds of the Siberian, but three 
or four years ago, when my health was poorer than since, thought 
that I would quit planting, and neglected some of these, but I have 
since planted more, and will propagate the best of them. 

J. C. Ferris: Are there trees on their own roots, and have you any 
besides the parents? 

C. G. Patten: I have parent trees and grafts as well. As to the 
further discussion of the list, I could not keep pace with the names 
as the discussion went on. 

H. W. Lathrop: Is this summing up experiments on your own 
ground, or on other ground as well? 

C. G. Patten: I have seen them on other grounds as well as my 
own; have examined the trees at Baraboo and elsewhere, and recived 
information from men who have raised the same varieties elsewhere. 
There were several things that I have in mind to speak of, but I have 
wearied your patience already. 

J. C. Ferris: Mr. Patten has named four, five or six good Russian 
varieties, Mr. Speer has found several, and we have another gentle- 
man it is true who does not live in this district, but I think this an 
important question, and the discussion should be of a friendly char- 
acter; if there is any feeling of antagonism of contention let us re- 
conciliate it. If Peter Gideon can produce them and bring them out, 
all right; if Prof. Budd brings such varieties from Russia as we want, 
it is all right. Mr. ^Patten has some good seedlings of Duchess, and 
by seedling production we expect to get more. Let us accept these 
good varieties from whatever source they come, and add to our list as 
fast as experience will justify. I do not see why Mr. Patten should 
feel that there is any reflection on him in any paper that has been 
read or in any remarks that have been made. We should, and I think 
will have a fair discussion on this subject, and we must get informa- 
tion from any source possible, and get varieties suited to our needs, 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 4Q9 



it matters not where they may be obtained, or how they may be pro- 
duced. I am not particular whether this information is brought out 
by discussion, or by the investigation of a committee. 

H. W. Lathrop: I have listened very closely to the discussion, 
and given particular attention to the papers read, and am deaf, surly 
in both ears, if anything was said that could be a reflection on any 
gentleman or any one's work. And I do not think that any one in 
any manner, intended to cast reflection on any body. 

J. M. Elder: If this is for a list for the whole of northern Iowa, 
I think it premature, and think it should be voted down unanimously. 
It is as our president says, the adoption of a list will open the way 
for the biggest fraud in Iowa. As the tree peddlers will sell what- 
ever varieties we recommend, and then fill the orders with any va- 
rieties they can get. I hope we will not make out a list for northern 
Iowa or any other place. Mr. Patten has given us a good deal of in- 
formation, more than I have had before, but we are not prepared to 
make a list. 

C. G. Patten: I think if we do this, we should instruct the com- 
mittee as to the number of varieties we desire to have on the list, 
but let them use their judgment as to the varieties selected. 

Edson Gay lord: I am convinced that we are muddled and will ask 
to withdraw the motion. 

C. G. Patten: I would like to know if after Haas and other sup- 
posed hardy varieties had killed out, would not Mr. Gaylord recom- 
mend some of the promising new ones. 

Edson Gaylord: Our old list for the first ten or twelve years are 
reliable, and as we have not had experience with these new ones 
longer than that, I do not consider it safe to recommend them. 

C. G. Patten: Have Fameuse and Wealthy stood in the last few 
yeas? 

Edson Gaylord: They have stood until the last few years. 
Prof. Budd moved as an amendment to the previous motion, that a 
list be adopted for trial. 
Carried. 

Motion as amended, carried. 

Prof. Budcl: The reason I have made this motion is, that this is 
experimental work and almost every one has a pet. If any one will 
take that list and look it over, he will be surprised to find how many 
varieties a great number of people will agree upon. 



52 



410 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



J. S. B, Thompson: Here is an apple that I got for a Russian, I 
suppose that the Professor can tell whether it is or not. 

Prof. Budd: It is a Siberian crab. Probably a Minnesota crab. 

J. S. B. Thompson: I stole that tree out of a lot Prof. Budd sent 
out for trial. 

W. H. Ash: I would like to know if the list will be subject to 
discussion. 

Pres. Speer: The list when presented will be subject to adoption 
or rejection. 

H. W. Ash: I think we should have the best judgment of the 
Society on any list that is adopted, and we should have full and free 
discussion. 

Motion by E. M. R9eve, that we shall have a committee of five 
members. 
Carried. 

Motion by E, M. Reeve, that the committee examine seedlings on 
exhibition and report. 
Carried. 

Joe Triggs: We want a list if of only one variety that we can 
endorse. 

On motion of J. C. Ferris, A. W. Sias was added to the committee. 

The following is a committee as made in accordance of the two 
motions: Prof. Budd, C. G. Patten, J. B. Mitchell, J. C. Ferris, J. 
M. Elder and A. W. Sias. 

Edson Gaylord, announced that arrangements had been made for 
entertainment of all members in attendance. 

A paper on Propagation of Plants and Shrubs from Cuttings was 
read by H. W. Lathrop. 



PROPAGATION BY SLIPS AND CUTTINGS. 



BY H, W. LATHROP. 



There are three methods by which the vegetable kingdom produces and 
reproduces its subjects; these are by seeds, stolons and cuttings or slips. 
Nature's chosen method is by seeds. In this method of production the plant 



NORTHERN IOWA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

often has a dual parentage, and is the result of qualities derived from both 
parents or from them and more remote ancestors of the same species com- 
bined in one individual fruit or plant, and it takes on variations from both 
parents and others from its various environments, and in this way new 
fruits of the same species are produced. 

To propagate a variety in its entirety with all its own characteristics in 
habit of growth, color of flower and character of fruit, we must resort to 
one of the other two methods of propagation. 

In propagating by budding, grafting and by slips and cuttings we have 
violated one of nature's laws by separating that bud scion or cutting from its 
parent stock, and to succeed in making them grow, we must get back as 
nearly as possible to nature's plan of supporting life and producing plant 
growth in them, hence the bud must be inserted in an opening in the bark 
next to the cambium layer of the stalk to which it is to become adherent 
when that layer is doing its active work. So in grafting the scion must be 
inserted in the wood when nature is ready to begin or has begun her work 
of reproduction. 

In propagating plants by slips or cuttings we must observe the same laws. 
Cuttings of the grape or currant miy be made late in the fall or very early 
winter, before hard freezing, and they should be kept in very nearly the 
same condition as when they were made, though currants can be put out in 
the fall, but should be well mulched through the winter. 

Grape cuttings of two or three buds should be tied in bundles and be 
placed bottom end upsvard in a trench dug so deep and covered so well as to 
be beyond frost, and as soon as the frost leaves the ground in the spring 
the covering should be removed to within an inch of the cuttings so that the 
soil in contact with them may receive the warmth of the sun. When the 
soil has become warmed to a sufficient depth they may be planted in rows a 
few inches apart in the row, care being taken to press the earth firmly about 
the base of the cutting, and it should be as light as possible about the top, and 
the cutting should be inserted in the earth to the base of the top bud. A 
mulch or a board should be applied to each side of the row to keep the ground 
moist till the vines have made a good start. 

Many soft wood trees may be grown from cuttings. I have a row of cot- 
ton wood trees on the north side of my orchard that are over forty feet high, 
with trunks two feet in diameter that have grown from cuttings put out in 
the spring of 1858. 

Plants with soft tissues are best started in water or very damp sand, but 
they should be transferred to rich soil when they have their roots well 
started. 

The Turner raspberry is a good example of a stoloniferous plant in which 
the stolons or runners are produced in the soil, and the strawberry and white 
clover are plants with runners on the surface. 

On motion of J. C. Ferris a committe of three .to solicit members. 
Chair appointed B. F. Ferris, Edson Gaylord and J. B. Mitchell. 
On motion, the society adjourned until 7:30 p. m. 



412 



STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



EVENING SESSION— FIRST DAY. 

The committee on secretary's report and president's address re- 
ported as follows: 

Your committee to whom was referred the recommendations of the 
president's address and secretary's report, would respectfully recom- 
mend: 

1. That the programme for the next' meeting be arranged as far 
as possible at this time, and the list of premiums arranged. 

2. That the arrangements